Brain Cancer (brain + cancer)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Brain cancer mortality and potential occupational exposure to lead: Findings from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, 1979,1989

Edwin van Wijngaarden
Abstract We evaluated the association between potential occupational lead exposure and the risk of brain cancer mortality in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS), which is a prospective census-based cohort study of mortality among the noninstitutionalized United States population (1979,1989). The present study was limited to individuals for whom occupation and industry were available (n = 317,968). Estimates of probability and intensity of lead exposure were assigned using a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Risk estimates for the impact of lead on brain cancer mortality were computed using standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and proportional hazards and Poisson regression techniques, adjusting for the effects of age, gender and several other covariates. Brain cancer mortality rates were greater among individuals in jobs potentially involving lead exposure as compared to those unexposed (age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.9,2.3) with indications of an exposure,response trend (probability: low HR = 0.7 (95% CI = 0.2,2.2), medium HR = 1.4 (95% CI = 0.8,2.5), high HR = 2.2 (95% CI = 1.2,4.0); intensity: low HR = 1.2 (95% CI = 0.7,2.1), medium/high HR = 1.9 (95% CI = 1.0,3.4)). Brain cancer risk was greatest among individuals with the highest levels of probability and intensity (HR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3,4.2). These findings provide further support for an association between occupational lead exposure and brain cancer mortality, but need to be interpreted cautiously due to the consideration of brain cancer as one disease entity and the absence of biological measures of lead exposure. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cancer incidence among people with intellectual disability

K. Patja
Abstract The aim of the present study was to address the unresolved question of the risk of neoplasms among people with intellectual disability (ID). A total of 2173 individuals with ID from a large, representative, nation-wide population study conducted in Finland in 1962 were followed-up for cancer incidence between 1967 and 1997. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed to expected numbers of cancer cases. Expected rates were based on national incidence rates. The observed number of cancers in the cohort (173) was close to what was expected [SIR = 0.9, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.8,1.0]. There was a significantly reduced risk of cancers of the prostate (SIR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.0,0.5), urinary tract (SIR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1,0.7) and lung (SIR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4,1.0). The risk was increased in cancers of the gallbladder (SIR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.1,5.8) and thyroid gland (SIR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.0,4.8). The risks of lung and gallbladder cancer were lowest and highest, respectively, in those subjects with profound and severe ID, a group who also had significantly elevated SIRs for brain cancer (SIR = 3.46, 95% CI = 1.5,14.4) and testicular cancer (SIR = 9.9, 95% CI = 1.2,35.6). The incidence of cancer among people with ID was comparable with the general population, despite their low prevalence of smoking and apparently decreased diagnostic screening activity. Nevertheless, a few types of cancer carry a higher risk in the population with ID, possibly because of conditions typical among this group, such as gallstones or oesophageal reflux. [source]

Genetic modification of mesenchymal stem cells to express a single-chain antibody against EGFRvIII on the cell surface

Irina V. Balyasnikova
Abstract Human adult mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are under active investigation as cellular carriers for gene therapy. hMSCs possess natural tropism toward tumours; however, the targeting of hMSCs to specific cell populations within tumours is unexplored. In the case of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), at least half of the tumours express EGFRvIII on the cell surface, an ideal target for antibody-mediated gene/drug delivery. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of genetically modifying hMSCs to express a single-chain antibody (scFv) to EGFRvIII on their surfaces. Nucleofection was used to transfect hMSCs with cDNA encoding scFv EGFRvIII fused with PDGFR or human B7-1 transmembrane domains. The expression of scFv EGFRvIII on the cell surface was assessed by FACS. A stable population of scFv EGFRvIII-expressing hMSCs was selected, based on antibiotic resistance, and enriched using FACS. We found that nucleofection allows the efficient expression of scFv EGFRvIII on the cell surface of hMSCs. hMSCs transfected with the construct encoding scFv EGFRvIII as a fusion with PDGFRtm showed scFv EGFRvIII expression in up to 86% of cells. Most importantly, human MSCs expressing scFv against EGFRvIII demonstrated enhanced binding to U87-EGFRvIII cells in vitro and significantly increased retention in human U87-EGFRvIII-expressing tumours in vivo. In summary, we provide the first conclusive evidence of genetic modification of hMSCs with a single-chain antibody against an antigen expressed on the surface of tumour cells, thereby opening up a new venue for enhanced delivery of gene therapy applications in the context of malignant brain cancer. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Neurological mortality among U.S. veterans of the Persian Gulf War: 13-year follow-up

