Brief Survey (brief + survey)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Eighteenth-Century Cartographic Studies: A Brief Survey

Adam Sills
Eighteenth-century cartographic studies is a interdisciplinary field that has been and continues to be shaped by the Foucauldian approach popularized by J. B. Harley, who argues for a decidedly political and ideological interpretation of the map and its history. Within this theoretical paradigm, the map is seen as a form of knowledge that facilitates the hegemonic and unilateral exercise of power, especially as it relates to the formation of the British nation-state and its colonies. Recent work, however, has called this approach to the history of cartography into question by arguing for a more expansive and pluralistic understanding of the map and its place within eighteenth-century British society. Works exploring the intersection of cartographic and literary studies have broadened the field by moving away from the previous model in which the map was seen only as an expression of British national and imperial power. [source]

Epidemiology of Down syndrome

Stephanie L. Sherman
Abstract Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur in ,1 in 732 infants in the United States, although there is some evidence that variability in prevalence of estimates exist among racial/ethnic groups. Progress has been made in characterizing the specific types of chromosome errors that lead to DS and in identifying associated factors that increase the risk of chromosome 21 malsegregation, i.e., advanced maternal age and recombination. Studies to examine the variability of the presence of specific DS-associated birth defects and medical conditions provide evidence for genetic and environmental modifiers. Here, we provide a brief survey of studies that address the current state of the field and suggest gaps in research that can soon be filled with new multidisciplinary approaches and technological advances. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2007;13:221,227. [source]

Differences between European and American IPO Markets

Jay R. Ritter
G24; G32; G14; G15 Abstract This brief survey discusses recent developments in the European initial public offering (IPO) market. The spectacular rise and fall of the Euro NM markets and the growth of bookbuilding as a procedure for pricing and allocating IPOs are two important patterns. Gross spreads are lower and less clustered than in the USA. Unlike the USA, some European IPOs, especially those in Germany, have when-issued trading prior to the final setting of the offer price. Current research includes empirical studies on the valuation of IPOs and both theoretical and empirical work on the determinants of short-run underpricing. [source]

Molecular biology of aromatic plants and spices.

A review.
Abstract In recent years, molecular tools have been used to help to elucidate some aspects of genetic diversity in aromatic species, the genetic relationships between different cultivars and comparisons of molecular marker analysis to the chemical composition of plants. In this review, an explanation of the most important techniques involving molecular markers is given. A literature survey on molecular markers is presented, with some examples from aromatic plants and spices. However, understanding what controls flavour and aroma production in plants is not an easy task to accomplish. Several aspects of plant secondary metabolism, in particular volatiles production in aromatic plants, are still unknown. The route from genomics to proteomics is not well documented, although some research with model plants has already been performed. To address the question of the synthesis of volatiles, two different approaches are possible and summarized in this review: first, the biochemical and genetic approach; and second, approaches involving functional genomics. Finally, a brief survey of bioinformatics resources is presented. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Protocols and techniques for a scalable atom,photon quantum network

L. Luo
Abstract Quantum networks based on atomic qubits and scattered photons provide a promising way to build a large-scale quantum information processor. We review quantum protocols for generating entanglement and operating gates between two distant atomic qubits, which can be used for constructing scalable atom,photon quantum networks. We emphasize the crucial role of collecting light from atomic qubits for large-scale networking and describe two techniques to enhance light collection using reflective optics or optical cavities. A brief survey of some applications for scalable and efficient atom,photon networks is also provided. [source]

The deterministic generation of photons by cavity quantum electrodynamics

H. Walther
Abstract The paper reviews the work on cavity quantum electrodynamics performed in our laboratory using the one-atom maser and the single ion trap laser. Furthermore a brief survey on other cavity quantum electrodynamic experiments using single atoms is given in order to show the large variety of problems which can be investigated with this kind of systems. [source]

