Brain Bank (brain + bank)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Lack of association between progressive supranuclear palsy and arterial hypertension: A clinicopathological study

Carlo Colosimo MD
Abstract It has been reported that up to 80% of patients clinically diagnosed as having progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) may have arterial hypertension (HT). Because previous studies were performed on patients with presumed diagnosis of PSP, we tried to replicate these studies in a series of pathologically confirmed patients. Seventy-three patients with a neuropathological diagnosis of PSP autopsied at the Queen Square Brain Bank for Neurological Disorders in London were collected between 1989 and 1999. For the purpose of this study, patients were considered hypertensive if a blood pressure above 140/90 mm Hg was found in the clinical records. The prevalence of HT in PSP patients at the first and at the last visit during their neurological disease was compared with that found in a series of 21 normal controls who donated their brain to the same institution. Overall, 29 of 73 (39.7%) of the patients were recorded as having HT at the first visit during the disease course; this ratio increased to 42 of 73 (57.5%) at the last visit before death. When these figures were compared to the 21 normal controls (11 of 21 with HT, 52.4%), we were unable to find an increased prevalence of HT in PSP (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.20,1.76). Therefore, HT does not represent an important clinical feature of this neurodegenerative disorder, although cerebrovascular disease can masquerade clinically as PSP. 2003 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Neuropathology of mild cognitive impairment

Yuko Saito
We aim to investigate the pathological background of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The most recent 545 cases from the Brain Bank for Aging Research (BBAR) were studied, with a mean age of 80.7 years and male : female ratio of 324 : 221. Cases with clinical dementia rating scale (CDR) 0.5 were retrieved as the best substitute of MCI. CDR was retrospectively determined from clinical charts. Pathological examinations followed the BBAR protocol (JNEN 2004). Post mortem assessment of CDR was possible for 486 cases, and was 0 in 201 cases, 0.5 in 57 cases and 1,3 in 228 cases. CDR 0.5 group was clinicopathologically classified into 33 cases with degenerative changes, nine cases with vascular changes, four cases with combined degenerative and vascular changes, two with hippocampal sclerosis, two with trauma, one with metabolic disease and six with unremarkable changes. The degenerative group was further subclassified into groups with pure and combined pathology. The former consisted of six cases each with Alzheimer change (AC), argyrophilic grain change (AGC) and neurofibrillary tangle predominant change (NFTC), three each with Lewy body disease change without parkinsonism (DLBC) or Parkinson's disease (PDMCI) and one case with progressive supranuclear palsy. The latter consisted of three cases with AC plus AGC, two with AGC plus NFTC and one each with AC plus DLBC, DLBC plus amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and AGC plus DLBC. The pathological backgrounds of patients of class CDR 0.5 were varied and not restricted to AC. [source]

APOE,4 influences the pathological phenotype of Alzheimer's disease by favouring cerebrovascular over parenchymal accumulation of A, protein

K. Chalmers
The relative amounts of amyloid ,-protein (A,) in cerebral blood vessels and parenchyma vary considerably amongst patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this variability, the underlying genetic and environmental determinants are still unclear, as are the functional consequences. Polymorphisms in APOE, the gene for apolipoprotein E (ApoE), influence the risk of developing AD and of deposition of A, within the brain. We examined the relationship between the APOE genotype and the relative extent of accumulation of A, as plaques within the cerebral parenchyma and in cortical blood vessels in the form of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), in autopsy brain tissue from 125 AD cases and from 53 elderly, neurologically normal controls of which 19 had CAA without other neuropathological features of AD. In the AD cases, we also assessed whether the severity of CAA was related to the age of onset and duration of dementia, risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease, and histologically demonstrable cerebral in-farcts or foci of haemorrhage. The APOE genotype was determined by a standard polymerase chain reaction-based method. Paraffin sections of frontal, temporal and parietal lobes were immunolabelled for A, and the parenchymal A, load (total A, minus vessel-associated A,) was quantified by computer-assisted image analysis. CAA severity was scored for cortical and leptomeningeal vessels. The relevant clinical data were obtained from the database of the South West Brain Bank. In AD, we found the severity of CAA to be strongly associated with the number of ,4 alleles (P < 0.0001) but the parenchymal A, load to be independent of APOE genotype. Cases with severe CAA had a lower parenchymal A, load than had those with moderate CAA (P = 0.003). Neither the severity of CAA nor the parenchymal A, load correlated with age of onset, duration of disease or age at death, and the severity of CAA also did not correlate with the presence of cerebral infarcts or foci of haemorrhage. These findings indicate that possession of the APOE,4 allele favours vascular over parenchymal accumulation of A, in AD. This may influence the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration in ,4-associated AD. [source]

Proceedings of the 1st Symposium for Brain Bank, 22 October 2006, Fukushima, Japan

Article first published online: 14 MAR 200
First page of article [source]

How Important Are Brain Banks for Alcohol Research?

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2003
Clive Harper
This article contains the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA/ISBRA Meeting in San Francisco, organized and chaired by Clive Harper and co-chaired by Izuru Matsumoto. The presentations were (1) Introduction, by Clive Harper; (2) The quality of tissue,a critical issue, by Therese Garrick; (3) The first systematic brain tissue donor program in Japan, by Izuru Matsumoto; (4) Brain scans after death,really! by Adolf Pfefferbaum, Elfar Adalsteinsson, and Edith Sullivan; (5) Capture that (genial) expression, by Joanne Lewohl and Peter Dodd; and (6) Neurochemical/pharmacological studies: experimental design and limitations, by Roger Butterworth. [source]

Ballooned neurones in the limbic lobe are associated with Alzheimer type pathology and lack diagnostic specificity

Y. Fujino
Ballooned neurones (BNs) are one of the pathological hallmarks of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Pick's disease, corticobasal degeneration and argyrophilic grain disease (AGD). They have also been described in Alzheimer disease (AD), but the frequency of BNs in AD has not been systematically addressed. In the present study, immunohistochemistry for ,B-crystallin was used as a sensitive method to detect BNs to determine the frequency of BNs in the limbic lobe in AD. At least a few BNs were detected in the limbic lobe of virtually all AD cases, and their density correlated with Braak stage, as well as the density of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques in the limbic lobe. The density of BN tended to be greater in AD cases with concurrent AGD than in pure AD. Given the high prevalence of AD in brain banks for neurodegenerative disease and the frequent presence of BNs in these areas with ,B-crystallin immunohistochemistry, the present findings further indicate that BNs confined to the limbic lobe lack specificity in diagnostic neuropathology. [source]

Diffusion tensor imaging in fixed brain tissue at 7.0 T

David N. Guilfoyle
Abstract The purpose of this work is to assess the feasibility of performing quantitative in vitro brain tissue diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements and to examine their comparability to in vivo measurements. DTI of fixed tissue at high field strength is potentially a very valuable investigative tool as very high spatial resolution can be achieved. DTI was applied to human and mouse brain fixed tissue samples as well as in vivo measurements of the mouse brain. T1 and T2 relaxography of the fixed tissue samples was also performed to provide further characterization of the tissue. All experiments were performed at 7,T. The fractional anisotropy (FA) of the human fixed brain tissue samples is found to be higher in the corpus callosum than in the occipital white matter region, consistent with in vivo measurements reported in the literature. Our FA measurements of the corpus callosum of a mouse brain are also found to be the same both in vitro and in vivo. This preliminary work supports the use of DTI in both fixed human and fixed animal brain tissue as a valid investigative tool. With the increased availability of brain banks in different brain disorders, DTI in fixed tissue may prove to be a very useful method for the study of white matter abnormalities. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]