Shannon K. Barth MPH
Abstract Background This study focuses on long-term mortality, specifically brain cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis (MS) of 621,902 veterans who served in the 1990,1991 Persian Gulf War (GW), and 746,248 non-GW veterans. Methods Follow-up began with the date the veteran left the GW theater or May 1, 1991 and ended with the date of death or December 31, 2004. Cox proportional hazard models were used for analyses. Results Adjusted mortality rate ratios (aRR) of GW veterans compared to non-GW veterans were not statistically significant for brain cancer (aRR,=,0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73, 1.11), MS (aRR,=,0.61, 95% CI: 0.23, 1.63), Parkinson's disease (aRR,=,0.71, 95% CI: 0.17, 2.99), or ALS (aRR,=,0.96, 95% CI: 0.56, 1.62). GW veterans potentially exposed to nerve agents for 2 or more days and GW veterans exposed to oil well fire smoke were at increased risk for brain cancer mortality (aRR,=,2.71, 95% CI: 1.25, 5.87; aRR,=,1.81, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.27; respectively). Conclusions The risk of death due to ALS, MS, Parkinson's disease, and brain cancer was not associated with 1991 GW service in general. However, GW veterans potentially exposed to nerve agents at Khamisiyah, Iraq, and to oil well fire smoke had an increased risk of mortality due to brain cancer. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:663,670, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cancer incidence among male Massachusetts firefighters, 1987,2003

Dongmug Kang MD
Abstract Background Firefighters are known to be exposed to recognized or probable carcinogens. Previous studies have found elevated risks of several types of cancers in firefighters. Methods Standardized morbidity odds ratio (SMORs) were used to evaluate the cancer risk in white, male firefighters compared to police and all other occupations in the Massachusetts Cancer Registry from 1986 to 2003. Firefighters and police were identified by text search of the usual occupation field. All other occupations included cases with identifiable usual occupations not police or firefighter. Control cancers were those not associated with firefighters in previous studies. Results Risks were moderately elevated among firefighters for colon cancer (SMOR,=,1.36, 95% CI: 1.04,1.79), and brain cancer (SMOR,=,1.90, 95% CI: 1.10,3.26). Weaker evidence of increased risk was observed for bladder cancer (SMOR,=,1.22, 95% CI: 0.89,1.69), kidney cancer (SMOR,=,1.34, 95% CI: 0.90,2.01), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (SMOR,=,1.81, 95% CI: 0.72,4.53). Conclusions These findings are compatible with previous reports, adding to the evidence that firefighters are at increased risk of a number of types of cancer. Am. J. Ind. Med. 51:329,335, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Screening for distress in patients with brain cancer using the NCCN's rapid screening measure

Stephen T. Keir
Abstract Goals of work: Patients with brain cancer are at a risk of experiencing elevated levels of distress due to the severe functional, neurocognitive, and neuropsychological sequelae of the disease. Using the National Comprehensive Cancer Network's Distress Thermometer, we evaluated the extent and sources of distress within a population of patients with brain cancer. Patients and methods: Participants were asked to complete the Distress Thermometer, a single-item rapid screening tool for distress. The Distress Thermometer is a visual analog scale on which participants rate their level of distress from ,0' (none) to ,10' (extreme). Participants were also asked to designate which items from a 34-item list constitute sources of distress. Main results: Fifty-two percent of participants met the ,4 cut-off score for distress. The scores were positively correlated with patient-reported emotional sources of distress (r=0.444, p<0.001), physical sources of stress (r=0.231, p<0.05), and total number of concerns (r=0.368, p<0.001). On average, brain tumor patients reported 5.8 cancer-related items of concern. Conclusion: Brain cancer patients are likely to experience distress at some point during their disease trajectory. Patient-reported emotional sources of distress should be targeted and interventions should be designed to address sources of distress such as worry, sadness, and depression. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Estimation of relative exposure levels for cellular phone users using a neural network

