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  • Selected Abstracts

    The braincase of the chondrichthyan Doliodus from the Lower Devonian Campbellton Formation of New Brunswick, Canada

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2009
    John Maisey
    Abstract The braincase of the late Lower Devonian (Emsian) chondrichthyan Doliodus is described for the first time. Its postorbital process is extended ventrally and probably enclosed part of the infraorbital sensory canal, as in some placoderms. Doliodus has a shark-like dentition, but its upper anterior tooth files were supported by the internasal cartilage of the braincase, not by the palatoquadrates. Modern selachian jaws and dentitions are not representative of primitive crown-group gnathostomes because they display a mixture of conserved and derived character states. Separation of the palatoquadrates by the internasal cartilage is probably a primitive condition for crown-group gnathostomes. Continuity of the upper dental arcade across the ethmoid region may represent a synapomorphy of chondrichthyans and some acanthodians (the condition is not found in placoderms or osteichthyans). Exclusion of the arcade from the ethmoid region is probably apomorphic within elasmobranchs. Doliodus has curious bar-like, paired subcranial ridges ending posteriorly at the hyomandibular articulation. These superficially resemble visceral arch infrapharyngohyals fused to the floor of the braincase, adding circumstantial palaeontological support to the old proposal that parts of visceral arches may be incorporated into the gnathostome braincase, although it seems more plausible that they formed in the lateral margins of the embryonic parachordal or hypotic lamina. [source]

    Stability, morphology and surface grain size patterns of channel bifurcation in gravel,cobble bedded anabranching rivers

    Leif M. Burge
    Abstract This study presents the first detailed field-based analysis of the morphology of bifurcations within anabranching cobble,gravel rivers. Bifurcations divide the flow of water and sediment into downstream anabranches, thereby influencing the characteristics of the anabranches and the longevity of river islands. The history, morphology, bed grain size, and flow vectors at five bifurcations on the Renous River, New Brunswick, Canada, were studied in detail. The angles of bifurcations within five anabranching rivers in the Miramichi basin were investigated. The average bifurcation angle was 47°, within the range of values cited for braided river bifurcations. Bifurcation angle decreased when anabranches were of similar length. Shields stresses in channels upstream of bifurcations were lower than reported values for braided rivers. Stable bifurcations displayed lower Shields stresses than unstable bifurcations, contrary to experimental results from braided river bifurcations. Bifurcations in anabranching rivers are stabilized by vegetation that slows channel migration and helps to maintain a uniform upstream flow field. The morphology of stable bifurcations enhances their stability. A large bar, shaped like a shallow ramp that increases in elevation to floodplain level, forms at stable bifurcations. Floodplains at stable bifurcations accrete upstream at rates between 0·9 and 2·5 m a,1. Bars may also form within the entrance of an anabranch downstream of the bifurcation node. These bars are associated with bifurcation instability, forming after a period of stability or an avulsion. Channel abandonment occurs when a bar completely blocks the entrance to one anabranch. The stability of channels upstream of bifurcations and the location of bars at bifurcations influence bifurcation stability and the maintenance of river anabranching in the long term. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Understanding the temporal dynamics of the wandering Renous River, New Brunswick, Canada

    Leif M. Burge
    Abstract Wandering rivers are composed of individual anabranches surrounding semi-permanent islands, linked by single channel reaches. Wandering rivers are important because they provide habitat complexity for aquatic organisms, including salmonids. An anabranch cycle model was developed from previous literature and field observations to illustrate how anabranches within the wandering pattern change from single to multiple channels and vice versa over a number of decades. The model was used to investigate the temporal dynamics of a wandering river through historical case studies and channel characteristics from field data. The wandering Renous River, New Brunswick, was mapped from aerial photographs (1945, 1965, 1983 and 1999) to determine river pattern statistics and for historical analysis of case studies. Five case studies consisting of a stable single channel, newly formed anabranches, anabranches gaining stability following creation, stable anabranches, and an abandoning anabranch were investigated in detail. Long profiles, hydraulic geometry, channel energy, grain size and sediment mobility variables were calculated for each channel. Within the Renous study area, the frequency of channel formation and abandonment were similar over the 54 years of analysis, indicating that the wandering pattern is being maintained. Eight anabranches were formed through avulsions, five were formed through the emergence of islands from channel bars and 11 anabranches were abandoned. The stable anabranch pair displayed similar hydraulic geometry and channel energy characteristics, while unstable anabranch pairs did not. The anabranch pair that gained stability displayed more similar channel energy characteristics than the anabranch pair that was losing stability (abandoning). It appears that anabranch pairs with similar energy characteristics are more stable than anabranches where these characteristics are out of balance. This is consistent with the hypothesis that anabranch pairs of similar length will be more stable than those with dissimilar lengths. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Converting waste gases from pulp mills into value-added chemicals

    Tom L. Burgess
    A combined sorption/catalytic process has been discovered that converts the methanol and mercaptans in Kraft pulp mill waste gas condensates into formaldehyde. A pilot plant was operated at Georgia-Pacific's Brunswick, GA, mill for two years to optimize both sorbents and catalyst. Patents were issued. Applications within Georgia-Pacific and external licensing opportunities for the process are being investigated. The process gives pulp and paper mills a profitable alternative for converting their waste gases to valuable chemicals, as opposed to incineration or biodegradation in treatment ponds. [source]

    Impacts of nonpoint inputs from potato farming on populations of slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus)

    Michelle A. Gray
    Abstract The potential influence of agricultural activity, particularly potato cultivation, on slimy sculpin populations (Cottus cognatus) was examined at 19 rivers of New Brunswick, Canada. Comparisons with forested streams resulted in differences in fish density, size, and reproductive performance. Young-of-the-year (YOY) sculpin were present only at two of 11 agricultural sites, though they were present at all nine forested sites. Sediment deposition was greatest at agricultural sites, with increased fine sediments deposited. Larger, coarse sands were deposited at two sites with active forest operations. Temperature had a stronger correlation than sedimentation with sculpin size and density in the agricultural region. Agricultural catchments were warmer than in forested catchments (median = 16.0 and 13.3°C, respectively). Body size of slimy sculpin was correlated positively and YOY densities correlated negatively with temperature, and sites with temperatures ,25°C were devoid of YOY sculpin. Our data indicate there is a significant effect of temperature on slimy sculpin populations in rivers of potato farming areas, highlighting the importance of examining indirect factors when investigating possible impacts of nonpoint source agricultural inputs. Indirect factors such as sediment deposition and temperature need to be considered in order to discriminate accurately the chronic impacts of agricultural chemicals on fish populations. [source]

    An evaluation of the etiology of reduced CYP1A1 messenger RNA expression in the Atlantic tomcod from the Hudson River, New York, USA, using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis

