Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Brightness

  • high brightness
  • maximum brightness
  • surface brightness

  • Terms modified by Brightness

  • brightness profile
  • brightness temperature

  • Selected Abstracts

    Fokussierung von High-Brightness-Lasern , Neue High-Power-Laser erfordern neue Optiken

    Björn Wedel Dr.
    Der Faserlaser und auch der Scheibenlaser sind Laser mit einer sehr hohen Brightness (Brillianz). Ihre Ausgangsleistungen gehen derzeit bis etwa 30 kW, wobei 5,8 kW durchaus schon als typisch gelten. Kennzeichnend sind sehr gute Strahlqualitäten, die bis in den Kilowatt-Bereich beugungsbegrenzt sind, bzw. bei Leistungen von 20 kW noch bei 10 bis 20 mm*mrad liegen. [source]

    FACS-Based Selection of Tandem Tetracysteine Peptides with Improved ReAsH Brightness in Live Cells

    CHEMBIOCHEM, Issue 4 2010
    Schuyler B. Van Engelenburg
    Reintroducing ReAsH: Three tandem tetracysteine motifs were optimized for higher-order biarsenical fluorophore binding and enhanced brightness. FACS-based in vivo selections of peptide linkers uncovered new 3×tetracysteine motifs with ,2.5-fold increased brightness in vitro and ,twofold increased brightness in live cells. [source]

    TouchTone: Interactive Local Image Adjustment Using Point-and-Swipe

    Chia-Kai Liang
    Recent proliferation of camera phones, photo sharing and social network services has significantly changed how we process our photos. Instead of going through the traditional download-edit-share cycle using desktop editors, an increasing number of photos are taken with camera phones and published through cellular networks. The immediacy of the sharing process means that on-device image editing, if needed, should be quick and intuitive. However, due to the limited computational resources and vastly different user interaction model on small screens, most traditional local selection methods can not be directly adapted to mobile devices. To address this issue, we present TouchTone, a new method for edge-aware image adjustment using simple finger gestures. Our method enables users to select regions within the image and adjust their corresponding photographic attributes simultaneously through a simple point-and-swipe interaction. To enable fast interaction, we develop a memory- and computation-efficient algorithm which samples a collection of 1D paths from the image, computes the adjustment solution along these paths, and interpolates the solutions to entire image through bilateral filtering. Our system is intuitive to use, and can support several local editing tasks, such as brightness, contrast, and color balance adjustments, within a minute on a mobile device. [source]

    Adaptive Logarithmic Mapping For Displaying High Contrast Scenes

    F. Drago
    We propose a fast, high quality tone mapping technique to display high contrast images on devices with limited dynamicrange of luminance values. The method is based on logarithmic compression of luminance values, imitatingthe human response to light. A bias power function is introduced to adaptively vary logarithmic bases, resultingin good preservation of details and contrast. To improve contrast in dark areas, changes to the gamma correctionprocedure are proposed. Our adaptive logarithmic mapping technique is capable of producing perceptually tunedimages with high dynamic content and works at interactive speed. We demonstrate a successful application of ourtone mapping technique with a high dynamic range video player enabling to adjust optimal viewing conditions forany kind of display while taking into account user preference concerning brightness, contrast compression, anddetail reproduction. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.3 [Image Processing and Computer Vision]: Image Representation [source]

    Parallel four-dimensional Haralick texture analysis for disk-resident image datasets

    Brent Woods
    Abstract Texture analysis is one possible method of detecting features in biomedical images. During texture analysis, texture-related information is found by examining local variations in image brightness. Four-dimensional (4D) Haralick texture analysis is a method that extracts local variations along space and time dimensions and represents them as a collection of 14 statistical parameters. However, application of the 4D Haralick method on large time-dependent image datasets is hindered by data retrieval, computation, and memory requirements. This paper describes a parallel implementation using a distributed component-based framework of 4D Haralick texture analysis on PC clusters. The experimental performance results show that good performance can be achieved for this application via combined use of task- and data-parallelism. In addition, we show that our 4D texture analysis implementation can be used to classify imaged tissues. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Ontogenetic differences in the expression of conditioned visual aversions