Soo Chan Kim
Abstract The wide and growing use of cellular phones has raised questions about the possible health risks associated with radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. It would be helpful for epidemiologists as well as cellular phone users to obtain the relative exposure levels, because the RF exposure level is very difficult to accurately measure and quantify for all individuals. In this study, a neural network model was developed to estimate relative exposure levels on a scale of 0,10 and thus rank the individual risk of exposure using available information. We used parameters such as usage time per day, total usage period, hands-free usage, extension of antenna, specific absorption rate (SAR) of the cellular phone, and flip or folder type, which are related to RF exposure. Using the relative exposure levels obtained from this model, epidemiologists can divide the subjects into exposed and nonexposed groups in a study investigating the relationship between exposure level and brain cancer in the future, provided that more knowledge between the cellular phone usage pattern and the exposure is available. Bioelectromagnetics 27:440,444, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cancer and the blood,brain barrier: ,Trojan horses' for courses?

M Mazza
The blood,brain barrier (BBB) limits the bioavailability of most bioactive molecules and drugs in the CNS, leaving clinicians with only a few options for pharmacotherapy. In this issue Regina et al. demonstrate that a ,Trojan horse' drug conjugate, acting as a substrate of a physiological BBB receptor that facilitates transcytosis, significantly improves drug transport into the CNS. Specifically, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is used to carry a conjugate of paclitaxel and Angiopep-2, an aprotinin-derived peptide, across the BBB. Interestingly, in its conjugated form paclitaxel circumvents the efflux pumps at the BBB but still retains its activity against microtubules. Importantly, the authors were able to demonstrate improved therapeutic efficacy of this approach in orthotopic models of primary and metastatic brain cancer. This proof-of-principle study thus represents a milestone for drug delivery across the BBB but also a starting point for studies exploring wider applicability and potential limitations of the approach. British Journal of Pharmacology (2008) 155, 149,151; doi:fn1; published online 30 June 2008 [source]

Biomarker discovery: A proteomic approach for brain cancer profiling

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2007
Ashraf A. Khalil
Gliomas in the form of astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas are the most common brain tumors in humans. Early detection of these cancers is crucial for successful treatment. Proteomics promises the discovery of biomarkers and tumor markers for early detection and diagnosis. In the current study, a differential gel electrophoresis technology coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization,time of flight and liquid chromatography,tandem mass spectroscopy was used to investigate tumor-specific changes in the proteome of human brain cancer. Fifty human brain tissues comprising varying diagnostic groups (non-tumor, grade I, grade II, grade III and grade IV) were run in duplicate together with an internal pool sample on each gel. The proteins of interest were automatically picked, in-gel digested and mass spectrometry fingerprinted. Two hundred and eleven protein spots were identified successfully and were collapsed into 91 unique proteins. Approximately 20 of those 91 unique proteins had, to our knowledge, not been reported previously as differentially expressed in human brain cancer. Alb protein, peroxiredoxin 4 and SH3 domain-binding glutamic acid-rich-like protein 3 were upregulated in glioblastoma multiform versus non-tumor tissues. However, aldolase C fructose-biphosphate, creatine kinase, B chain dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, enolase 2, fumarate hydratase, HSP60, lactoylglutathione lyase, lucine aminopeptidase, Mu-crystallin homolog, NADH-UO 24, neurofilament triplet L protein, septin 2, stathmin and vacuolar ATP synthase subunit E were downregulated in glioblastoma multiform compared with non-tumor tissues. These differentially expressed proteins provided novel information on the differences existing between normal brain and gliomas, and thus might prove to be useful molecular indicators of diagnostic or prognostic value. (Cancer Sci 2007; 98: 201,213) [source]