Bottom-up Effects (bottom-up + effects)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

The Role of Fish Communities in Water Quality Management of a Large Shallow Lake

István Tátrai
Abstract Management measures of Lake Balaton such as wetland reconstruction at the main inflow to the lake along with the "unplanned" commercial fishery led to great changes in the density and biomass of fish populations. There was no significant difference in CPUE data between the two, eastern and western, basins. Biomass of total fish stock in Lake Balaton has decreased substantially, 2,3 times between 1991,1999, and ranges between 120,194 kg ha,1. Bottom-up effects are more important than the top-down effects due to the impact of internal nutrient load. Changes in the biomass and thus the activity of omnivorous fish in the lake lowered the intensity of various indirect effects and feedback mechanisms causing changes in the nutrient metabolism of the lake. Intensified fishery effort in Lake Balaton did not result in an increased stock of piscivores. The ratio of piscivores and omnivores remained at 5% during the whole study period. Despite this low piscivores to omnivores ratio, the water quality has improved in all basins. [source]

Bottom-up effects on a plant-endophage-parasitoid system: The role of flower-head size and chemistry

Abstract The effects of water and nutrient addition on a trophic chain were studied in a plant-endophage-parasitoid system comprised of insects associated with flower heads of Chromolaena squalida (Asteraceae). Nine species of endophages associated with C. squalida flower heads were found, belonging to two families of Diptera , Tephritidae (Cecidochares sp1, Cecidochares sp2, Xanthaciura biocellata, X. chrysura, X. sp. and Neomyopites sp.) and Agromyzidae (Melanagromyza sp.), and two families of Coleoptera , Apionidae (Apion sp.) and Anthicidae (Anthicidae sp.). A factorial field experiment with water and nutrient addition showed that resource availability can affect the developmental process of flower heads. Fertilization increased flower-head diameter and nitrogen and alkaloid concentrations. Although nutrient availability affected the size and chemistry of flower heads, endophage species did not respond consistently to the experimental treatments. This is contrary to other studies where endophages showed preference for larger flower heads. Thus, the plant vigour hypothesis was not corroborated for our study system. Our results also showed that coupled responses of plants to resource availability (i.e. tissue nutritional quality and investment in growth of the structure that serves as shelter for endophages) can represent distinct kinds of indirect interactions with opposing effects on the herbivore-parasitoid interaction. [source]

Grazing Intensity and the Diversity of Grasshoppers, Butterflies, and Trap-Nesting Bees and Wasps

Andreas Kruess
The reduction of management intensity can be a useful tool for the long-term conservation of the biological diversity of grasslands. We analyzed floral and faunal diversity on intensively and extensively (unintensively) grazed pastures and on 5- to 10-year-old ungrazed grasslands in northern Germany. Each of the three grassland habitats differing in grazing intensity was replicated six times. We related diverse taxa such as grasshoppers, butterfly adults and lepidopteran larvae, and trap-nesting solitary bees and wasps to vegetation structure. There was an increase of species richness and abundance from pastures to ungrazed grasslands. The percentage of parasitism of the most abundant trap-nesting species, the digger-wasp ( Trypoxylon figulus), was also higher on ungrazed grasslands. Decreased grazing on pastures enhanced species richness for adult butterflies only, whereas the abundance of adult butterflies, solitary bees and wasps, and their natural enemies increased. Although the differences in insect diversity between pastures and ungrazed grassland could be attributed to a greater vegetation height and heterogeneity ( bottom-up effects) on ungrazed areas, the differences between intensively and extensively grazed pastures could not be explained by changes in vegetation characteristics. Hence, intensive grazing appeared to affect the insect communities through the disruption of plant-insect interactions. A mosaic of extensively grazed grassland and grassland left ungrazed for a few years may be a good means by which to maintain biodiversity and the strength of trophic interactions. Resumen: El mantenimiento de pastizales como hábitats distintos depende del manejo regular, generalmente, por medio de pastoreo o segado, pero se sabe que la diversidad de especies declina con el incremento de intensidad de manejo. La reducción de la intensidad de manejo puede ser una herramienta útil para la conservación a largo plazo de la biodiversidad de pastizales. Analizamos la diversidad florística y faunística en pastizales pastoreados intensiva y extensivamente (no intensivos) y en pastizales de 5 a 10 años no pastoreados en el norte de Alemania. Cada uno de los tres hábitats de pastizal diferentes en el grado de pastoreo fue replicado seis veces. Relacionamos diversos taxones como chapulines, mariposas adultas, larvas de lepidópteros y abejas y avispas solitarias con la estructura de la vegetación. Hubo un incremento en la riqueza y abundancia de especies de pastizales pastoreados a no pastoreados. El porcentaje de parasitismo de la especie de avispa más abundante ( Trypoxylon figulus) también fue mayor en pastizales no pastoreados. La reducción del pastoreo incrementó la riqueza de especies de mariposas adultas solamente, mientras que incrementó la abundancia de mariposas adultas, abejas y avispas solitarias y sus enemigos naturales. Aunque las diferencias en la diversidad de insectos entre pastizales pastoreados y no pastoreados pudiera atribuirse a la mayor altura de la vegetación y a la heterogeneidad (efectos abajo-arriba) en áreas no pastoreadas, las diferencias entre pastizales pastoreados intensiva y extensivamente no podría explicarse por cambios en las características de la vegetación. Por consiguiente, el pastoreo intensivo aparentemente afectó a las comunidades de insectos por la disrupción de las interacciones planta-animal. Un mosaico de pastizales pastoreados extensivamente y pastizales sin pastoreo por varios años puede ser una buena estrategia para mantener la biodiversidad y la vigencia de las interacciones tróficas. [source]