Hypolithic Plants from Carruthers Peak, Snowy Mountains, New South Wales, Australia

Abstract Hypolithic plants, plants growing under rocks, have been found from a number of climatically extreme, mostly arid sites from the poles to the equator, but there are limited reports from temperate zones. A brief survey in the Kosciuszko Alpine Area of New South Wales, Australia, revealed four species of moss and one liverwort growing beneath diaphanous quartz pebbles in feldmark vegetation communities. The probable restricted nature of this phenomenon and the likely impact of global warming, tourists and recreation management activities raise concerns for its conservation. [source]

Development and Validation of the Headache Needs Assessment (HANA) Survey

HEADACHE, Issue 4 2001
Joyce A. Cramer BS
Objective.,To develop and validate a brief survey of migraine-related quality-of-life issues. The Headache Needs Assessment (HANA) questionnaire was designed to assess two dimensions of the chronic impact of migraine (frequency and bothersomeness). Methods.,Seven issues related to living with migraine were posed as ratings of frequency and bothersomeness. Validation studies were performed in a Web-based survey, a clinical trial responsiveness population, and a retest reliability population. Headache characteristics (eg, frequency, severity, and treatment), demographic information, and the Headache Disability Inventory were used for external validation. Results.,The HANA was completed in full by 994 adults in the Web survey, with a mean total score of 77.98 ± 40.49 (range, 7 to 175). There were no floor or ceiling effects. The HANA met the standards for validity with internal consistency reliability (Cronbach , = .92, eigenvalue for the single factor = 4.8, and test-retest reliability = 0.77). External validity showed a high correlation between HANA and Headache Disability Inventory total scores (0.73, P<.0001), and high correlations with disease and treatment characteristics. Conclusions.,These data demonstrate the psychometric properties of the HANA. The brief questionnaire may be a useful screening tool to evaluate the impact of migraine on individuals. The two-dimensional approach to patient-reported quality of life allows individuals to weight the impact of both frequency and bothersomeness of chronic migraines on multiple aspects of daily life. [source]

The Rise of World History Studies in Twentieth-Century China

Luo Xu
The essay is a brief survey of the rise of world history studies in China. It traces the origin of the political and academic interest in the world outside of China back to the mid-nineteenth century, and discusses the growth and changes in the institution, curriculum, and ideology in China's world history field in the twentieth century and the early years of the twenty-first century. The emphasis of the essay is on the development of world history studies during the six decades of the People's Republic of China after 1949, first under Soviet influence, and then under Western influence. It also addresses Chinese historians' persistent effort to search for their own identity and build a Chinese system of world history studies. [source]

The functions of I think in political discourse

Anne-Marie Simon-Vandenbergen
The expression I (don't) think has in recent years received a fair amount of attention from different viewpoints and in different linguistic frameworks. After a brief survey of the most important literature on the subject, this article examines the occurrence of I think in political discourse as compared with its use in informal conversation. On the basis of two samples of 100 instances each from casual conversations and radio political interviews, the expression is looked at from the points of view of syntax, intonation, the semantics of the proposition, collocation, and the wider context of the interaction taking place. It is shown that the expression has a complex of meanings which cannot simply be labelled ,uncertainty'or ,lack of commitment'. Depending on the context, it can signal a tentative attitude or authoritative deliberation. It is further argued that an understanding of the extralinguistic situation and the cultural meaning of the genre, including the power and status of interactants, is essential if one wishes to interpret the selection of I think in individual instances. [source]

The Contributions of Stewart Myers to the Theory and Practice of Corporate Finance,