    Nirmal K. Roy
    Abstract Adult Atlantic tomcod, Microgadus tomcod, from the Hudson River, New York State, USA, exhibit reduced inducibility of hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) mRNA compared with adult tomcod from the cleaner Miramichi River, New Brunswick, Canada, when treated with coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin. In contrast, little difference in CYP1A1 inducibility is observed between tomcod from these two rivers when treated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We sought to determine if impaired hepatic CYP1A1 inducibility in Hudson River tomcod results from a multigenerational, genetic adaptation or a single generational, physiological acclimation. Embryos and larvae from controlled experimental crosses of Hudson River and Miramichi River parents were exposed for 24 h to water-borne PCB congener 77 (10 ppm), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP; 10 ppm), or dimethysulfoxide, and CYP1A1 expression was assessed in individual larva using competitive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The CYP1A1 mRNA was significantly induced in larvae from both populations by BaP (47- and 52-fold) and PCB 77 (9- and 22-fold), although levels of expression were higher in offspring of Miramichi matings. Most important, CYP1A1 mRNA was significantly induced by PCB 77 in larvae from Hudson River parents. Concentrations of dioxin, furan, and PCB congeners were measured in livers and eggs of female tomcod from these two locales to quantify the extent of maternal transfer of contaminants. For both rivers, wet-weight contaminant concentrations were significantly higher (4,7 times) in livers than in eggs of the same females, suggesting that a threshold level of contaminants may have to be reached before CYP1A1 transcription is impaired. We conclude that reduced inducibility of hepatic CYP1A1 mRNA in adult tomcod from the Hudson River is most consistent with single-generational acclimation. [source]

    Extensional development of the Fundy rift basin, southeastern Canada

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 6 2009
    Martha O. Withjack
    Abstract The Fundy rift basin of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Canada, is part of the Eastern North American rift system that formed during the breakup of Pangaea. Integrated seismic-reflection, field, digital-elevation and aeromagnetic data indicate that the Fundy rift basin underwent two phases of deformation: syn-rift extension followed by post-rift basin inversion. Inversion significantly modified the geometries of the basin and its rift-related structures. In this paper, we remove the effects of inversion to examine the basin's extensional development. The basin consists of three structural subbasins: the Fundy and Chignecto subbasins are bounded by low-angle, NE-striking faults; the Minas subbasin is bounded by E- to ENE-striking faults that are steeply dipping at the surface and gently dipping at depth. Together, these linked faults form the border,fault system of the Fundy rift basin. Most major faults within the border,fault system originated as Palaeozoic contractional structures. All syn-rift units imaged on seismic profiles thicken towards the border,fault system, reflecting extensional movement from Middle Triassic (and possibly Permian) through Early Jurassic time. Intra-rift unconformities, observed on seismic profiles and in the field, indicate that uplift and erosion occurred, at least locally, during rifting. Based on seismic data alone, the displacement direction of the hanging wall of the border,fault system of the Fundy rift basin ranged from SW to SE during rifting. Field data (i.e. NE-striking igneous dykes, sediment-filled fissures and normal faults) indicate NW,SE extension during Early Jurassic time, supporting a SE-displacement direction. With a SE-displacement direction, the NE-striking border,fault zones of the Fundy and Chignecto subbasins had predominantly normal dip slip during rifting, whereas the E-striking border,fault zone of the Minas subbasin had oblique slip with left-lateral and normal components. Sequential restorations of seismic-reflection profiles (coupled with projections from onshore geology) show that the Fundy rift basin underwent 10,20,km of extension, most of which was accommodated by the border,fault system, and was considerably wider and deeper prior to basin inversion. Post-rift deformation tilted the eastern side of the basin to the northwest/north, producing significant uplift and erosion. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Measuring remanence anisotropy of hematite in red beds: anisotropy of high-field isothermal remanence magnetization (hf-AIR)

    Dario Bilardello
    SUMMARY The potential of using high-field anisotropy of isothermal remanence magnetization (hf-AIR) measurements for determining the origin of natural remanent magnetization in red beds and for identifying and correcting possible red-bed inclination shallowing was investigated for specimens of the Carboniferous Shepody Formation of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada. The technique makes it possible for a typical paleomagnetic laboratory to measure the remanence anisotropy of high-coercivity hematite. High-field (hf) AIR was used in conjunction with 100 mT alternating field (af) and 120 °C thermal demagnetization to separate the contribution of hematite to the remanence anisotropy from that of magnetite/maghemite and goethite, respectively. A 5-T impulse DC magnetic field was used for the hf-AIR to reset the magnetic moment of high-coercivity hematite so that demagnetization between AIR orientations was not necessary. The ability of a 5-T field to reset the magnetization was tested by generating an isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition curve for hematite by using impulse DC magnetic fields up to 5 T in one orientation and followed by applying a field in the opposite direction at each step. Each field application was treated by 120 °C heating and 100 mT af demagnetization before measurement. At 5 T, the difference between the magnetizations applied in opposite directions disappeared indicating that no magnetic memory persisted at this field strength. We performed a validity and reproducibility test of our hf-AIR measurement technique by measuring three specimens multiple times along two orthogonal coordinate systems. The method yielded highly reproducible results and, on rotating the specimen's coordinates, the fabric rotated by 90° as expected, showing that it is not an artifact of the technique. We also measured hf-AIR on samples that had previously been chemically demagnetized in 3N HCl to remove the secondary, chemically grown pigmentary hematite. The hf-AIR fabric of leached samples is similar to that of untreated samples, but shows a better-defined magnetic lineation and imbrication. We interpret the fabric observed for the Shepody Formation to be a compactional fabric that has been reoriented by strain during folding following a flexural-slip model. [source]

    Calling capital: call centre strategies in New Brunswick and New Zealand

    GLOBAL NETWORKS, Issue 2 2002
    Wendy Larner
    This article compares government promoted call centre initiatives in New Zealand and New Brunswick, Canada, thereby identifying differing policies and practices associated with ,globalization'. Both New Brunswick and New Zealand are small resource based economies in which policy makers aspire to attract foreign investment into call centres as a new means of economic growth and job creation. However there are significant differences between the two call centre strategies. In New Brunswick the provincial government plays a central role, most notably through the use of incentives to lure companies to the province but also through the coordination of education and training. In New Zealand an informal network made up of public and private sector actors drives the strategy, and the relevant government agency (Trade NZ) plays only a coordinating role. Despite these differences both call centre strategies aspire to link service sector activities into global flows and networks, and foster low wage and feminized forms of employment. [source]

    Variability and Comparison of Hyporheic Water Temperatures and Seepage Fluxes in a Small Atlantic Salmon Stream,