Trade-offs in oviposition choice?

Food-dependent performance, defence against predators of a herbivorous sawfly
Abstract The sawfly Athalia rosae L. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) is a feeding specialist on plant species of the Brassicaceae, which are characterised by secondary metabolites, called glucosinolates. The larvae can take up the respective glucosinolates of their hosts and concentrate them in their haemolymph to protect themselves against predators. Oviposition preferences of naïve females were tested for three species, Sinapis alba L., Brassica nigra (L.) Koch, and Barbarea stricta Andrz., and were related to larval performance patterns. Larvae were reared on either one of these plants and it was investigated how host-plant quality influences both the developmental times and growth of larvae (bottom-up) and the defence efficiency against predators (top-down). Innately, almost all adult females avoided B. stricta for oviposition and clearly preferred B. nigra over S. alba. On average, larvae developed best on B. nigra. Female larvae reached similar final body masses on all host-plant species, but males reared on S. alba were slightly lighter. The developmental time of larvae reared on B. stricta was significantly longer than on the other two plants. However, larvae reared on B. stricta were best protected against the predatory wasp Polistes dominulus Christ (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). The wasps rejected these larvae most often, while they attacked larvae reared on S. alba most frequently. Thus, larvae feeding on B. stricta theoretically run a higher risk of predation due to a prolonged developmental time, but in practice they are better protected against predators. Overall, oviposition preferences of A. rosae seem to be more influenced by bottom-up effects on larval performance than by top-down effects. [source]

Impact of the fish Garra on the ecology of reservoirs and the occurrence of Microcystis blooms in semi-arid tropical highlands: an experimental assessment using enclosures

Summary 1.,Many man-made reservoirs in the semi-arid highlands of Northern Ethiopia (Tigray) are characterised by the occurrence of intensive blooms of cyanobacteria and a dominance of small riverine fishes belonging to the genus Garra. 2.,We carried out enclosure experiments to test for the effect of these small fish on abiotic characteristics, phytoplankton biomass and zooplankton community structure in the pelagic of two reservoirs (Gereb Awso and Tsinkanet). Two experiments were carried out in each of the reservoirs, one at the end of the rainy season (highest water level) and one at the end of the dry season (lowest water level). 3.,The presence of Garra in general increased the amount of suspended matter, nutrient concentrations (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), phytoplankton and Microcystis biomass (including the proportion of Microcystis in the phytoplankton community), and reduced water transparency. The positive effect of the presence of Garra on nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton productivity indicate that Garra has the potential to affect food web functioning indirectly through bottom-up effects, by enhancing nutrient concentrations through sediment resuspension and excretion of nutrients. Indeed, population densities of the cladoceran zooplankton taxa Ceriodaphnia and Diaphanosoma also showed an overall increase in enclosures with Garra. 4.,However, our data also provide some evidence for a potential of Garra to exert top-down control on large bodied daphnids (Daphnia carinata, D. barbata), although such effect varied among experiments. The limited capability of Garra to control zooplankton communities mainly reflects the low efficiency of these small, riverine and benthos-oriented fish in foraging on zooplankton and suggests the existence of an unoccupied niche for zooplanktivorous fish in the majority of the reservoirs. 5.,Although the main effects of Garra on the pelagic food web seemed to be mediated by bottom-up mechanisms, our results also indicate that one of the key variables, the relative abundance of Microcystis, was impacted by Daphnia -mediated trophic cascade effects. [source]