    Joyce A. Jagielo
    Abstract We examined ontogenetic differences in the expression of conditioned visual aversions. Sprague-Dawley-derived rats, 16 or 21 days of age, were conditioned with either an element (brightness) or compound (brightness/odor) CS+ and tested for their aversion to the common element (brightness). Aversions to the brightness cue were assessed by either a traditional test of preference between the CS+ brightness and a contrasting brightness or by assessment of freezing in the presence of either brightness cue. The results indicated that strength of conditioning as well as the expression of overshadowing/potentiation was dependent on the age of the animal and on the technique used to assess conditioning. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 42: 123,130, 2003 [source]

    Number sense in human infants

    Fei Xu
    Four experiments used a preferential looking method to investigate 6-month-old infants' capacity to represent numerosity in visual-spatial displays. Building on previous findings that such infants discriminate between arrays of eight versus 16 discs, but not eight versus 12 discs (Xu & Spelke, 2000), Experiments 1 and 2 investigated whether infants' numerosity discrimination depends on the ratio of the two set sizes with even larger numerosities. Infants successfully discriminated between arrays of 16 versus 32 discs, but not 16 versus 24 discs, providing evidence that their discrimination shows the set-size ratio signature of numerosity discrimination in human adults, children and many non-human animals. Experiments 3 and 4 addressed a controversy concerning infants' ability to discriminate large numerosities (observed under conditions that control for total filled area, array size and density, item size and correlated properties such as brightness: Brannon, 2002; Xu, 2003b; Xu & Spelke, 2000) versus small numerosities (not observed under conditions that control for total contour length: Clearfield & Mix, 1999). To investigate the sources of these differing findings, Experiment 3 tested infants' large-number discrimination with controls for contour length, and Experiment 4 tested small-number discrimination with controls for total filled area. Infants successfully discriminated the large-number displays but showed no evidence of discriminating the small-number displays. These findings provide evidence that infants have robust abilities to represent large numerosities. In contrast, infants may fail to represent small numerosities in visual-spatial arrays with continuous quantity controls, consistent with the thesis that separate systems serve to represent large versus small numerosities. [source]

    Eyes and vision in Arion rufus and Deroceras agreste (Mollusca; Gastropoda; Pulmonata): What role does photoreception play in the orientation of these terrestrial slugs?

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2 2009
    Marina V. Zieger
    Abstract This paper deals with the orientational behaviour in the two terrestrial slugs Arion rufus and Deroceras agreste. It presents anatomical details of their eyes and provides an appraisal of the eyes' optical system. In both species the retinae contain two principal types of cell: photoreceptive and pigmented supportive cells. While only the eye of A. rufus apparently contains neurosecretory neurones, that of D. agreste is the only one equipped with a small additional retina with its own separate lens. Lens shapes vary between ovoid (A. rufus) and spherical (D. agreste). Our results demonstrate that the camera-type eyes in A. rufus and D. agreste have optical systems that do not allow the production of a sharp image on the retina. The slugs demonstrate negative visually mediated phototactic behaviour, but no polarization sensitivity. Only one aspect of the visual environment, namely the overall distribution of light and dark, seems to be important for these slugs. As the main role of the slugs' photoreceptors is to monitor environmental brightness and to assist the animal in orientating towards dark places, we conclude that these slugs do not need to perceive sharp images. [source]

    Influence of ambient light on the evolution of colour signals: comparative analysis of a Neotropical rainforest bird community

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 4 2004
    Doris Gomez
    Abstract Rainforests offer two contrasted light environments: a bright canopy rich in blue and UV and a dark understorey, rich in green and orange. Therefore, natural selection for crypsis should favour dark brown signals in understorey and bright green signals in canopy, whereas sexual selection for conspicuousness should favour bright yellow-red signals in understorey and dark blue and UV signals in canopy. Using spectrometry and comparative analyses, we examined the relationship between ambient light and colour signals in a bird community of French Guiana. It appears that brightness and hue are mostly naturally selected, while UV content of plumage is more likely sexually selected. At each height, both sexes present similar coloration but males display more conspicuous sexually selected patterns than females. These results show that ambient light drives the evolution of colour signals at community scale, and should be considered when studying signalling in other communities and light-contrasted ecosystems. [source]

    Egg Colour Covaries with Female Expression of a Male Ornament in the Spotless Starling (Sturnus unicolor)