    GROUND WATER, Issue 1 2003
    Matthew D. Alexander
    Ground water discharge is often a significant factor in the quality of fish spawning and rearing habitat and for highly biologically productive streams. In the present study, water temperatures (stream and hyporheic) and seepage fluxes were used to characterize shallow ground water discharge and recharge within the streambed of Catamaran Brook, a small Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stream in central New Brunswick, Canada. Three study sites were instrumented using a total of 10 temperature sensors and 18 seepage meters. Highly variable mean seepage fluxes, ranging from 1.7 × 10,4 to 2.5 cm3 m,2 sec,1, and mean hyporheic water temperatures, ranging from 10.5° to 18.0°C, at depths of 20 to 30 cm in the streambed were dependent on streambed location (left versus right stream bank and site location) and time during the summer sampling season. Temperature data were useful for determining if an area of the streambed was under discharge (positive flux), recharge (negative flux), or parallel flow (no flux) conditions and seepage meters were used to directly measure the quantity of water flux. Hyporheic water temperature measurements and specific conductance measurements of the seepage meter sample water, mean values ranging from 68.8 to 157.9 ,S/cm, provided additional data for determining flux sources. Three stream banks were consistently under discharge conditions, while the other three stream banks showed reversal from discharge to recharge conditions over the sampling season. Results indicate that the majority of the water collected in the seepage meters was composed of surface water. The data obtained suggests that even though a positive seepage flux is often interpreted as ground water discharge, this discharging water may be of stream water origin that has recently entered the hyporheic zone. The measurement of seepage flux in conjunction with hyporheic water temperature or other indicators of water origin should be considered when attempting to quantify the magnitude of exchange and the source of hyporheic water. [source]

    The Adequacy of Household Survey Data for Evaluating the Nongroup Health Insurance Market

    Joel C. Cantor
    Objective. To evaluate the accuracy of household survey estimates of the size and composition of the nonelderly population covered by nongroup health insurance. Data Sources/Study Setting. Health insurance enrollment statistics reported to New Jersey insurance regulators. Household data from the following sources: the 2002 Current Population Survey (CPS)-March Demographic Supplement, the 1997 and 1999 National Surveys of America's Families (NSAF), the 2001 New Jersey Family Health Survey (NJFHS), a 2002 survey of known nongroup health insurance enrollees, a small 2004 survey testing alternative health insurance question wording. Study Design. To assess the extent of bias in estimates of the size of the nongroup health insurance market in New Jersey, enrollment trends are compared between official enrollment statistics reported by insurance carriers to state insurance regulators with estimates from three general population household surveys. Next, to evaluate possible bias in the demographic and socioeconomic composition of the New Jersey nongroup market, distributions of characteristics of the enrolled population are contrasted among general household surveys and a survey of known nongroup subscribers. Finally, based on inferences drawn from these comparisons, alternative health insurance question wording was developed and tested in a local survey to test the potential for misreporting enrollment in nongroup coverage in a low-income population. Data Collection/Extraction Methods. Data for nonelderly New Jersey residents from the 2002 CPS (n=5,028) and the 1997 and 1999 NSAF (n=6,467 and 7,272, respectively) were obtained from public sources. The 2001 NJFHS (n=5,580 nonelderly) was conducted for a sample drawn by random digit dialing and employed computer-assisted telephone interviews and trained, professional interviewers. Sampling weights are used to adjust for under-coverage of households without telephones and other factors. In addition, a modified version of the NJFHS was administered to a 2002 sample of known nongroup subscribers (n=1,398) using the same field methods. These lists were provided by four of the five largest New Jersey nongroup insurance carriers, which represented 95 percent of all nongroup enrollees in the state. Finally, a modified version of the NJFHS questionnaire was fielded using similar methods as part of a local health survey in New Brunswick, New Jersey, in 2004 (n=1,460 nonelderly). Principal Findings. General household sample surveys, including the widely used CPS, yield substantially higher estimates of nongroup enrollment compared with administrative totals and yield estimates of the characteristics of the nongroup population that vary greatly from a survey of known nongroup subscribers. A small survey testing a question about source of payment for direct-purchased coverage suggests than many public coverage enrollees report nongroup coverage. Conclusions. Nongroup health insurance has been subject to more than a decade of reform and is of continuing policy interest. Comparisons of unique data from a survey of known nongroup subscribers and administrative sources to household surveys strongly suggest that the latter overstates the number and misrepresent the composition of the nongroup population. Research on the nongroup market using available sources should be interpreted cautiously and survey methods should be reexamined. [source]

    The Evolutionary Role of Interorganizational Communication: Modeling Social Capital in Disaster Contexts

    Marya L. Doerfel
    Employing a community ecology perspective, this study examines how interorganizational (IO) communication and social capital (SC) facilitated organizational recovery after Hurricane Katrina. In-depth interviews with 56 New Orleans organizations enabled longitudinal analysis and a grounded theory model that illustrates how communication differentiated four phases of recovery: personal emergency, professional emergency, transition, rebuilding. Communicative action taking place across phases corresponds with the evolutionary mechanisms. Most organizations did not turn to interorganizational relationships (IORs) until the transitional phase, during which indirect ties were critical and incoming versus outgoing communication was substantively different. Organizations did not consistently use IO SC until the last phase. This study underlines the fact that organizations and their systems are fundamentally human and (re)constructed through communicative action. Le rôle évolutionnaire de la communication interorganisationnelle : la présentation du capital social en contextes de désastres Marya L. Doerfel, Chih-Hui Lai, & Lisa V. Chewning Adoptant la perspective de l'écologie des communautés, cette étude examine la manière dont la communication interorganisationnelle et le capital social ont facilité le rétablissement organisationnel après l'ouragan Katrina. Des entretiens en profondeur avec 56 organisations de la Nouvelle-Orléans ont permis une analyse longitudinale et un modèle de théorie ancrée illustrant la manière dont la communication distinguait quatre stades de rétablissement : l'urgence personnelle, l'urgence professionnelle, la transition et la reconstruction. L'action communicationnelle ayant lieu à travers les stades correspond aux mécanismes évolutionnaires. La plupart des organisations ne se sont pas tournées vers les relations interorganisationnelles avant le stade de transition, au cours duquel les liens indirects étaient cruciaux et la communication entrante était significativement différente de la communication sortante. Les organisations n'utilisaient pas systématiquement le capital social interorganisationnel avant le dernier stade. Cette étude souligne le fait que les organisations et leurs systèmes sont fondamentalement humains et (re)construits à travers l'action communicationnelle. Die evolutionäre Rolle von Kommunikation zwischen Organisationen: Die Modellierung von sozialem Kapital im Kontext von Katastrophen Marya L. Doerfel, Chih-Hui Lai, & Lisa V. Chewning Unter Anwendung einer gesellschaftsökonomischen Perspektive untersucht diese Studie, wie Kommunikation zwischen Organisationen und soziales Kapital die Erholung von Organisationen nach Hurrikan Katrina erleichterte. Tiefeninterviews mit 56 Organisationen in New Orleans ermöglichten eine Längsschnittanalyse und ein Grounded Theory Modell, welches zeigt, wie die Kommunikation sich in vier Phasen der Regeneration unterteilt: persönlicher Notfall, professioneller Notfall, Übergang, Erneuerung. Kommunikatives Handeln, welches in allen Phasen stattfand, korrespondiert mit evolutionären Mechanismen. Die meisten Organisationen wandten sich nicht Beziehungen zwischen Organisationen zu bis sie in die transitionale Phase kamen, in welcher indirekte Beziehungen wichtig waren und eingehende versus ausgehende Kommunikation fundamental verschieden waren. Organisationen nutzen soziales Kapital zwischen Organisationen durchgehend bis auf die letzte Phase. Die Studie unterstreicht die Tatsache, dass Organisationen und ihre Systeme elementar menschlich sind und durch kommunikatives Handeln konstruiert und rekonstruiert werden. El Rol Evolucionario de la Comunicación entre Organizaciones: Modelando el Capital Social en los Contextos de Desastre Marya L. Doerfel, Chih-Hui Lai, & Lisa V. Chewning School of Communication and Information Studies, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA Resumen Empleando una perspectiva de comunidad ecológica, este estudio examina cómo la comunicación entre organizaciones y el capital social (SC) facilitaron la recuperación después del Huracán Katrina. Entrevistas en profundidad de 56 organizaciones de Nuevo Orleans permitieron un análisis longitudinal y un modelo de teoría construido sobre los datos que ilustran cómo la comunicación diferenció 4 fases de recuperación: emergencia personal, emergencia profesional, transición y reconstrucción. La acción comunicativa se lleva a cabo a través de las fases correspondientes con los mecanismos de evolución. La mayoría de las organizaciones no recurrieron a las relaciones entre organizaciones (IORs) hasta la fase transicional, durante la cual los lazos indirectos fueron críticos y la comunicación de entrada versus la de salida fueron substantivamente diferentes. Las organizaciones no son consistentemente usadas con IO SC hasta la última fase. Este estudio subraya el hecho que las organizaciones y sus sistemas son fundamentalmente humanos y (re)construidos a través de la acción de la comunicación. [source]