Franklin Allen
In a 40-plus year career notable for path-breaking work on capital structure and innovations in capital budgeting and valuation, MIT finance professor Stewart Myers has had a remarkable influence on both the theory and practice of corporate finance. In this article, two of his former students, a colleague, and a co-author offer a brief survey of Professor Myers's accomplishments, along with an assessment of their relevance for the current financial environment. These contributions are seen as falling into three main categories: ,Work on "debt overhang" and the financial "pecking order" that not only provided plausible explanations for much corporate financing behavior, but can also be used to shed light on recent developments, including the reluctance of highly leveraged U.S. financial institutions to raise equity and the recent "mandatory" infusions of capital by the U.S. Treasury. ,Contributions to capital budgeting that complement and reinforce his research on capital structure. By providing a simple and intuitive way to capture the tax benefits of debt when capital structure changes over time, his adjusted present value (or APV) approach has not only become the standard in LBO and venture capital firms, but accomplishes in practice what theorists like M&M had urged finance practitioners to do some 30 years earlier: separate the real operating profitability of a company or project from the "second-order" effects of financing. And his real options valuation method, by recognizing the "option-like" character of many corporate assets, has provided not only a new way of valuing "growth" assets, but a method and, indeed, a language for bringing together the disciplines of corporate strategy and finance. ,Starting with work on estimating fair rates of return for public utilities, he has gone on to develop a cost-of-capital and capital allocation framework for insurance companies, as well as a persuasive explanation for why the rate-setting process for railroads in the U.S. and U.K. has created problems for those industries. [source]

Olive oil mill wastewater valorisation by fungi

Silvia Crognale
Abstract This paper presents a brief survey of studies conducted at the Laboratory of Applied and Environmental Microbiology of the University of Tuscia on the possible biotechnological valorisation of olive mill wastewater (OMW) using fungi. Besides being a serious environmental problem, OMW might be a possible resource owing to the presence of added value products (e.g. antioxidants) and of simple and complex sugars as a basis for fermentation processes. To this end the technical feasibility of various fungal fermentative processes either to obtain products of high added value or to improve its agronomic use has been assessed. With regard to the former aspect the following cases of study are described: production of enzymes, such as lipase by Candida cylindracea NRRL Y-17506, laccase and Mn-dependent peroxidase by Panus tigrinus CBS 577.79 and pectinases by Cryptococcus albidus var. albidus IMAT 4735, and exopolysaccharide production by Botryosphaeria rhodina DABAC-P82. As far as agronomic use of the waste is concerned, a process based on the acidogenic fungus Aspergillus niger NB2 and aimed at increasing the phosphorus content of OMW is also reported. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Forecasting with panel data,

Badi H. Baltagi
Abstract This paper gives a brief survey of forecasting with panel data. It begins with a simple error component regression model and surveys the best linear unbiased prediction under various assumptions of the disturbance term. This includes various ARMA models as well as spatial autoregressive models. The paper also surveys how these forecasts have been used in panel data applications, running horse races between heterogeneous and homogeneous panel data models using out-of-sample forecasts. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Naveen Kumar Sharma
Ongoing climatic changes coupled with various natural processes and the outcomes of human activities are not only loading the atmosphere with diverse kinds of biological particles but also changing their prevalence and spatial distribution. Despite having considerable ecological and economic significance, including their possible impact on human health, airborne algae are the least-studied organisms in both aerobiological and phycological studies. The present review has been written to bring together all available information, including a brief survey of the literature, the ecology of airborne algae, mechanisms involved in their aerosolization, the role of environmental factors in shaping the structure and composition of aero-algal flora, and other significant information associated with airborne algae. This review provides information on methodological approaches and related problems, along with suggestions for areas of future research on airborne algae. [source]

The Impact of Purchasing and Supply Management Activities on Corporate Success

Lisa M. Ellram
SUMMARY Purchasing and supply management (PSM) has gained a great deal of attention in recent years as both a source of cost savings (Ellram 1996) and a source of competitive advantage (Fine 1998). This article attempts to link PSM best practices to corporate success. The article begins with an introduction and a brief survey of the literature. The research method is presented, followed by a discussion of the hypotheses tested. Next, the results of the research are presented and discussed. The article concludes with managerial and research implications. [source]