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 10 2007
    Isabel López-Rull
    The sexually selected egg colour hypothesis (SSECH) proposes that egg colouration is as a post-mating sexually selected signal of female phenotypic quality, maintained by a higher allocation of paternal care. Similarly, some female traits can reflect genetic quality or condition and males could use this information in mate choice or in modulating parental investment. In our study, we examined the correlation of individual variation in egg colouration with female expression of a male ornament and how male feeding covaried with these two female traits in the spotless starling, in which egg colour varies widely between clutches and where both sexes possess showy throat feathers that are age dependent and that may signal individual quality. According to the SSECH, high-quality females (females with longer throat feathers) are expected to lay more colourful eggs than low-quality females and males should modify their feeding behaviour accordingly. By means of a principal component analysis, we found that most of the variation in egg colouration was due to brightness differences, and in a lower proportion to chromatic variation. Chromatic variation reflected a ultraviolet (UV) vs. greenness trade-off and was positively associated with throat feather length: females with larger throat feathers laid eggs with higher UV and lower green reflectance. However, egg brightness was not related to female feather length, as the SSECH would predict. Male feedings were positively related to female throat feather length and negatively related to chromatic variation, meaning that males contributed more to nests of females with long throat feathers who laid eggs with higher UV and lower green reflectance. In conclusion, our data provide mixed support for the SSECH: although egg chromatic variation was related to female expression of a male ornament and male parental care, we found no evidence that egg brightness was involved in these processes. [source]

    The Importance of Visual Cues for Nocturnal Species: Eagle Owl Fledglings Signal with White Mouth Feathers

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 10 2007
    Vincenzo Penteriani
    Complex begging display by bird offspring has predominantly been investigated in diurnal species, which have conspicuous gape colours or plumage features. In nocturnal species, in contrast, such visual communication has received little attention because the assumption is that they exclusively rely on vocal communication. Here, we use a field experiment to investigate whether eagle owls, Bubo bubo, communicate through visual signals at night. We artificially decreased the brightness of the white feathers surrounding fledgling eagle owls' mouths during the post-fledging dependence period, and investigated the effect of this treatment by comparing the condition of these birds to that of birds who received a control treatment. Several physiological parameters considered in our analyses indicate that control owlets were in better condition than owlets with brightness-reduced mouth feathers, which suggests that they received more or better food from feeding parents who discriminated between those young. Brightness-dependent reactions of parent owls suggest that visual signalling may be more widely employed than previously thought, and studying birds at night may reveal sophisticated strategies of animal communication. [source]

    Dominance, Status Signals and Coloration in Male Mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx)

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    Joanna M. Setchell
    Where individuals contest access to a resource, escalated physical fighting presents a risk to all involved. The requirement for mechanisms of conflict management has led to the evolution of a variety of decision rules and signals that act to reduce the frequency of aggression during competitive encounters. We examined strategies of conflict management in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) living in two semi-free-ranging groups in Gabon. Adult male mandrills are large (31 kg), with long canines, making the costs of conflict potentially very high. We found that males formed dominance hierarchies, but that male,male relationships were characterized by avoidance, appeasement and ignoring. Fights were rare, but could result in death. Examination of the relationship between dominance and signaling showed that males use facial and gestural signals to communicate dominance and subordinance, avoiding escalated conflict. Male mandrills also possess rank-dependent red coloration on the face, rump and genitalia, and we examined the hypothesis that this coloration acts as a ,badge of status', communicating male fighting ability to other males. If this is the case, then similarity in color should lead to higher dyadic rates of aggression, while males that differ markedly should resolve encounters quickly, with the paler individual retreating. Indeed, appeasement (the ,grin' display), threats, fights and tense ,stand-off' encounters were significantly more frequent between similarly colored males, while clear submission was more frequent where color differences were large. We conclude that male mandrills employ both formal behavioral indicators of dominance and of subordination, and may also use relative brightness of red coloration to facilitate the assessment of individual differences in fighting ability, thereby regulating the degree of costly, escalated conflict between well-armed males. [source]