    Using GIS and a digital elevation model to assess the effectiveness of variable grade flow diversion terraces in reducing soil erosion in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada

    Qi Yang
    Abstract Flow diversion terraces (FDT) are commonly used beneficial management practice (BMP) for soil conservation on sloped terrain susceptible to water erosion. A simple GIS-based soil erosion model was designed to assess the effectiveness of the FDT system under different climatic, topographic, and soil conditions at a sub-basin level. The model was used to estimate the soil conservation support practice factor (P -factor), which inherently considered two major outcomes with its implementation, namely (1) reduced slope length, and (2) sediment deposition in terraced channels. A benchmark site, the agriculture-dominated watershed in northwestern New Brunswick (NB), was selected to test the performance of the model and estimated P -factors. The estimated P -factors ranged from 0·38,1·0 for soil conservation planning objectives and ranged from 0·001 to 0·45 in sediment yield calculations for water-quality assessment. The model estimated that the average annual sediment yield was 773 kg ha,1 yr ,1 compared with a measured value of 641 kg ha,1 yr,1. The P -factors estimated in this study were comparable with predicted values obtained with the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE2). The P -factors from this study have the potential to be directly used as input in hydrological models, such as the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT), or in soil conservation planning where only conventional digital elevation models (DEMs) are available. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Predicting river water temperatures using the equilibrium temperature concept with application on Miramichi River catchments (New Brunswick, Canada)

    Daniel Caissie
    Abstract Water temperature influences most of the physical, chemical and biological properties of rivers. It plays an important role in the distribution of fish and the growth rates of many aquatic organisms. Therefore, a better understanding of the thermal regime of rivers is essential for the management of important fisheries resources. This study deals with the modelling of river water temperature using a new and simplified model based on the equilibrium temperature concept. The equilibrium temperature concept is an approach where the net heat flux at the water surface can be expressed by a simple equation with fewer meteorological parameters than required with traditional models. This new water temperature model was applied on two watercourses of different size and thermal characteristics, but within a similar meteorological region, i.e., the Little Southwest Miramichi River and Catamaran Brook (New Brunswick, Canada). A study of the long-term thermal characteristics of these two rivers revealed that the greatest differences in water temperatures occurred during mid-summer peak temperatures. Data from 1992 to 1994 were used for the model calibration, while data from 1995 to 1999 were used for the model validation. Results showed a slightly better agreement between observed and predicted water temperatures for Catamaran Brook during the calibration period, with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1·10 °C (Nash coefficient, NTD = 0·95) compared to 1·45 °C for the Little Southwest Miramichi River (NTD = 0·94). During the validation period, RMSEs were calculated at 1·31 °C for Catamaran Brook and 1·55 °C for the Little Southwest Miramichi River. Poorer model performances were generally observed early in the season (e.g., spring) for both rivers due to the influence of snowmelt conditions, while late summer to autumn modelling performances showed better results. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Density-dependent growth of young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Catamaran Brook, New Brunswick

    I. IMRE
    Summary 1While density-dependent mortality and emigration have been widely reported in stream salmonid populations, density-dependent growth is less frequently detected. A recent study suggests that density-dependent growth in stream salmonids occurs at low densities, whereas density-dependent mortality and emigration occur at high densities. 2To test the hypothesis that density-dependent growth occurs primarily at low rather than at high densities, we examined the relationship between average fork length and population density of young-of-the-year (YOY) Atlantic salmon at the end of the growing season using a 10-year data set collected on Catamaran Brook, New Brunswick. We tested whether (1) average body size decreases with increasing density; (2) the effect of density on average body size is greatest at low densities; (3) growth rate will decrease most rapidly at low effective densities [,(fork length)2]; (4) density-dependent growth is weaker over space than over time; and (5) the strength of density-dependent growth increases with the size of the habitat unit (i.e. spatial scale) when compared within years, but not between years. 3There was a strong negative relationship between the average body size and population density of YOY Atlantic salmon in the autumn, which was best described by a negative power curve. Similarly, a negative power curve provided the best fit to the relationship between average body size and effective density. Most of the variation in average body size was explained by YOY density, with year, location and the density of 1+ and 2+ salmon accounting for a minor proportion of the variation. 4The strength of density-dependent growth did not differ significantly between comparisons over space vs. time. Consistent with the last prediction, the strength of density-dependent growth increased with increasing spatial scale in the within-year, but not in the between-year comparisons. 5The effect of density on growth was strongest at low population densities, too low to expect interference competition. Stream salmonid populations may be regulated by two mechanisms: density-dependent growth via exploitative competition at low densities, perhaps mediated by predator-induced reductions in drift rate, and density-dependent mortality and emigration via interference competition at high densities. [source]

    Bayesian semiparametric estimation of discrete duration models: an application of the dirichlet process prior