On the different nature of top-down and bottom-up effects in pelagic food webs

Z. Maciej Gliwicz
SUMMARY 1.,Each individual planktonic plant or animal is exposed to the hazards of starvation and risk of predation, and each planktonic population is under the control of resource limitation from the bottom up (growth and reproduction) and by predation from the top down (mortality). While the bottom-up and top-down impacts are traditionally conceived as compatible with each other, field population-density data on two coexisting Daphnia species suggest that the nature of the two impacts is different. Rates of change, such as the rate of individual body growth, rate of reproduction, and each species' population growth rate, are controlled from the bottom up. State variables, such as biomass, individual body size and population density, are controlled from the top down and are fixed at a specific level regardless of the rate at which they are produced. 2.,According to the theory of functional responses, carnivorous and herbivorous predators react to prey density rather than to the rate at which prey are produced or reproduced. The predator's feeding rate (and thus the magnitude of its effect on prey density) should hence be regarded as a functional response to increasing resource concentration. 3.,The disparity between the bottom-up and top-down effects is also apparent in individual decision making, where a choice must be made between accepting the hazards of hunger and the risks of predation (lost calories versus loss of life). 4.,As long as top-down forces are effective, the disparity with bottom-up effects seems evident. In the absence of predation, however, all efforts of an individual become subordinate to the competition for resources. Biomass becomes limited from the bottom up as soon as the density of a superior competitor has increased to the carrying capacity of a given habitat. Such a shift in the importance of bottom-up control can be seen in zooplankton in habitats from which fish have been excluded. [source]

Long-term exposure to elevated CO2 in a Florida scrub-oak forest increases herbivore densities but has no effect on other arthropod guilds

Abstract., 1.,This study uses pitfall traps and sticky traps to examine the effects of elevated CO2 on the densities of insect herbivores, insectivores, and detritivores. 2.,Pitfall trapping for the last 3 years of 11 years of continuously elevated CO2 revealed increases of insect herbivore species such as Thysanoptera (thrips), Hemiptera, and Lepidoptera, but no effects on insectivores such as spiders, parasitic wasps, and ants; or on detritivores such as Diptera (flies), Psocoptera (book lice), Blattodea (cockroaches), Collembola (spring tails), Orthoptera (crickets), and Coleoptera (beetles). 3.,As the bottom-up effects of elevated CO2 are transmitted through plants to herbivores, they do not appear to reach insect natural enemies or decomposers. [source]

Adaptive radiation into ecological niches with eruptive dynamics: a comparison of tenthredinid and diprionid sawflies

Summary 1We tested the hypothesis that the bottom-up influence of coniferous plant resources promotes the probability of outbreak or eruptive dynamics in sawflies. The literature was examined for three geographical regions , North America north of Mexico, Europe and Japan. 2In each region tenthredinid sawflies (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) were significantly more likely to be eruptive on conifers than on angiosperms. 3The diprionid sawflies (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) that attack conifers exclusively showed a significantly higher probability of eruptive dynamics than the tenthredinid sawflies on angiosperms in two regions, North America and Europe, and in Japan the trend was in the same direction. 4The probability of species showing eruptive dynamics on coniferous hosts was not significantly different among tenthredinids and diprionids on conifers in North America, Europe and Japan. 5The weight of evidence supports the hypothesis of conifers supporting a higher percentage of eruptive species than angiosperms. 6In the adaptive radiation of tenthredinid sawflies from flowering plants onto conifers, larches (Larix) appear to be particularly favourable for colonization, but pines (Pinus) have not been colonized in any region, a pattern likely to be explained by the growth characteristics of the host plants. 7Among tenthredinid species in Europe, where sawfly/host relationships are best known, there is a significant trend for an increasing proportion of outbreaking species from herbs, to shrubs, to trees. 8The results indicate for the first time the strong bottom-up effects of plant resources on the population dynamics of sawflies, involving general features of host plant taxa and growth characteristics. [source]