    Quantifying dye tracers in soil profiles by image processing

    I. Forrer
    Summary Developing and testing models for solute transport in the field requires experimental data on the spreading of solutes in the soil. Obtaining such data is costly, and a substantial part of the total costs is in the preparation and chemical analysis of the tracing compounds in the gathered samples. We developed a cheap method to quantify the concentration of the mobile dye tracer Brilliant Blue FCF from digitized photographs of stained soil profiles, and we have tested it in the field. Soil sampling and chemical analyses were necessary only to establish a calibration relation between the dye content and the colour of the soil. The digital images were corrected for geometrical distortions, varying background brightness, and colour tinges, and then they were analysed to determine the soil colour at sampling points in the profiles. The resident concentration of the dye was modelled by polynomial regression with the primary colours red, green, blue and the soil depth as explanatory variables. Concentration maps of Brilliant Blue were then computed from the digitized images with a spatial resolution of 1 mm. Validation of the technique with independent data showed that the method predicted the concentration of the dye well, provided the corrected images contained only the colours included in the calibration. [source]

    Colours and Metallic Sheen in Beetle Shells , A Biomimetic Search for Material Structuring Principles Causing Light Interference,

    T. Lenau
    Abstract Visual aesthetic has always played a vital role for the success of many products. This includes colours and glossiness and metal appearance which is often achieved using surface coatings. Present coating techniques do, however, have limitations. It is difficult to reach very bright and brilliant colours, colours tend to fade over time and many of the materials and coating technologies pollute and have other environmental problems. Beetles in nature have many of the desired properties: They have appealing brilliant colours and some even with metallic appearance. It is noticeable that the colours are long lasting as some of the beetles we have studied at the zoological museum are more than 200 years old and have colours and brightness as if they were still alive. Furthermore, the beetles in nature are part of sustainable ecosystems, which means that they are made from renewable materials that are broken down and recycled when the beetle dies. Beetles also possess another and very attractive property: Their metallic look originates from structures in organic materials which is both electrically and thermal insulating. The industrial perspective is to be able to manufacture products with attractive metallic surfaces that do not feel so cold to touch as their metallic counterparts and that do not represent an electrical shock hazard. [source]

    An Alternative Approach to Constructing Solution Processable Multifunctional Materials: Their Structure, Properties, and Application in High-Performance Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Shanghui Ye
    Abstract A new series of full hydrocarbons, namely 4,4,-(9,9,-(1,3-phenylene)bis(9H -fluorene-9,9-diyl))bis(N,N -diphenylaniline) (DTPAFB), N,N,-(4,4,-(9,9,-(1,3-phenylene)bis(9H -fluorene-9,9-diyl))bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(N -phenylnaphthalen-1-amine) (DNPAFB), 1,3-bis(9-(4-(9H -carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-9H -fluoren-9-yl)benzene, and 1,3-bis(9-(4-(3,6-di- tert -butyl-9H -carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-9H -fluoren-9-yl)benzene, featuring a highly twisted tetrahedral conformation, are designed and synthesized. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) comprising DNPAFB and DTPAFB as hole transporting layers and tris(quinolin-8-yloxy)aluminum as an emitter are made either by vacuum deposition or by solution processing, and show much higher maximum efficiencies than the commonly used N,N,-di(naphthalen-1-yl)- N,N,-diphenylbiphenyl-4,4,-diamine device (3.6 cd A,1) of 7.0 cd A,1 and 6.9 cd A,1, respectively. In addition, the solution processed blue phosphorescent OLEDs employing the synthesized materials as hosts and iridium (III) bis[(4,6-di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N, C2] picolinate (FIrpic) phosphor as an emitter present exciting results. For example, the DTPAFB device exhibits a brightness of 47 902 cd m,2, a maximum luminescent efficiency of 24.3 cd A,1, and a power efficiency of 13.0 lm W,1. These results show that the devices are among the best solution processable blue phosphorescent OLEDs based on small molecules. Moreover, a new approach to constructing solution processable small molecules is proposed based on rigid and bulky fluorene and carbazole moieties combined in a highly twisted configuration, resulting in excellent solubility as well as chemical miscibility, without the need to introduce any solubilizing group such as an alkyl or alkoxy chain. [source]

    High-Performance All-Polymer White-Light-Emitting Diodes Using Polyfluorene Containing Phosphonate Groups as an Efficient Electron-Injection Layer

