Bone Weight (bone + weight)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Bone weight: new reference values based on a modern Portuguese identified skeletal collection

A. M. Silva
Abstract Skeletal weight and/or weight of the different bones of the human skeleton are currently used in a wide range of applications such as archaeological cremations and forensics. Still, few reference values are available that compare the mean weights for the different skeletal parts. In this paper we present new reference values for total skeletal weight, including the weight of the different skeletal bones based on a modern Portuguese Identified Skeletal Collection (CEI) curated in the Museum of Anthropology of the University of Coimbra (Portugal). The mean weight of the entire skeleton for the CEI pooled sample is 3323.8,,779.6,g. Sex and age differences were investigated. As expected, males display heavier bones, at a statistically significant level. The mean weight of the male skeletons is 3850,g, and 2797.6,g for the female sample. Age differences were found, especially for the female samples in the 29,39 versus 50,59,and/or >60 age groups, probably as a consequence of age-related bone loss in post-menopausal women. For the male sample, no clear age-related trend was observed but for the unexpected result that the second highest bone weight recorded is in the oldest age group (>60 years). This could result from high mechanical loadings and thus greater bone robusticy and amount of cortical bone. The percentage of weight of the different parts of the skeleton was also calculated. These new values can be quite useful in the study of very fragmentary and/or commingled human remains, recovered from historic or forensic contexts, since the complete identification, by side, of the remains is not necessary. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

An Uncoupling Agent Containing Strontium Prevents Bone Loss by Depressing Bone Resorption and Maintaining Bone Formation in Estrogen-Deficient Rats

Pierre J. Marie Ph.D.
Trabecular bone loss in estrogen deficiency is associated with enhanced bone resorption with a smaller increase in bone formation. We previously reported that low doses of strontium can increase trabecular bone volume in rodents by affecting bone resorption and formation. In this study we determined the effect of a new divalent strontium salt (S12911) on bone loss induced by E2 deficiency. Sprague-Dawley female rats (230 g, n = 15,25 per group) were sham operated or ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with 17,-estradiol (E2, 10 ,g/kg/day, sc) or S12911 by gavage at the dose of 77, 154, or 308 mg/kg/day or the vehicle. Treatment for 60 days with S12911 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in plasma, urine, and bone strontium concentrations without any deleterious effect on total or skeletal growth. OVX rats were osteopenic compared to sham rats as shown by decreased femoral dry bone weight and mineral content measured on bone ash and by DXA. Treatment of OVX rats with S12911 prevented bone loss as bone ash and bone mineral content were restored to the values in sham rats. Trabecular bone volume measured by histomorphometry on the tibial metaphysis was decreased by 46% in OVX rats and was corrected by E2. Treatment of OVX rats with S12911 increased the trabecular bone volume by 30,36%. Histomorphometric indices of bone resorption (osteoclast surface and number) were increased in OVX rats and were reduced by S12911 to the levels in sham rats. In contrast to this inhibitory effect on bone resorption, the osteoid surface, osteoblast surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate were as high in OVX rats treated with S12911 as in untreated OVX rats. In addition, plasma osteocalcin (OC) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels remained elevated or were further increased in OVX rats treated with S12911. In contrast, treatment with E2 reduced both bone resorption and formation and plasma ALP and OC to the levels in sham rats. The data indicate that the divalent strontium salt S12911 is acting as an uncoupling agent that can prevent the femoral osteopenia and partially prevent the trabecular bone loss in E2-deficient rats by inhibiting bone resorption without reducing bone formation. [source]

Quantitative radiographic changes in the mandible and the tibia in systemically loaded rats fed a low-calcium diet

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 5 2000
Y Morimoto
The combined effect of the duration of loaded physical exercise and the percentage of calcium intake on the mandible and tibia were studied in developing male rats. For the loaded exercise, rats ran on a treadmill at a rate of 12 m per min for either 1 or 2 h per day. A total of 54 4-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of six groups. After 4 weeks of the diet and loaded exercise, the rats were killed and their mandibles and tibia were removed. Each individual bone was assessed by radiography and the radiographs were then used for measurements of cortical thickness, bone length and bone width. All radiographic images were analyzed using a computer-based scanner image analysis system. In addition, we measured the dry weight both of the tibia and mandible. The results demonstrated that significant differences in cortical thickness, bone length, bone width, and bone weight, both of the tibia and the mandible, were detectable between the normal diet group and the low-calcium diet group. Among the normal diet groups, significant differences were found in cortical thickness, bone length, bone width, and bone weight of the tibia, whereas no significant differences in either cortical bone thickness, bone length or bone weight of the mandible were detected. In contrast, among the low-calcium diet groups, no significant differences were detected in cortical thickness, bone length, bone width or bone weight for either the tibia or the mandible. Our results suggested that systemic exercise, such as running, promote the linear dimensions and the cortical thickness of the tibia in response to local stimuli. Furthermore, sufficient calcium intake appears to be necessary to allow the effect of systemic exercise on tibial bone growth to occur. In contrast, systemic loaded exercise does not promote either bone growth or development of the mandible even under conditions of sufficient calcium intake. [source]