Brief History (brief + history)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Selected Abstracts


James P. Wallace WRSGC Past Chairman - Treasurer

A Brief History of the University of California by Patricia A. Pelfrey


The Social Psychology of "Pseudoscience": A Brief History

The word ,pseudoscience' is a marker of changing worries about science and being a scientist. It played an important role in the philosophical debate on demarcating science from other activities, and was used in popular writings to distance science from cranky theories with scientific pretensions. These uses consolidated a comforting unity in science, a communal space from which pseudoscience is excluded, and the user's right to belong is asserted. The urgency of this process dwindled when attempts to find a formal demarcation petered out, and the growth of social constructionism denied science any special access to truth. The reaction to this led to the science wars, which ushered in a new anxiety in the use of ,pseudoscience', especially from the least secure branches. But recent writings on the disunity of science reveal how the sense of support drawn from it may be based on an illusion, creating a disunity of pseudoscience as well as of science. [source]

Editorial: A Brief History of JFS

Daryl Lund Editor in Chief
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Understanding Evil and Educating Heroes

Why do people do horrific things to one another? This article reviews two recent books that attempt to answer that question, Philip Zimbardo's The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil and Barbara Coloroso's Extraordinary Evil: A Brief History of Genocide. The author discusses the educational implications of these works and raises preliminary considerations for an education for heroism. [source]

A Brief History of the Edited Shakespearean Text

Gavin Paul
This essay won the 2005 Literature Compass Graduate Essay Prize, Shakespeare Section. This essay will involve a historical survey of the underlying theories and principles that have been instrumental in determining the formative scholarly editions of Shakespeare since the early eighteenth century. By examining representations of editorial practice , specifically representations as expressed in prefatory material as well as other editorial apparatuses such as notes and commentary in influential editions from Nicholas Rowe's (1709) through to those of the late twentieth century , this paper is aimed at providing a clear sense of the fundamental principles shaping the edited Shakespearean text. [source]

A Brief History of the American Economic Association

Michael A. Bernstein
The 20th -century American economics profession and its leading professional organization,the American Economic Association (AEA),were privileged and shaped by the federal government's need to direct resources and to call on experts. Bureaucratic tendencies to classify and count had an impact on the discipline's self-concept, the articulation of subdisciplines, and the establishment of multiple research agendas. They also powerfully framed the strategies for growth and development formulated and deployed by the AEA itself. A consensus of professional opinion and the standardization of curriculums emerged out of the involvement of economists and the AEA with governmental affairs. At the same time, such public engagement was fraught with risks and contradictions,posing challenges and difficulties with which the AEA and the profession would have to contend for decades to come. [source]

U.S. Environmentalism since 1945: A Brief History with Documents , Edited by Steven Stoll

THE HISTORIAN, Issue 2 2009
R. Douglas Hurt
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Introduction: A Brief History Of Capillaries And Some Examples Of Their Apparently Strange Behaviour

Ann L Baldwin
SUMMARY 1. Over the past decade, evidence has accumulated challenging the notion that the smallest blood vessels, the capillaries, are static, uniform, semipermeable pipes with no function except as a passive barrier marking the boundary between the vascular compartments from the tissue compartment. 2. Instead, capillaries are dynamic structures that participate in the active regulation of water, waste and nutrient exchange, the formation and destruction of exchange vessels and the sites for initiation of signals to regulate the flow of blood into the exchange vascular network. 3. The following papers will provide insight into the expanded appreciation of the varied nature of capillaries and how their functions are co-ordinated to achieve ,whole organ' exchange. [source]

Making History at the Frontier

Christina Wasson
This volume presents the stories of 11 women anthropologists whose career paths have successfully navigated the terrain of practice. Its overall goal is to help future generations of anthropologists who are initiating careers in practice, both women and men. Students in applied anthropology programs, and others considering careers in practice, are hungry for such information. A second goal is to highlight the contributions and concerns of women practitioners from the perspective of feminist anthropology. Three common threads run across the life histories of these authors: an integrated scholar-practitioner identity; improvisation; and a shared set of building blocks for constructing their lives. Brief histories of four forerunners are provided to provide historical depth. They illustrate the continuing importance of persistence and determination, as well as the possibility of having meaningful and satisfying careers by approaching life and work creatively in the face of various obstacles. [source]