    Michele Campolieti
    This paper proposes a Bayesian estimator for a discrete time duration model which incorporates a non-parametric specification of the unobserved heterogeneity distribution, through the use of a Dirichlet process prior. This estimator offers distinct advantages over the Nonparametric Maximum Likelihood estimator of this model. First, it allows for exact finite sample inference. Second, it is easily estimated and mixed with flexible specifications of the baseline hazard. An application of the model to employment duration data from the Canadian province of New Brunswick is provided. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Impact of peat moss released by a commercial harvesting operation into an estuarine environment on the sand shrimp Crangon septemspinosa

    C. Ouellette
    Summary Current methods used in harvesting peat in eastern Canada have raised concerns regarding potential impacts of escaped peat particles on aquatic ecosystems. A study was carried out in Mill Creek, an estuarine tributary of the Richibucto River in New Brunswick, where peat originating from a commercial operation has accumulated over several years. The sand shrimp Crangon septemspinosa Say (1818) was selected to determine potential environmental stress related to presence of peat in the sediment because of its close association with the substrate. Despite the introduction of sedimentation ponds at the harvesting site in 1994, peat particles continued to enter and accumulate in Mill Creek between 1997 and 1999. Increases in peat depth ranged from 6 to 31 cm and the volume of surficial (0,15 cm) sediments containing peat increased from 35% in 1997 to 44% in 1998 and 76% in 1999. Beach seine surveys carried out during July to September of 1996,1998 indicated that fewer sand shrimp occurred over substrates having higher (>66%) peat concentration than over sand or mud with lower (<33%) peat concentration. Length of sand shrimp did not vary consistently with peat concentration but sand shrimp caught over substrates containing medium (34,65%) peat concentration displayed lower condition [wet weight at total length (TL)] than conspecifics from substrates of both higher and lower peat concentration in all surveys. In a separate survey, peat was found in the stomachs of sand shrimp caught over substrates composed of high but not low peat concentration. We conclude that present mitigation measures at this site have been ineffective in preventing escape of peat moss into the estuarine environment and that the resulting peat deposition has reduced habitat quality for estuarine macrofauna as reflected in a reduction of the number and condition of sand shrimp. [source]

    Reduction of Stroke Risk Factors

    John B. Kostis MD
    In October 2006, a panel of experts participated in a teleconference to discuss the reduction of stroke risk factors in patients at risk for stroke. The panel was chaired by John B. Kostis, MD, Professor and Chairman, Department of Medicine at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey,Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ. Also participating were Philip B. Gorelick, MD, MPH, Director, Center for Stroke Research, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, and Franz H. Messerli, MD, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY. [source]

    First summer growth predetermined in anadromous and resident brook charr

    E. Chernoff
    Early growth of wild, anadromous and non-anadromous (resident) brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis was compared under controlled laboratory conditions. Offspring were collected as they emerged from natural redds in the Miramichi River, New Brunswick, Canada. Anadromous offspring were initially longer and heavier than residents. Anadromous offspring had lower specific growth rates during their first 2 months post-emergence, but surpassed residents by the third month. Consequently, anadromous offspring remained larger at the end of 3 months and it is concluded that they had a predetermined, maternal and genetic advantage related to body size, rather than an environmentally determined advantage during their first summer of growth. Other studies hypothesize that juvenile development affects life-history strategy adopted as adults, which suggests anadromy in this population may be, at least in part, predetermined by maternal and genetic effects. [source]

    Mortality patterns in infectious salmon anaemia virus outbreaks in New Brunswick, Canada

    K L Hammell
    Abstract Mortality levels attributed to infectious salmon anaemia viral (ISAV) infections were examined at the net pen and site level in the 1996 smolt year class in three areas of New Brunswick, Canada. The year class in this region was the first known to have potential exposure to ISAV beginning at the time of seawater transfer. There was considerable variability in mortality patterns among net pen groups of fish. Net pen outbreak definitions were based on at least seven high mortality days in which there were at least 100 per 100 000 fish per day or >5% cumulative mortality for the study period. There were 106 net pen outbreaks in a study population consisting of 218 net pens. Although the number of new cases decreased as water temperature decreased, overall mortality levels at the study sites did not decrease noticeably. The median peak daily mortality rate during outbreaks was 492 per 100 000 fish per day, with 10% of cases experiencing >5200 mortalities per 100 000 fish per day. The median duration of outbreaks in net pens for which the fish were not slaughtered during the outbreak was 33 days and the median total loss in those outbreaks was 6600 per 100 000 fish. [source]

    Risk factors associated with mortalities attributed to infectious salmon anaemia virus in New Brunswick, Canada

    K L Hammell
    Abstract Outbreaks of unexplained mortalities attributed to infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) were examined in the 1996 year class of Atlantic salmon in three regions of New Brunswick, Canada. A total of 218 net pens at 14 sites deemed to have been exposed to ISA virus (ISAV) were surveyed for mortality records and management, environmental and host characteristics. Based on definitions of mortality patterns, clinical ISA disease outbreaks occurred in 106 net pens. There were eight sites in which >50% of net pens experienced ISA outbreaks during the study period. Factors related to their potential role in transmission of virus to new sites or new net pens at the same site were identified as sea lice vectors, divers visiting multiple sites, sites belonging to companies with more than one site, exposure to other year classes at the site, and proximity to other infected net pens. Host resistance factors associated with greater risk of outbreaks were identified as larger groupings, general health following smolt transfer, stressful husbandry procedures during growout, and health or productivity during colder water periods. Despite very close proximity between sites, modification of these management factors would probably influence the severity of mortalities caused by ISAV. [source]

    Occurrence and effects of Nosema fumiferanae infections on adult spruce budworm caught above and within the forest canopy

    Eldon S. Eveleigh
    Abstract 1,Nosema fumiferanae infections in populations of both sexes of spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana moths, collected live above the forest canopy (canopy moths), within the tree crown (crown moths) and in drop trays (dead moths), were examined over a 5-year period in New Brunswick, Canada. 2,The incidence of infection and of moderate,heavy infections in canopy and crown moths of both sexes increased concomitantly with moth eclosion, indicating that N. fumiferanae retards larval/pupal development, with infected moths, particularly those having higher disease loads, emerging later in the season. 3,Infection rates differed among canopy, crown, and dead female, but not male, moths. Canopy (i.e. emigrating) females had a lower incidence of infection, lower incidence of moderate,heavy infections, and had longer forewings and higher dry weights, than crown females. These results suggest that N. fumiferanae infections negatively affect aspects of female, but not male, flight performance. Regardless of infection, forewing length and dry weight of both canopy and crown females declined over the moth flight period, but infected females in both moth types were smaller than their uninfected counterparts. Forewing lengths and dry weights of moderately,heavily infected females were most severely affected. 4,Despite high annual infection rates in parents, only a small percentage of offspring (second-instar larvae) that established feeding sites each spring were infected, indicating that high rates of horizontal transmission occurred annually throughout the larval period. 5,The present study indicates that whether N. fumiferanae infections are a debilitating sublethal factor in spruce budworm populations depends more on the disease load than on the overall incidence of infection. The potential importance of N. fumiferanae infections on various fitness parameters related to host dispersal is discussed. [source]