    Baohua Zhang
    Abstract We report an efficient non-doped all-polymer polymer white-light-emitting diode (PWLED) with a fluorescent three-color, white single polymer as an emissive layer, an ethanol-soluble phosphonate-functionalized polyfluorene (PF-EP) as an electron-injection/electron-transport layer, and LiF/Al as a cathode, respectively. The all-polymer PWLED achieves a peak external quantum efficiency of 6.7%, a forward viewing luminous efficiency of 15.4 cd A,1 and a power efficiency of 11.4 lm W,1, respectively, at a brightness of 347 cd m,2 with Commission Internationale d'Eclairage coordinates of (0.37, 0.42) and color rendering index of 85, which is the best results among the non-doped PWLEDs. Moreover, this kind of PWLED not only shows excellent color stability, but also achieves high brightness at low voltages. The brightness reaches 1000, 10000, and 46830 cd m,2 at voltages of 4.5, 5.4, and 7.5 V, respectively. The significant enhancement of white-single-polymer-based PWLEDs with PF-EP/LiF/Al to replace for the commonly used Ca/Al cathode is attributed to the more efficient electron injection at PF-EP/LiF/Al interfaces, and the coordinated protecting effect of PF-EP from diffusion of Al atoms into the emissive layer and exciton-quenching near cathode interfaces. The developed highly efficient non-doped all-polymer PWLEDs are well suitable for solution-processing technology and provide a huge potential of low-cost large-area manufacturing for PWLEDs. [source]

    Nanoarrays: Cooperative Near-Field Surface Plasmon Enhanced Quantum Dot Nanoarrays (Adv. Funct.

    Abstract Fluorescence from quantum dots (QDs) sandwiched between colloidal gold nanoparticles and lithographically created metal nanoarrays is studied using engineered peptides as binding agents. For optimized structures, a 15-fold increase is observed in the brightness of the QDs due to plasmon-enhanced fluorescence. This enhanced brightness is achieved by systematically tuning the vertical distance of the QD from the gold nanoparticles using solid-specific peptide linkers and by optimizing the localized surface plasmon resonance by varying the geometric arrangement of the patterned gold nanoarray. The size and pitch of the patterned array affect the observed enhancement, and sandwiching the QDs between the patterned features and colloidal gold nanoparticles yields even larger enhancements due to the increase in local electromagnetic hot spots induced by the increased surface roughness. The use of bifunctional biomolecular linkers to control the formation of hot spots in sandwich structures provides new ways to fabricate hybrid nanomaterials of architecturally induced functionality for biotechnology and photonics. [source]

    Cooperative Near-Field Surface Plasmon Enhanced Quantum Dot Nanoarrays

    Kirsty Leong
    Abstract Fluorescence from quantum dots (QDs) sandwiched between colloidal gold nanoparticles and lithographically created metal nanoarrays is studied using engineered peptides as binding agents. For optimized structures, a 15-fold increase is observed in the brightness of the QDs due to plasmon-enhanced fluorescence. This enhanced brightness is achieved by systematically tuning the vertical distance of the QD from the gold nanoparticles using solid-specific peptide linkers and by optimizing the localized surface plasmon resonance by varying the geometric arrangement of the patterned gold nanoarray. The size and pitch of the patterned array affect the observed enhancement, and sandwiching the QDs between the patterned features and colloidal gold nanoparticles yields even larger enhancements due to the increase in local electromagnetic hot spots induced by the increased surface roughness. The use of bifunctional biomolecular linkers to control the formation of hot spots in sandwich structures provides new ways to fabricate hybrid nanomaterials of architecturally induced functionality for biotechnology and photonics. [source]

    How can dragonflies discern bright and dark waters from a distance?

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 9 2002
    The degree of polarisation of reflected light as a possible cue for dragonfly habitat selection
    SUMMARY 1.,Based on the findings that some dragonflies prefer either ,dark' or ,bright' water (as perceived by the human eye viewing downwards perpendicularly to the water surface), while others choose both types of water bodies in which to lay their eggs, the question arises: How can dragonflies distinguish a bright from a dark pond from far away, before they get sufficiently close to see it is bright or dark? 2.,Our hypothesis is that certain dragonfly species may select their preferred breeding sites from a distance on the basis of the polarisation of reflected light. Is it that waters viewed from a distance can be classified on the basis of the polarisation of reflected light? 3.,Therefore we measured, at an angle of view of 20° from the horizontal, the reflection-polarisation characteristics of several ponds differing in brightness and in their dragonfly fauna. 4.,We show that from a distance, at which the angle of view is 20° from the horizontal, dark water bodies cannot be distinguished from bright ones on the basis of the intensity or the angle of polarisation of reflected light. At a similar angle of view, however, dark waters reflect light with a significantly higher degree of linear polarisation than bright waters in any range of the spectrum and in any direction of view with respect to the sun. 5.,Thus, the degree of polarisation of reflected light may be a visual cue for the polarisation-sensitive dragonflies to distinguish dark and bright water bodies from far away. Future experimental studies should prove if dragonflies do indeed use this cue for habitat selection. [source]