The New Woman in the New Millennium: Recent Trends in Criticism of New Woman Fiction

Ann Heilmann
This essay offers an overview of the current state of criticism on New Woman fiction. Starting with a brief survey of the critical perspectives established in the last thirty years of the twentieth century, it moves to a more detailed discussion of three trends since the turn of the millennium. As I argue, critical literature since 2000 has explored the specifically ,feminine' aesthetic of New Woman writers, and scrutinized the racialist and imperialist roots of New Woman thought. The recent move away from an exclusive concentration on white Anglo-American New Women has allowed important new insights into the international, ethnically diverse aspects of this fin-de-siècle and early twentieth-century movement. [source]

Civilians Versus Police: Mediation Can Help to Bridge the Divide

Vivian Berger
The increasing frequency of notorious cases of conflicts between police officers and members of the general public (which in New York City has led to incidents of death, battery, and sexual assault) is cause for alarm. At the root of many police-community conflicts are an incomplete understanding of the work of the police, poor communication on the part of the police and the public, or simple misunderstanding. A number of communities, including New York City, are turning to mediation to provide a forum for the potential resolution of complaints made against police by citizens. After a brief survey of the work of such programs nationally, the author focuses on three New York cases in which she served as a mediator, using them to illustrate the pitfalls and special rewards of mediating in this context. The author believes that the mediation process itself can work in a transformative way, improving strained relations between police and the general population [source]

Recent advances in breast MRI and MRS

S. Sinha
Abstract Breast MRI is an area of intense research and is fast becoming an important tool for the diagnosis of breast cancer. This review covers recent advances in breast MRI, MRS, and image post-processing and analysis. Several studies have explored a multi-parametric approach to breast imaging that combines analysis of traditional contrast enhancement patterns and lesion architecture with novel methods such as diffusion, perfusion, and spectroscopy to increase the specificity of breast MRI studies. Diffusion-weighted MRI shows some potential for increasing the specificity of breast lesion diagnosis and is even more promise for monitoring early response to therapy. MRS also has great potential for increasing specificity and for therapeutic monitoring. A limited number of studies have evaluated perfusion imaging based on first-pass contrast bolus tracking, and these clearly identify that vascular indices have great potential to increase specificity. The review also covers the relatively new acquisition technique of MR elastography for breast lesion characterization. A brief survey of image processing algorithms tailored for breast MR, including registration of serial dynamic images, segmentation and extraction of morphological features of breast lesions, and contrast uptake modeling, is also included. Recent advances in MRI, MRS, and automated image analysis have increased the utility of breast MR in diagnosis, screening, management, and therapy monitoring of breast cancer. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

DISTINGUISHED SCHOLAR ARTICLE Rethinking women's sexual orientation: An interdisciplinary, relationship-focused approach

What leads some women to form romantic and sexual relationships with men, and other women to form intimate relationships with women? This article presents a new conceptual paradigm for understanding women's sexual orientation that is emerging from research in such diverse fields as social psychology, sex research, evolutionary psychology, attachment theory, and neuroscience. This approach acknowledges the potential plasticity of women's sexuality and the emphasis that women place on close relationships as a context for sexuality. Research also raises the possibility that for women the biological determinants of sexual desire, attraction, and attachment are not inherently linked to a partner's gender. This article begins with a brief survey of research on women's same-sex romantic and sexual relationships not only in the United States today but also in other cultures and historical periods. These and other findings are used to critique prevailing conceptual models of women's sexual orientation. Finally, key elements in an alternative paradigm are described. [source]

Swirl mat, and long discontinuous fiber mat,reinforced polypropylene composites,status and future trends