The dynamics of top-down and bottom-up effects in food webs of varying prey diversity, composition, and productivity

OIKOS, Issue 2 2007
Jeremy W. Fox
Prey diversity is thought to mediate the strength of top-down and bottom-up effects, but few experiments directly test this hypothesis. I assembled food webs of bacteria and bacterivorous protist prey in laboratory microcosms with all combinations of five productivity levels, two top predator treatments (present or absent), and three prey compositions. Depauperate food chains contained one of two edible prey species, while more diverse food webs contained both edible prey species plus two additional less-edible/inedible prey. Equilibrium theory predicts that prey diversity should weaken the top-down and bottom-up effects on trophic level biomasses, due to density compensation among prey species. Top-down effects should increase with productivity in food chains, but decrease with productivity in food webs. Results revealed highly dynamic top-down effects, the strength of which varied more over time than among treatments. Further, top-down effects did not merely vary in absolute strength over time, but also in relative strength across different prey compositions and productivity levels. It might be expected that equilibrium models would qualitatively reproduce time-averaged results. However, time-averaged data largely failed to support equilibrium predictions. This failure may reflect strong temporal variability in treatment effects combined with nonlinear density dependence of species' per-capita growth rates. Strong temporal variability in the strength of top-down effects has not previously been demonstrated, but likely is common in nature as well. [source]

Influence of temporal fluctuations in seed abundance on the diet of harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex spp.) in the central Monte desert, Argentina

Abstract Harvester ants usually go through temporal fluctuations in environmental seed abundance and composition which could influence their behaviour and ecology. The aim of this study was to evaluate how these fluctuations influence the diet of Pogonomyrmex rastratus, P. pronotalis and P. inermis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the central Monte desert during three consecutive growing seasons. Although seeds were the main item in the diet, these ants turned more generalist when seed abundance of the most consumed species (grasses Aristida spp., Trichloris crinita, Pappophorum spp., Digitaria californica and Stipa ichu) was low. Accordingly, diversity of items in the diet decreased with seed abundance in a logarithmical fashion, showing higher foraging efficiency for seeds at higher seed abundance. Seed diversity, however, was not related to seed abundance as ants always included several species in their diet, with alternating prevalence. The proportion of the most consumed species increased logarithmically in the diet of P. rastratus and P. pronotalis along with their abundance in the environment probably as a consequence of diet switching (from forb and shrub seeds to grass seeds) and by an increase in foraging efficiency at higher seed densities. In contrast, foraging activity of P. inermis was very low at low seed abundance and its diet included only the five grasses. Among the most consumed species, proportion in the diet was not associated with relative abundance in the environment. Aristida spp., Pappophorum spp. and D. californica were overall highly selected. However, the flexibility in the diet of P. pronotalis and P. rastratus and the low foraging activity of P. inermis during periods of low resource abundance could attenuate potential top-down effects in the central Monte desert. This study shows that bottom-up effects are important in ant-seed interactions and should be considered when predicting and evaluating ants' effects on seed resources. [source]

Determinants of Lichen Diversity in a Rain Forest Understory

BIOTROPICA, Issue 4 2007
L. A. Dyer
ABSTRACT Change in lichen diversity is often used as a bioindicator to estimate effects of atmospheric pollution, but natural variation in lichen cover and species richness can be very high. We examined the top-down effects of spore-consuming ants and the bottom-up effects of nutrient and light availability on lichen diversity associated with the leaf surface of the rain forest understory plant, Piper cenocladum. Plots containing P. cenocladum were randomly assigned to treatments in factorial experiments that included high and low light levels, nutrient enrichment, and presence and absence of the ant mutualist, Pheidole bicornis. At the conclusion of the experiments, plants were harvested and size of leaves, secondary metabolite content (amides), epiphyll cover, and the species richness of the lichens (which comprised 85% of the epiphyll community) were quantified. Epiphyll cover (mosses, liverworts, and lichens) was greater on plants that had ant-mutualists and balanced resources. Lichen species richness was greater for plants with balanced resources, particularly for those with high light availability. Relationships between toxins and lichen cover and richness were weak and unclear. In this system, natural sources of variation were reliable determinants of lichen diversity and both biotic and abiotic influences were important. [source]