    Carotenoid and melanin-based ornaments signal similar aspects of male quality in two populations of the common yellowthroat

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Peter O. Dunn
    Summary 1.,Female preferences for particular male ornaments may shift between populations as a consequence of ecological differences that change the reliability and detectability of the ornament, but few studies have examined how ornaments function in different populations. 2.,We examined the signalling function of male plumage ornaments in a warbler, the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), breeding in New York (NY) and Wisconsin (WI), USA. Males have two prominent ornaments: a black facial mask pigmented with melanin and a yellow bib pigmented by carotenoids. Previous studies in WI indicate that the size of the mask, and not the bib, is primarily related to female choice and male reproductive success. In NY, however, the pattern is reversed and attributes of the bib (size and colour), and not the mask, are the target of sexual selection. 3.,We found that brightness of the yellow bib was the best signal of humoral immunity (immunoglobulin G) in NY and mask size was the best signal in WI, after controlling for breeding experience and capture date. Thus, similar aspects of male quality appeared to be signalled by different ornaments in different populations. 4.,There was no difference between populations in the level of plasma carotenoids or the prevalence of malarial parasites, which may affect the costs and benefits of choosing males with particular ornaments in each location. 5.,Even though females in different populations prefer different ornaments produced by different types of pigments, these ornaments appear to be signalling similar aspects of male quality. Our results caution against inferring the function of particular ornaments based simply on their type of pigment. [source]

    How feather colour reflects its carotenoid content

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Lauri Saks
    Summary 1Many birds sequester carotenoid pigments in colourful patches of feathers to advertise or compete for mates. Because carotenoids can be scarce in nature and serve valuable physiological functions, only the highest-quality individuals are thought to acquire or allocate more pigments for use in sexual displays. 2A critical but rarely tested assumption of carotenoid-based signals is that the colour of pigmented feather patches directly reveals the total amount of carotenoids contained within them. 3We studied the relationship between carotenoid-based coloration (hue, chroma and brightness) and the pigment content of tail feathers in wild-caught and captive male greenfinches (Carduelis chloris[Linnaeus]). Greenfinches incorporate two main carotenoids , canary xanthophylls A and B , into feathers to develop yellow patches of colour in their tail. 4Variation in feather carotenoid content explained 32,51% of variation in chroma and hue of the yellow parts of tail feathers, while feather brightness was not significantly related to carotenoid concentration. Hence, chroma and hue appear good candidates to indicate feather carotenoid content. 5Birds with the most colourful feathers deposited significantly more of both canary xanthophylls into plumage. Thus, there does not appear to be a specific biochemical strategy for becoming colourful in greenfinches; males instead follow the general decision rule to deposit as many xanthophylls as possible into feathers to become yellow. [source]

    Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells: The Design and Realization of Flexible, Long-Lived Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells (Adv. Funct.

    A highly functional flexible light-emitting electrochemical cell during operation is depicted in this cover image. By optimizing the composition of the active material and by employing an appropriate operation protocol, as described by Fang et al. on page 2671, more than one month of uninterrupted operation at significant brightness (>100 cd,2 ) and relatively high power conversion efficiency (2 lm W,1 for orange-red emission) is realized. [source]

    The Design and Realization of Flexible, Long-Lived Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells

    Junfeng Fang
    Abstract Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) offer an attractive opportunity for low-cost production of functional devices in flexible and large-area configurations, but the critical drawback in comparison to competing light-emission technologies is a limited operational lifetime. Here, it is demonstrated that it is possible to improve the lifetime by straightforward and motivated means from a typical value of a few hours to more than one month of uninterrupted operation at significant brightness (>100,cd m,2) and relatively high power conversion efficiency (2 lm W,1 for orange-red emission). Specifically, by optimizing the composition of the active material and by employing an appropriate operational protocol, a desired doping structure is designed and detrimental chemical and electrochemical side reactions are identified and minimized. Moreover, the first functional flexible LEC with a similar promising device performance is demonstrated. [source]