    Neoproterozoic high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks in the Avalon terrane, southern New Brunswick, Canada

    C. E. White
    Abstract High -P/low -T metamorphic rocks of the Hammondvale metamorphic suite (HMS) are exposed in an area of 10 km2 on the NW margin of the Caledonian (Avalon) terrane in southern New Brunswick, Canada. The HMS is in faulted contact on the SE with c. 560,550 Ma volcanic and sedimentary rocks and co-magmatic plutonic units of the Caledonian terrane. The HMS consists of albite- and garnet-porphyroblastic mica schist, with minor marble, calc-silicate rocks and quartzite. Pressure and temperature estimates from metamorphic assemblages in the mica schist and calc-silicate rocks using TWQ indicate that peak pressure conditions were 12.4 kbar at 430 °C. Peak temperature conditions were 580 °C at 9.0 kbar. 40Ar/39Ar muscovite ages from three samples range up to 618,615 Ma, a minimum age for high -P/low- T metamorphism in this unit. These ages indicate that the HMS is related to the c. 625,600 Ma subduction-generated volcanic and plutonic units exposed to the SE in the Caledonian terrane. The ages are also similar to those obtained from detrital muscovite in a Neoproterozoic-Cambrian sedimentary sequence in the Caledonian terrane, suggesting that the HMS was exposed by latest Neoproterozoic time and supplied detritus to the sedimentary units. The HMS is interpreted to represent a fragment of an accretionary complex, similar to the Sanbagawa Belt in Japan. It confirms the presence of a major cryptic suture between the Avalon terrane sensu stricto and the now-adjacent Brookville terrane. [source]


    Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
    Carmona, R.1, Kraemer G. P.2, Zertuche, J. A.3, Chanes, L.4, Chopin, T.5, Neefus C.4,6 & Yarish, C.1 1Dept. of Ecol. and Evol. Biol., University of Connecticut, One University Place, Stamford, CT 06901, USA; 2Department of Environmental Sciences, State University of New York, Purchase, NY 10577 USA; 3IIO, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California. Ensenada,B.C., Mexico; 4DGETI-CBTis41, Mexico; 5CCSA, Dept. of Biol., University of New Brunswick, Saint John, N.B., E2L 4L5, Canada; 6Department of Plant Biology, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA Finfish mariculture along the Northeast US coast continues to develop into a strong industry. At a regional level, mariculture can be a significant contributor to nutrient loading in coastal waters. Since macroalgae are able to concentrate nutrients and grow at high rates, they can be an useful tool for alleviating this problem. In addition, seaweed mariculture is by itself a multi-billion dollar industry, with the red alga Porphyra (nori) valued at over $US 1.8 billion. Local species and strains of Porphyra from the Northeast U.S.A. are being studied to determine their capacity as nutrient scrubbers under different nutrient and temperature conditions. P. purpurea was grown under two N sources (NO3- vs. NH4+). The fastest growth (up to 13% d-1) and greatest N content (ca. 7% DW) were measured in plants grown at 300 µM NH4+. Short-term NH4+ uptake by P. purpurea (strains from Maine and Long Island Sound) and by P. amplissima was not saturated at 150 µM, the highest concentration tested. The P. purpurea isolate from Maine took up NH4+ faster than did the Long Island Sound isolate. NH4+ uptake by P. amplissima was faster than uptake by either P. purpurea strain. The high growth rates obtained and the ability for N uptake and tissue accumulation make these species suitable for using as a biological nutrient removal system. [source]


    Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
    Yarish, C. 1, Rawson, Jr. M. V.2, Chopin, T.3, Wang, D. R.4, Chen, C.4, Carmona, R.1, Chen, C.5 , Wang, L.4, Ji , R.5 and Sullivan, J.5 1University of Connecticut, Stamford, Connecticut 06901-2315, USA; 2Georgia Sea Grant College Program, Athens, GA 30602-3636, USA; 3University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB, E2L 4L5, Canada; 4Marine and Fishery Dept. of Hainan Province, Haikou, Hainan, P. R. China; 5The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-3636, USA One of the most difficult tasks resource managers face is understanding the carrying capacity of coastal waters for aquaculture. Aquaculture, like many other human activities, can threaten coastal waters. Aquaculture producing shrimp and finfish depends on supplemental feeding and can contribute to eutrophication. A second type, involving shellfish and macroalgae, extracts plankton and nutrients from surrounding waters, and can have a significant positive impact on moderately eutrophic waters. Ecosystem modeling offers a 3-dimensional physical, chemical and biological simulation that can help understand and predict the impacts of aquaculture on coastal embayments. Such a model is being explored for Xincun Bay (22 km2), which is located in southeastern Hainan Province, China. Aquaculture in Xincun Bay includes 6500 fish pens, 100 ha of shrimp ponds, pearl oyster culture rafts and Kappaphycus alvarezii culture that produces 2,000 mt (Oct.-May). The surrounding area has ~ 15,000 people and Xincun City is a major offshore fishing and tourist center. The annual nitrogen and phosphorus removal capacity of Kappaphycus in Xincun Bay may have been in the order of 53.8 and 3.7 mt, respectively, during the 1999-2000 growing season. Lian Bay (~ 15 km2), a nearby bay with only Kappaphycus and pearl oyster culture (and little anthropogenic input), has a macroalgal production of 1,500 mt annually. The annual nitrogen and phosphorus removal capacity of Kappaphycus here may have been in the order of 25 and 0.33 mt, respectively. Our prototype model may hold the promise for showing the importance of integrating seaweed culture activities in the maintenance and health of coastal embayments. [source]


    Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
    Zertuche-González, J. A1., Chanes-Miranda L2., Carmona, R3., Kraemer G4., Chopin T.5 & Yarish, C3 1Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, PO Box #453, C.P. 22830, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico. 2CBTIS-41, Km 115 Carretera Transpeninsular, Ensenada, BC Mexico. 3University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 1 University Place, Stamford, CT, 06901-2315, USA. 4State University of New York, Purchase College, Div. of Nat. Sciences, Purchase, NY, 10577, USA. 5University of New Brunswick, Centre for Coastal Studies and Aquaculture and Centre for Environmental and Molecular Algal Research, P.O. Box 5050, Saint John, New Brunswick, E2L 4L5, Canada Porphyra perforata is a highly preferred seaweed used as fodder in abalone culturing due to its relatively high nutritional value. High growth rates of abalone, particularly in the early stages, are suspected to be due the high protein-aminoacid and low water content of the Porphyra. Also, high NO3 content may be important to improve the bacterial flora in the animals, which in turn may favor more efficient digestion. Changes in the composition of Porphyra, however, can occur rapidly due to environmental conditions decreasing the nutritional value of the plant. Short term N pulse fertilization were performed on P. perforata in order to evaluate the feasibility to increase its nutritional value. Enrichment was performed under low light conditions (<5 ,E m -2 s -1) to inhibit growth and promote higher N enrichment per unit of biomass. Tissue N in the form of NO3, NH4 and total organic N were measured, after 3,6,12 and 24 hrs, in tissue exposed to 500 ,M of N. Results indicated a rapid N tissue enrichment particularly in the form of NO3. Nitrate accumulation occurs continuously, up to 24 hrs. Total organic N is maximum after 12 hrs and tends to decrease after that. Fertilization with NH4 promotes NO3 accumulation. These results suggest the feasibility to improve the nutritional value of P. perforata by short-term pulse fertilization. The capacity of this species to uptake NH4 under low light conditions (similar to those use in abalone culturing) makes it also ideal for integrated aquaculture. [source]