Brief history of petrotectonic research on the Sanbagawa Belt, Japan

ISLAND ARC, Issue 4 2004
Shohei Banno
Abstract Petrological study of the Sanbagawa schists was initiated by B. Koto (1856,1935) and extensive petrographic works were performed by J. Suzuki (1896,1970) and Y. Horikosi (1905,1992), who studied in the Besshi area of central Shikoku. Petrological work based on the mineral facies concept of P. Eskola (1883,1964) was initiated in Japan in the 1950s by A. Miyashiro on the low pressure/temperature (P/T) Abukuma complex, and then by Y. Seki and S. Banno on the high P/T Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt. A unique inverted thermal structure was established by researchers in the 1970s. Therefore, mainly geological and petrographic features of the Sanbagawa Belt were established by the 1990s, and contemporary researchers are now testing the classical images using the new and quantitative viewpoints of geochronological, structural, tectonic, and thermal modeling. [source]

Research on color in architecture and environmental design: Brief history, current developments, and possible future,

José Luis Caivano
Abstract This article examines some of the outstanding contributions or points of interest in the research and application of color in architecture, from ancient times to the present. The discourses about color are classified by periods and according to the utterers: theoreticians or writers of architectural treatises, archeologists and historians of architecture, architects who have been relevant in professional practice, color theorists coming from the fields of architecture and design, and color researchers related to the International Color Association. As a conclusion, the main characteristics of these discourses about color are summarized, and a point is made about the use of instruments derived from color science in color design, implying that the evolution in the use of color in environmental design and the research in this field will increasingly rely on the interaction between scientists and designers. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 31, 350,363, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/col.20224 [source]


ABSTRACT This module will introduce you to the ethical concepts underlying applied ethical decision-making in the area of research involving human participants. We will also learn what the issues are that people involved in research on research ethics are concerned with. Ethics without an understanding of historical and legal context makes arguably little sense. It is for this reason that this module will begin with a brief history of research ethics and ends with a brief overview of the relevant national and international guidelines pertaining to ethical issues in research involving human participants. [source]

Critical period: A history of the transition from questions of when, to what, to how

George F. Michel
Abstract Although age appears to be the defining characteristic of the concept of critical period, central to its investigation is the recognition that there are specific events which must occur in a particular order for the typical development of certain characteristics to occur. A brief history of some research on critical periods reveals that our questions have shifted from those of: is there a critical period and, if so, when does it occur; to questions of what contributes to the criticality of the period; and finally to how is criticality controlled during development. Abandoning age as a defining component of development has permitted the discovery of exactly how previous and current events construct subsequent events in the process of development. The shifts in questions about critical periods mark an increasing sophistication in understanding how development can be controlled. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 46: 156,162, 2005. [source]

The Regulation of Telecommunications in the Czech Republic

Andrew Skudder
The rapid development of the telecommunications sector was to act as a catalyst for the general improvement of the entire national economy, whilst at the same time helping the country to meet its policy goal of creating the conditions precedent to its successful integration into the European Union. The purpose of this article is to trace the progress of the Czech telecommunications market to date and to assess the regulatory framework adopted by the Czech government in light of its stated policy goals. After giving a brief history of the development of the market and the corresponding development of a regulatory régime this article shall turn to examine the current legal position after the adoption of the recent Law on which came into force on 1 July 2000. As well as suggesting necessary modifications and amendments due to certain flaws or omissions in the Act, modifications arising from the adoption by the EU of its new regulatory framework for communications shall also be suggested. [source]

Towards a Semiology of the Periodic Review of UK Regulated Utilities

Stuart Cooper
This note explores the regulatory process of UK privatised utilities through the periodic review of prices. It provides a brief history of the privatisation programme in the UK and the theoretical arguments for the price-cap regulation that has been used. It argues that regulatory process appears to involve a covert dialogue and exchange of information between the regulator and regulated and also a second separate review process that consists of an overt dialogue. Using a semiotic analysis the authors suggest that the unfolding of each of these overt reviews follows a very similar pattern that is constantly being re-enacted. It is concluded that further research is required into the relative importance of the two separate review processes in the setting of the price-cap. [source]

Bank Capital Regulation in Contemporary Banking Theory: A Review of the Literature

João A. C. Santos
This paper reviews the theoretical literature on bank capital regulation and analyzes some of the approaches to redesigning the 1988 Basel Accord on capital standards. The paper starts with a review of the literature on the design of the financial system and the existence of banks. It proceeds with a presentation of the market failures that justify banking regulation and an analysis of the mechanisms that have been suggested to deal with these failures. The paper then reviews the theoretical literature on bank capital regulation. This is followed by a brief history of capital regulation since the 1988 Basel Capital Accord and a presentation of both the alternative approaches that have been put forward on setting capital standards and the Basel Committee's proposal for a new capital adequacy framework. [source]