    Ionic Iridium(III) Complexes with Bulky Side Groups for Use in Light Emitting Cells: Reduction of Concentration Quenching

    Carsten Rothe
    Abstract Here, the photophysics and performance of single-layer light emitting cells (LECs) based on a series of ionic cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes of formulae and where ppy, bpy, and phen are 2-phenylpyridine, substituted bipyridine and substituted phenanthroline ligands, respectively, are reported. Substitution at the N,N ligand has little effect on the emitting metal-ligand to ligand charge-transfer (MLLCT) states and functionalization at this site of the complex leads to only modest changes in emission color. For the more bulky complexes the increase in intermolecular separation leads to reduced exciton migration, which in turn, by suppressing concentration quenching, significantly increases the lifetime of the excited state. On the other hand, the larger intermolecular separation induced by bulky ligands reduces the charge carrier mobility of the materials, which means that higher bias fields are needed to drive the diodes. A brightness of ca. 1000,cd,m,2 at 3,V is obtained for complex 5, which demonstrates a beneficial effect of bulky substituents. [source]

    New Approach Toward Fast Response Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells Based on Neutral Iridium Complexes via Cation Transport

    Tae-Hyuk Kwon
    Abstract Here, a new method is presented to increase the turn-on time and stability of light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs). To this end, a neutral iridium complex (5) containing a pendant Na+ ion that is generally known to have a faster mobility in the solid film than bulky anions is introduced, instead of the classic ionic transition metal complex (iTMC) with counter anion (7). Synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical studies of these complexes are reported. In the device configuration of ITO/5 or 7+PEO (polyethylene oxide) (100,110,nm)/Au, as the voltage increases, complex 5 emits red light at ,3.6,V while complex 7 appears at ,5.6,V, although their electrochemical and photophysical gap are similar. Furthermore, at constant voltage, ,3,V, the turn-on time of complex 5 was less than 0.5,min, which is a 60-fold faster turn-on time compared to the iTMC (7) with PF6,. These results are presumably due to the faster delivery of the Na+ ions to the electrode compared to PF6, ions. Also, the device lifetime of complex 5 exhibits a six-fold increase in stability and a three-fold shorter time to reach maximum brightness at constant bias compared to the device made with complex 7. [source]

    Exploiting a Dual-Fluorescence Process in Fluorene,Dibenzothiophene- S,S -dioxideCo-Polymers to Give Efficient Single Polymer LEDs with Broadened Emission

    Simon M. King
    Abstract A description of the synthesis of random (9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diyl),(dibenzothiophene- S,S -dioxide-3,7-diyl) co-polymers (p(F-S)x) by palladium-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling polymerization where the feed ratio of the latter is varied from 2 to 30,mol % (i.e., x,=,2,30) is given. Polymer light emitting devices are fabricated with the configuration indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonic acid)/p(F,S)x/Ba/Al. The device external quantum efficiency increased as the ratio of the S co-monomer was increased, up to a maximum of 1.3% at 100,mA cm,2 for p(F-S)30 and a brightness of 3 770,cd m,2 (at 10,V). The S units impart improved electron injection, more balanced mobilities, and markedly improved device performance compared to poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) under similar conditions. These co-polymers display broad emission, observed as greenish-white light, which arises from dual fluorescence, viz. both local excited states and charge transfer states. Utilizing dual emission can reduce problems associated with Förster energy transfer from high-energy to-low energy excited states. [source]

    Highly Efficient Hole Injection Using Polymeric Anode Materials for Small-Molecule Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Kaushik Roy Choudhury
    Abstract A novel, highly efficient hole injection material based on a conducting polymer polythienothiophene (PTT) doped with poly(perfluoroethylene-perfluoroethersulfonic acid) (PFFSA) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is demonstrated. Both current,voltage and dark-injection-current transient data of hole-only devices demonstrate high hole-injection efficiency employing PTT:PFFSA polymers with different organic charge-transporting materials used in fluorescent and phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes. It is further demonstrated that PTT:PFFSA polymer formulations applied as the hole injection layer (HIL) in OLEDs reduce operating voltages and increase brightness significantly. Hole injection from PTT:PFFSA is found to be much more efficient than from typical small molecule HILs such as copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) or polymer HILs such as polyethylene dioxythiophene: polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT-PSS). OLED devices employing PTT:PFFSA polymer also demonstrate significantly longer lifetime and more stable operating voltages compared to devices using CuPc. [source]