    D.J. Garbary
    Ten years after the initial discovery of Codium fragile in eastern Canada on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, C. fragile has extended its range considerably to northern Nova Scotia, southern New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island (P.E.I.) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In all principal areas C. fragile subsp. tomentosoides is present. In two regions of Prince Edward Island, Codium is becoming extremely abundant, and is known by local fishers as the "oyster thief". A potential second taxon of Codium was collected in 1999 at three sites in Malpeque Bay where it is locally abundant. These plants are distinguished from C. fragile subsp. tomentosoides by their smaller frond size, flatter utricle tops, smaller mucrons, and smaller gametangia. Principal component analysis distinguishes plants of the two types. The abundance of C. fragile on both hard bottom and soft bottom substrata suggests that it will become the dominant alga in many subtidal algal communities in eastern Canada. [source]

    Teaching & Learning Guide for: Victorian Life Writing

    Valerie Sanders
    Author's Introduction The Victorian period was one of the great ages for life-writing. Though traditionally renowned for its monumental ,lives and letters', mainly of great men, this was also a time of self-conscious anxiety about the genre. Critics and practitioners alike were unsure who should be writing autobiography, and whether its inherent assertiveness ruled out all but public men as appropriate subjects. It was also a period of experimentation in the different genres of life-writing , whether autobiography, journals, letters, autobiographical novels, and narratives of lives combined with extracts from correspondence and diaries. Victorian life-writing therefore provides rich and complex insights into the relationship between narrative, identity, and the definition of the self. Recent advances in criticism have highlighted the more radical and non-canonical aspects of life-writing. Already a latecomer to the literary-critical tradition (life-writing was for a long time the ,poor relation' of critical theory), auto/biography stresses the hidden and silent as much as the mainstream and vocal. For that reason, study of Victorian life-writing appeals to those with an interest in gender issues, postcolonialism, ethnicity, working-class culture, the history of religion, and family and childhood studies , to name but a few of the fields with which the genre has a natural connection. Author Recommends A good place to start is the two canonical texts for Victorian life-writing: George P. Landow's edited collection, Approaches to Victorian Autobiography (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1979) and Avrom Fleishman's Figures of Autobiography: The Language of Self-Writing in Victorian and Modern England (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1983). These two re-ignited interest in Victorian life-writing and in effect opened the debate about extending the canon, though both focus on the firmly canonical Ruskin and Newman, among others. By contrast, David Amigoni's recently edited collection of essays, Life-Writing and Victorian Culture (Aldershot: Ashgate 2006) shows how far the canon has exploded and expanded: it begins with a useful overview of the relationship between lives, life-writing, and literary genres, while subsequent chapters by different authors focus on a particular individual or family and their cultural interaction with the tensions of life-writing. As this volume is fairly male-dominated, readers with an interest in women's life-writing might prefer to start with Linda Peterson's chapter, ,Women Writers and Self-Writing' in Women and Literature in Britain 1800,1900, ed. Joanne Shattock (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 209,230. This examines the shift from the eighteenth-century tradition of the chroniques scandaleuses to the professional artist's life, domestic memoir, and spiritual autobiography. Mary Jean Corbett's Representing Femininity: Middle-Class Subjectivity in Victorian and Edwardian Women's Autobiographies (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1992) begins with material on Wordsworth and Carlyle, but ,aims to contest the boundaries of genre, gender, and the autobiographical tradition by piecing together a partial history of middle-class women's subjectivities in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries' (3). Corbett is particularly interested in the life-writing of actresses and suffragettes as well as Martineau and Oliphant, the first two women autobiographers to be welcomed into the canon in the 1980s and 90s. Laura Marcus's Auto/biographical Discourses, Theory, Criticism, Practice (Manchester and New York, NY: Manchester University Press, 1994) revises and updates the theoretical approaches to the study of life-writing, stressing both the genre's hybrid qualities, and its inherent instability: in her view, it ,comes into being as a category to be questioned' (37). Another of her fruitful suggestions is that autobiography functions as a ,site of struggle' (9), an idea that can be applied to aesthetic or ideological issues. Her book is divided between specific textual examples (such as the debate about autobiography in Victorian periodicals), and an overview of developments in critical approaches to life-writing. Her second chapter includes material on Leslie Stephen, who is also the first subject of Trev Lynn Broughton's Men of Letters, Writing Lives: Masculinity and Literary Auto/biography in the Late Victorian Period (London: Routledge, 1999) , her other being Froude's controversial Life of Carlyle. With the advent of gender studies and masculinities, there is now a return to male forms of life-writing, of which Martin A. Danahay's A Community of One: Masculine Autobiography and Autonomy in Nineteenth-Century Britain (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993) is a good example. Danahay argues that nineteenth-century male autobiographers present themselves as ,autonomous individuals' free of the constraints of social and familial contexts, thus emphasizing the autonomy of the self at the expense of family and community. Online Materials My impression is that Victorian life-writing is currently better served by books than by online resources. There seem to be few general Web sites other than University module outlines and reading lists; for specific authors, on the other hand, there are too many to list here. So the only site I'd recommend is The Victorian Web: This Web site has a section called ,Autobiography Overview', which begins with an essay, ,Autobiography, Autobiographicality and Self-Representation', by George P. Landow. There are sections on other aspects of Victorian autobiography, including ,Childhood as a Personal Myth', autobiography in Dickens and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, and a list of ,Suggested Readings'. Each section is quite short, but summarizes the core issues succinctly. Sample Syllabus This sample syllabus takes students through the landmarks of Victorian life-writing, and demonstrates the development of a counter-culture away from the mainstream ,classic male life' (if there ever was such a thing) , culminating in the paired diaries of Arthur Munby (civil servant) and Hannah Cullwick (servant). Numerous other examples could have been chosen, but for those new to the genre, this is a fairly classic syllabus. One week only could be spent on the ,classic male texts' if students are more interested in pursuing other areas. Opening Session Open debate about the definition of Victorian ,life-writing' and its many varieties; differences between autobiography, autobiographical