On the Future of Reanimatology,

Peter Safar MD
Abstract: This article is adapted from a presentation given at the 1999 SAEM annual meeting by Dr. Peter Safar. Dr. Safar has been involved in resuscitation research for 44 years, and is a distinguished professor and past initiating chairman of the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh. He is the founder and director of the Safar Center for Resuscitation Research at the University of Pittsburgh, and has been the research mentor of many critical care and emergency medicine research fellows. Here he presents a brief history of past accomplishments, recent findings, and future potentials for resuscitation research. Additional advances in resuscitation, from acute terminal states and clinical death, will build upon the lessons learned from the history of reanimatology, including optimal delivery by emergency medical services of already documented cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation, basic-advanced,prolonged life support, and future scientific breakthroughs. Current controversies, such as how to best educate the public in life-supporting first aid, how to restore normotensive spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest, how to rapidly induce mild hypothermia for cerebral protection, and how to minimize secondary insult after cerebral ischemia, are discussed, and must be resolved if advances are to be made. Dr. Safar also summarizes future technologies already under preliminary investigation, such as ultra-advanced life support for reversing prolonged cardiac arrest, extending the "golden hour" of shock tolerance, and suspended animation for delayed resuscitation. [source]


Laurence Becker
ABSTRACT. Pressured by structural adjustment loan conditions, Côte d'Ivoire reduced state support for rice production and processing during the 1990s. In this article we examine how various actors in the rice commodity chain adapted to the macroeconomic reforms. Following a brief history of the rice sector, we present the results of fieldwork based on interviews conducted in 2002 of farmers, millers, traders, and workers in the state extension service and nongovernmental organizations. We found that, in the absence of state supports for farmers, private millers became the focal point of regional producer-processor rice networks. The four networks identified became the sole source of domestic commercial rice when the state removed subsidies for fertilizer and modern seeds, privatized extension, and liberalized prices and imports. To increase their role in the national rice supply, the rice networks may need support through microlending and a focus on niche markets. [source]

HSBC brings a business model of banking to the doorsteps of the poor

Pramod Marar
Tiny loans can make a huge difference, especially when coupled with financial literacy and capacity building. With a global commitment to sustainable business through financial inclusion, HSBC partners with microfinance institutions and other organizations to empower micro-entrepreneurs among India's rural poor, who in turn are changing lives, families, and entire communities. The authors provide an overview of HSBC Group's sustainability strategy, a brief history of microfinance in India, and HSBC in India's role in serving the microfinance industry. They also discuss the bank's multi-stakeholder initiatives for capacity building, which include two schools where rural women learn essential business and technical skills and financial literacy, and an environmental and social village-based initiative for water conservation and livelihood creation. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


ABSTRACT In responding to an essay by Marianne Hirsch and Leo Spitzer about photographs taken in the streets of Chernivitsi (Czernowitz) in the 1940s, and thus in the midst of the Holocaust, this paper seeks to link their concerns to a broader consideration of photography as a modern phenomenon. In the process, the paper provides a brief history of street photography, a genre virtually ignored in standard histories of the photographic medium. The author suggests that Hirsch and Spitzer's paper bravely reminds us that our fascination with photographs is based not on truth, but on a combination of desire (our own desire to transcend death) and faith (in photography's ability to deliver this end, in the face of all the evidence to the contrary). Their account of street photography in Czernowitz thereby amounts to an interpretation of photographs as dynamic modes of apprehension rather than as static objects from the past that veridically represent it. It is precisely this aspect of photographs that makes them such unusually complicated, ambiguous, and incongruous historical objects. [source]

Applications of electronic noses and tongues in food analysis

Anil K. Deisingh
Summary This review examines the applications of electronic noses and tongues in food analysis. A brief history of the development of sensors is included and this is illustrated by descriptions of the different types of sensors utilized in these devices. As pattern recognition techniques are widely used to analyse the data obtained from these multisensor arrays, a discussion of principal components analysis and artificial neural networks is essential. An introduction to the integration of electronic tongues and noses is also incorporated and the strengths and weaknesses of both are described. Applications described include identification and classification of flavour and aroma and other measurements of quality using the electronic nose. The uses of the electronic tongue in model analyses and other food, beverage and water monitoring applications are discussed. [source]