J. Karger-Kocsis
Polypropylene (PP) composites with glass and natural fiber mat reinforcement (GMT-PP and NMT-PP, respectively) are widely used in different applications, competing with metallic sheets and thermoset polymer composites. Their production occurs via melt impregnation, slurry deposition and various textile architecturing processes that lead to either consolidated or non-consolidated preforms. These preforms are then converted into final parts by hot pressing. The "traditional" GMT-PP composites are nowadays faced with a great challenge because of the introduction of long fiber reinforced thermoplastic (LFT) composites produced on- or off-line. This paper gives a brief survey on the manufacturing, processing, properties and application of GMT and GMT-like systems and it concludes by describing some of the future trends, especially in the fields of material and process developments. [source]

Interaction networks: Lessons from large-scale studies in yeast

Gerard Cagney
Abstract Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the simplest eukaryotic model organism and has made countless contributions to cell biology. The ease with which it can be genetically manipulated has made it a favourite organism among technologists for developing methods for large-scale analysis based on reverse genetics. Consequently, more genomewide datasets describing aspects of gene and protein biology are available for yeast than for any other organism. This has led to the pioneering of many computational analysis techniques using yeast data. Here, we make a brief survey of yeast physical and genetic interaction networks, highlighting major experimental and computational achievements first described in this organism. [source]

Different fragments, different vases: a Neoplatonic commentary on Benjamin's ,The Task of the Translator'

Ian Almond
This article re-examines a familiar essay of Benjamin's, ,The Task of the Translator', from a Neoplatonic point of view. Beginning with a brief survey of various other Neoplatonic moments in Benjamin's work (where a greater totality or wholeness is referred to), ,The Task of the Translator' is considered as a collection of metaphors on the act of translation , the translation as the ghost of the original, or its blossom, or its mantle. Drawing on varied examples from a diverse canon of Neoplatonists , Plotinus, Pseudo-Dionysius, Eckhart, Nicholas of Cusa, Ibn ,Arabi , the article shows not just how each of Benjamin's metaphors has an unexpectedly esoteric genealogy, but also how they conflict with one another to produce a surprisingly apophatic conclusion on the difficulty of translation. [source]

Children Who Commit Sexual Offences: Some Legal Anomalies and Practical Approaches to the Law

It provides a brief survey of the prevalence of sexual offences committed by children. It reviews some of the key legislation that deals with children who commit sexual offences with a particular focus on some of the anomalies contained within it. Drawing on the experience of the work of the Howard League's legal department, it identifies a systematic failure to deal with these children in a constructive way and suggests some ways in which the law can be used to improve the chances of effective rehabilitation for children who are convicted of sexual offences. [source]

Vasopressin receptor antagonists: pharmacological tools and potential therapeutic agents

J. O. Streefkerk
Summary 1 The present survey deals with the development and applications of non-peptidergic vasopressin receptor antagonists. 2 The existence of at least three vasopressin receptors (V1, V2 and V3 respectively) is firmly established. 3 V1 -receptors play a relevant role in the regulation of vascular tone, whereas V2 -receptors are known to mediate the antidiuretic activity of vasopressin at the level of the renal collecting ducts. The V3 -receptor appears to be involved in the release of the adreno-corticotropic hormone. 4 Vasopressin receptor antagonists which are peptides have been known for several decades, more recently, both V1 - and V2 -receptor blockers which are non-peptidergic have been introduced, as well as agents with affinity for both V1 - and V2 -receptor subtypes. A survey of these non-peptidergic antagonists is presented here. Such compounds are useful as pharmacological tools, and they can also be thought of as therapeutic agents as therapeutic agents in cardiovascular and renal diseases. 5 Selective V1 - and V2 -receptor antagonists were used to study the interaction between vasopressin receptors and sympathetic neurones. Depending on the experimental model used this interaction can occur at either the pre- or postsynaptic sites. In both cases predominantly V1 -receptors are involved. 6 A brief survey is given of the potential use of V-receptor antagonists in the drug therapy of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and other water retaining disorders, congestive heart failure and certain forms of hypertension (in particular in the Negroid hypertensive patients). [source]