fiction, diary, letters, biography, collective biography, and memoir; the class could discuss samples of selected types, such as David Copperfield, Father and Son, Ruskin's Praeterita, and Gaskell's Life of Charlotte Brontë. Alternatively, why not just begin with Stave Two of Dickens's A Christmas Carol (1843), in which the First Spirit takes Scrooge back through his childhood and youth? This is a pretty unique type of life-writing, with Scrooge ,laughing and crying' as his childhood and youth are revealed to him in a series of flashbacks (a Victorian version of ,This is Your Life?'). The dual emotions are important to note at this stage and will prompt subsequent discussions of sentimentality and writing for comic effect later in the course. Week 2 Critical landmarks: discussion of important stages in the evolution of critical approaches to life-writing, including classics such as Georges Gusdorf's ,Conditions and Limits of Autobiography', in Autobiography: Essays Theoretical and Critical, ed. James Olney (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980), 28,47; Philippe Lejeune's ,The Autobiographical Pact', in On Autobiography, ed. Paul John Eakin, trans. Katherine Leary (original essay 1973; Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989), 3,30; and Paul De Man's ,Autobiography as De-Facement', Modern Language Notes 94 (1979): 919,30. This will provide a critical framework for the rest of the course. Weeks 3,4 Extracts from the ,male classics' of Victorian life-writing: J. S. Mill's Autobiography (1873), Ruskin's Praeterita (1885,89), and Newman's Apologia pro Vita Sua (1864). What do they think is important and what do they miss out? How open or otherwise are they about their family and personal lives? Are these essentially ,lives of the mind'? How self-aware are they of autobiographical structures? Are there already signs that the ,classic male life' is fissured and unconventional? An option here would be to spend the first week focusing on male childhoods, and the second on career trajectories. Perhaps use Martin Danahay's theory of the ,autonomous individual' (see above) to provide a critical framework here: how is the ,Other' (parents, Harriet Taylor) treated in these texts? Weeks 5,6 Victorian women's autobiography: Harriet Martineau's Autobiography (1877) and Margaret Oliphant's Autobiography (1899): in many ways these are completely unalike, Martineau's being ordered around the idea of steady mental growth and public recognition, while Oliphant's is deeply emotional and disordered. Can we therefore generalize about ,women's autobiography'? What impact did they have on Victorian theories of life-writing? Students might like to reconsider Jane Eyre as an ,autobiography' alongside these and compare scenes of outright rebellion. The way each text handles time and chronology is also fascinating: Martineau's arranged to highlight stages of philosophical development, while Oliphant's switches back and forth in a series of ,flashbacks' to her happier youth as her surviving two sons die ,in the text', interrupting her story. Week 7 Black women's autobiography: how does Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands (1857) differ from the Martineau and Oliphant autobiographies? What new issues and genre influences are introduced by a Caribbean/travelogue perspective? Another key text would be Harriet Jacobs's Incidents in the Life of a Slave-Girl (1861). How representative and how individual are these texts? Do these authors see themselves as representing their race as well as their class and sex? Week 8 Working-class autobiography: Possible texts here could be John Burnett's Useful Toil (Allen Lane, 1974, Penguin reprint); Carolyn Steedman's edition of John Pearman's The Radical Soldier's Tale (Routledge, 1988) and the mini oral biographies in Henry Mayhew's London Labour and the London Poor (1861,62) (e.g., the Water-Cress Seller). There is also a new Broadview edition of Factory Lives (2007) edited by James R. Simmons, with an introduction by Janice Carlisle. This contains four substantial autobiographical texts (three male, one female) from the mid-nineteenth century, with supportive materials. Samuel Bamford's Passages in the Life of a Radical (1839,42; 1844) and Early Days (1847,48) are further options. Students should also read Regenia Gagnier's Subjectivities: A History of Self-Representation in Britain 1832,1910 (Oxford University Press, 1991). Week 9 Biography: Victorian Scandal: focus on two scandals emerging from Victorian life-writing: Gaskell's Life of Charlotte Brontë (1857) (the Branwell Brontë/Lady Scott adultery scandal), and Froude's allegations of impotence in his Life of Carlyle (1884). See Trev Broughton's ,Impotence, Biography, and the Froude-Carlyle Controversy: ,Revelations on Ticklish Topics', Journal of the History of Sexuality, 7.4 (Apr. 1997): 502,36 (in addition to her Men of Letters cited above). The biographies of the Benson family written about and by each other, especially E. F. Benson's Our Family Affairs 1867,1896 (London: Cassell, 1920) reveal the domestic unhappiness of the family of Gladstone's Archbishop of Canterbury, Edward White Benson, whose children and wife were all to some extent homosexual or lesbian. Another option would be Edmund Gosse's Father and Son (1907) in which the son's critical stance towards his father is uneasy and complex in its mixture of comedy, pity, shame, and resentment. Week 10 Diaries: Arthur Munby's and Hannah Cullwick's relationship (they were secretly married, but lived as master and servant) and diaries, Munby: Man of Two Worlds: The Life and Diaries of Arthur Munby, ed. Derek Hudson (John Murray, 1972), and The Diaries of Hannah Cullwick: Victorian Maidservant, ed. Liz Stanley (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1984): issues of gender and class identity; the idealization of the working woman; the two diaries compared. Half the class could read one diary and half the other and engage in a debate about the social and sexual fantasies adopted by each diarist. It would also be sensible to leave time for an overview debate about the key issues of Victorian life-writing which have emerged from this module, future directions for research, and current critical developments. Focus Questions 1To what extent does Victorian autobiography tell an individual success story? Discuss with reference to two or three contrasting examples. 2,All life writing is time writing' (Jens Brockmeier). Examine the way in which Victorian life-writers handle the interplay of narrative, memory, and time. 3To what extent do you agree with the view that Victorian life-writing was ,a form of communication that appeared intimate and confessional, but which was in fact distant and controlled' (Donna Loftus)? 4,Bamford was an autobiographer who did not write an autobiography' (Martin Hewitt). If autobiography is unshaped and uninterpreted, what alternative purposes does it have in narrating a life to the reader? 5,Victorian life-writing is essentially experimental, unstable, and unpredictable.' How helpful is this comment in helping you to understand the genre? [source]

    Recovering the Nation's Body: Cultural Memory, Medicine, and the Politics of Redemption

    Donald Joralemon
    Recovering the Nation's Body: Cultural Memory, Medicine, and the Politics of Redemption. Linda F. Hogle. New Brunswick, NJ; Rutgers University Press, 1999. xiv. 242 pp. [source]

    To end and prevent wars between states: Negotiate, don't litigate

    Linda Stamato
    Linda Stamato and Sanford M. Jaffe, of New Brunswick, N.J., discuss recent U.S. Supreme Court original jurisdiction cases that have ended poorly after voluminous litigation. They urge the National Governors Association to step in to help resolve the modern day wars between the states. [source]