The French Riots: Questioning Spaces of Surveillance and Sovereignty

Susan Ossman
ABSTRACT This paper examines the riots in France in late 2005 in terms of how they lead to a reconceptualization of the spaces of danger, culture, territory, and sovereignty. It traces a brief history of danger zones and immigration, noting how these two terms have increasingly overlapped. We analyse key discursive formations - legal, political, social scientific, and media - whose explanation for the emergence of the "immigrant" delinquent is linked to what is identified as a culture of poverty. They provide a sustained examination of recent legal reforms of juvenile law as well as judicial practices within the juvenile justice system to show the systematic exclusionary practices of what is claimed to be a colour blind republican system. They reveal a consensus across the political spectrum and among police, prosecutors, investigating magistrates, and new security experts on the need to privilege accountability, restitution, and retribution in the treatment of juvenile offenders. We present evidence from interviews and ethnographic observation among youths of all backgrounds. Ironically, while the children of immigrants seek to claim a voice in the national community, their peers from more privileged social milieu express increasing distance from national concerns, seeking to lead lives as Europeans or global citizens. We end by arguing that this needs to be taken into account in any analysis of frustrated and disenfranchised suburban youths. A transnational or supra-national sociology that accounts for the itineraries of immigrants of all kinds must be developed. LES ÉMEUTES EN FRANCE: QU'EN EST-IL DES ESPACES DE SURVEILLANCE ET DE LA SOUVERAINETÉ? Les émeutes qui ont éclaté en France fin 2005 conduisent à une reconceptualisation des notions de danger, de culture, de territoire et de souveraineté. Cet article, qui présente un bref historique des zones de danger et de l'immigration, montre combien ces deux concepts ont tendance à se rejoindre. Nous analysons les principales formations discursives - juridique, politique, sociale, scientifique et médiatique - qui expliquent l'émergence du délinquant « immigré » en l'associant à ce qui est décrit comme une culture de la pauvreté. Elles nous offrent un examen soutenu des réformes récentes du droit des mineurs et des pratiques judiciaires au sein du système de justice des mineurs, et montrent les pratiques d'exclusion systématiques d'un système républicain prétendant ignorer les préjugés raciaux. Elles montrent que, d'un bout à l'autre de l'échiquier politique, dans la police, chez les procureurs, les juges d'instruction et les nouveaux spécialistes de la sécurité, il existe un consensus sur la nécessité de privilégier l'obligation de rendre des comptes, la réparation et le châtiment dans le traitement des mineurs délinquants. Nous étayons cet argument à partir d'entretiens et d'observations ethnographiques de jeunes de tous les milieux. De façon assez ironique, alors que les enfants d'immigrés veulent avoir leur mot à dire au sein de la communauté nationale, les enfants de milieux plus privilégiés se disent de moins en moins concernés par les préoccupations nationales et cherchent à mener une vie d'Européen ou de citoyen du monde. En conclusion, nous avançons que cette situation doit être prise en compte dans toute analyse des jeunes des banlieues frustrés et privés de droits. Une sociologie transnationale ou supranationale qui rendrait compte des itinéraires des immigrés, tous milieux sociaux confondus, serait une bonne chose. LAS REVUELTAS FRANCESAS: CUESTIONAMIENTO DE LOS ESPACIOS DE VIGILANCIA Y SOBERANÍA En este artículo se examinan las revueltas de Francia a finales de 2005 en la medida en que conducen a una reconceptualización de los espacios de peligro, cultura, territorio y soberanía. Se traza una breve historia de las zonas de peligro y de la inmigración, señalando a la atención cómo estos dos conceptos han ido solapándose crecientemente. Se analizan formaciones discursivas clave -jurídicas, políticas, propias de las ciencias sociales y mediáticas - cuyas explicaciones de la aparición del delincuente "inmigrante" se vinculan con lo que se ha descrito como una cultura de la pobreza. Se ofrece un examen sostenido de las recientes reformas jurídicas de las leyes sobre los menores, así como de las prácticas judiciales dentro del sistema de justicia de menores para mostrar las prácticas de exclusión sistemática de lo que se considera que es un sistema republicano daltónico. Se revela un consenso entre los políticos y entre la policía, los fiscales, los jueces de instrucción y los nuevos expertos en seguridad sobre la necesidad de dar prelación a la asunción de responsabilidades, la restitución y la retribución en el tratamiento de los menores delincuentes. Se presentan pruebas extraídas de entrevistas y de la observación etnográfica de los jóvenes de todos los ambientes. Irónicamente, mientras los hijos de inmigrantes tienden a reclamar una voz en la comunidad nacional, sus iguales de medios sociales más privilegiados expresan un creciente distanciamiento de las preocupaciones nacionales y prefieren vivir como europeos o ciudadanos del mundo. Se termina arguyendo que es preciso tener en cuenta este factor en cualquier análisis de los jóvenes frustrados y privados de voto que viven en los barrios periféricos. Será preciso desarrollar una sociología transnacional o supranacional que explique los itinerarios de todo tipo de inmigrantes. [source]

Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists and Molecular Biologists Incorporated (FAOBMB Inc.): A brief history

IUBMB LIFE, Issue 5-6 2006
Jisnuson Svasti
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Taking stock of naturalistic decision making

Raanan Lipshitz
Abstract We review the progress of naturalistic decision making (NDM) in the decade since the first conference on the subject in 1989. After setting out a brief history of NDM we identify its essential characteristics and consider five of its main contributions: recognition-primed decisions, coping with uncertainty, team decision making, decision errors, and methodology. NDM helped identify important areas of inquiry previously neglected (e.g. the use of expertise in sizing up situations and generating options), it introduced new models, conceptualizations, and methods, and recruited applied investigators into the field. Above all, NDM contributed a new perspective on how decisions (broadly defined as committing oneself to a certain course of action) are made. NDM still faces significant challenges, including improvement of the quantity and rigor of its empirical research, and confirming the validity of its prescriptive models. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Developing cultural competence in working with Korean immigrant families

Irene J. Kim
The authors provide an in-depth examination of the historical background, cultural values, family roles, and community contexts of Korean Americans as an aid to both researchers and clinicians in developing cultural competence with this particular group. First, the concept of cultural competence is defined. A brief history of Korean immigration patterns to the United States and demographic information about Korean Americans are reviewed. Second, Korean cultural values, family structure, and family roles are examined as they impact relationships in research and clinical contexts. Three indigenous concepts (cf. L. Kim, 1992) that may be useful in developing cultural competence include haan (suppressed anger), jeong (strong feeling of kinship), and noon-chi (ability to evaluate social situations through implicit cues). Clinical case examples and accounts from a community-based research perspective illustrate these cultural values. Third, important community resources in the Korean American context are highlighted. Links between cultural competence and "ecological pragmatism" (Kelly, Azelton, Burzette, & Mock, 1994) are discussed. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Involvement of the INK4a/Arf gene locus in senescence

AGING CELL, Issue 3 2003
Carol J. Collins
Summary The INK4a/ARF locus encodes two proteins whose expression limits cellular proliferation. Whilst the biochemical activities of the two proteins appear very different, they both converge on regulating the retinoblastoma and p53 tumour suppressor pathways. Neither protein is required for normal development, but lack of either predisposes to the development of malignancy. Both proteins have also been implicated in the establishment of senescence states in response to a variety of stresses, signalling imbalances and telomere shortening. The INK4a/Arf regulatory circuits appear to be partially redundant and show evidence of rapid evolution. Especially intriguing are the large number of biological differences documented between mice and man. We review here the brief history of INK4a/Arf and explore possible links with organismal aging and the evolution of longevity. [source]

The Sociology of Adolescence and Youth in the 1990s: A Critical Commentary

Frank F. Furstenberg
The 1990s saw considerable advances in the state of research on adolescence and youth. This article provides a critical commentary on a subset of this research, focusing on the causes and consequences of the lengthened period in which the transition to adulthood occurs. It provides a brief history of adolescence research, identifying a select set of topics, themes, and research problems that will guide research on adolescence and youth over the next decade. These research foci, which include peer group relations, biological influences on adolescence, employment experiences, increased autonomy, and racial and gender differences, are described as representing either continuities or advances in adolescence research. The strengths and shortcomings of this research are detailed. The paper concludes by suggesting promising areas for future research and by providing guidelines for undertaking such research. [source]

Evaluating the Level of Evidence of Qualitative Research

Sandra Cesario RNC
Guidelines for evaluating the levels of evidence based on quantitative research are well established. However, the same cannot be said for the evaluation of qualitative research. This article discusses a process members of an evidence-based clinical practice guideline development team with the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses used to create a scoring system to determine the strength of qualitative research evidence. A brief history of evidence-based clinical practice guideline development is provided, followed by discussion of the development of the Nursing Management of the Second Stage of Labor evidence-based clinical practice guideline. The development of the qualitative scoring system is explicated, and implications for nursing are proposed. [source]

The world is flat: A brief history of the twenty-first century; Three billion new capitalists: The great shift of wealth and power to the east

Jeffrey A. Hart