    Solution-Processible Phosphorescent Blue Dendrimers Based on Biphenyl-Dendrons and Fac -tris(phenyltriazolyl)iridium(III) Cores,

    Shih-Chun Lo
    Abstract Solution-processible saturated blue phosphorescence is an important goal for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Fac -tris(5-aryltriazolyl)iridium(III) complexes can emit blue phosphorescence at room temperature. Mono- and doubly dendronized fac -tris(1-methyl-5-phenyl-3- n -propyl-1H -[1,2,4]triazolyl)iridium(III) 1 and fac -tris{1-methyl-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-3- n -propyl-1H -[1,2,4]triazolyl}iridium(III) 4 with first generation biphenyl-based dendrons were prepared. The dendrimers emitted blue light at room temperature and could be solution processed to form thin films. The doubly dendronized 3 had a film photoluminescence quantum yield of 67% and Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.17, 0.33). OLEDs comprised of a neat film of dendrimer 3 and an electron transport layer achieved a brightness of 142,cd m,2 at 3.8,V with an external quantum efficiency of 7.9%, and CIE coordinates of (0.18, 0.35). Attachment of the fluorine atom to the emissive core had the effect of moving the luminescence to shorter wavelengths but also quenched the luminescence of the mono- and doubly dendronized dendrimers. [source]

    Electrophosphorescent Polyfluorenes Containing Osmium Complexes in the Conjugated Backbone,

    Chen-Han Chien
    Abstract Electrophosphorescent copolymers have been synthesized by covalent bonding of a red-emitting osmium complex Os(bpftz), which contains two 3-trifluoromethyl-5-(4- tert -butyl-2-pyridyl)triazolate (bpftz) cyclometalated ligands, into the backbone of a bipolar polyfluorene (PF) copolymer. Employing these copolymers, a highly efficient red polymer light-emitting diode has been realised that has an external quantum efficiency of 18.0%, a maximum brightness of 38,000,cd,m,2, and an emission centered at 618,nm. In addition, after incorporating appropriate amounts of green-emitting benzothiadiazole (BT) and the aforementioned Os(bpftz) into the bipolar PF, an efficient white-light electroluminescent polymer is obtained that displays simultaneous blue, green, and red emissions. [source]

    Rational Design of Chelating Phosphine Functionalized Os(II) Emitters and Fabrication of Orange Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Using Solution Process,

    M. Cheng
    Abstract A new series of charge neutral Os(II) pyridyl azolate complexes with either bis(diphenylphosphino)methane (dppm) or cis -1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethene (dppee) chelates were synthesized, and their structural, electrochemical, photophysical properties and thermodynamic relationship were established. For the dppm derivatives 3a and 4a, the pyridyl azolate chromophores adopt an eclipse orientation with both azolate segments aligned trans to each other, and with the pyridyl groups resided the sites that are opposite to the phosphorus atoms. In sharp contrast, the reactions with dppee ligand gave rise to the formation of two structural isomers for all three kind of azole chromophores, with both azolate or neutral heterocycles (i.e., pyridyl or isoquinolinyl fragments) located at the mutual trans -disposition around the Os metal (denoted as series of a and b complexes). These chelating phosphines Os(II) complexes show remarkably high thermal stability, among which and several exhibit nearly unitary phosphorescence yield in deaerated solution at RT. A polymer light-emitting device (PLED) prepared using 0.4 mol % of 5a as dopant in a blend of poly(vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and 30 wt % of 2- tert -butylphenyl-5-biphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD) exhibits yellow emission with brightness of 7208 cd m,2, an external quantum efficiency of 10.4 % and luminous efficiency of 36.1 cd A,1 at current density of 20 mA cm,2. Upon changing to 1.6 mol % of 6a, the result showed even better brightness of 9212 cd m,2, external quantum efficiency of 12.5 % and luminous efficiency of 46.1 cd A,1 at 20 mA cm,2, while the max. external quantum efficiency of both devices reaches as high as 11.7 % and 13.3 %, respectively. The high PL quantum efficiency, non-ionic nature, and short radiative lifetime are believed to be the determining factors for this unprecedented achievement. [source]