Bone Morphogenetic Protein (bone + morphogenetic_protein)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Bone Morphogenetic Protein

  • human bone morphogenetic protein

  • Selected Abstracts

    Enhancement of intervertebral disc cell senescence by WNT/,-catenin signaling,induced matrix metalloproteinase expression

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 10 2010
    Akihiko Hiyama
    Objective To determine whether intervertebral disc (IVD) cells express ,-catenin and to assess the role of the WNT/,-catenin signaling pathway in cellular senescence and aggrecan synthesis. Methods The expression of ,-catenin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in rat IVD cells was assessed by using several real-time reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, immunohistochemical, and immunofluorescence analyses. The effect of WNT/,-catenin on nucleus pulposus (NP) cells was examined by transfection experiments, an MTT assay, senescence-associated ,-galactosidase staining, a cell cycle analysis, and a transforming growth factor (TGF,)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway,focused microarray analysis. Results We found that ,-catenin mRNA and protein were expressed in discs in vivo and that rat NP cells exhibited increased ,-catenin mRNA and protein upon stimulation with lithium chloride, a known activator of WNT signaling. LiCl treatment inhibited the proliferation of NP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, there was an increased level of cellular senescence in LiCl-treated cells. Long-term treatment with LiCl induced cell cycle arrest and promoted subsequent apoptosis in NP cells. Activation of WNT/,-catenin signaling also regulated the expression of aggrecan. We also demonstrated that WNT/,-catenin signaling induced the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and TGF, in NP cells. Conclusion The activation of WNT/,-catenin signaling promotes cellular senescence and may modulate MMP and TGF, signaling in NP cells. We hypothesize that the activation of WNT/,-catenin signaling may lead to an increased breakdown of the matrix, thereby promoting IVD degeneration. [source]

    Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Induces Cyclo-oxygenase 2 in Osteoblasts via a Cbfa1 Binding Site: Role in Effects of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 In Vitro and In Vivo

    Daichi Chikazu
    Abstract We tested the hypothesis that induction of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) 2 mediates some effects of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 on bone. BMP-2 induced COX-2 mRNA and prostaglandin (PG) production in cultured osteoblasts. BMP-2 increased luciferase activity in calvarial osteoblasts from mice transgenic for a COX-2 promoter-luciferase reporter construct (Pluc) and in MC3T3-E1 cells transfected with Pluc. Deletion analysis identified the -300/-213-bp region of the COX-2 promoter as necessary for BMP-2 stimulation of luciferase activity. Mutation of core-binding factor activity 1 (muCbfa1) consensus sequence (5,-AACCACA-3,) at -267/-261 bp decreased BMP-2 stimulation of luciferase activity by 82%. Binding of nuclear proteins to an oligonucleotide spanning the Cbfa1 site was inhibited or supershifted by specific antibodies to Cbfa1. In cultured osteoblasts from calvariae of COX-2 knockout (-/-) and wild-type (+/+) mice, the absence of COX-2 expression reduced the BMP-2 stimulation of both ALP activity and osteocalcin mRNA expression. In cultured marrow cells flushed from long bones, BMP-2 induced osteoclast formation in cells from COX-2+/+ mice but not in cells from COX-2,/, mice. In vivo, BMP-2 (10 ,g/pellet) induced mineralization in pellets of lyophilized collagen implanted in the flanks of mice. Mineralization of pellets, measured by microcomputed tomography (,CT), was decreased by 78% in COX-2,/, mice compared with COX-2+/+ mice. We conclude that BMP-2 transcriptionally induces COX-2 in osteoblasts via a Cbfa1 binding site and that the BMP-2 induction of COX-2 can contribute to effects of BMP-2 on osteoblastic differentiation and osteoclast formation in vitro and to the BMP-2 stimulation of ectopic bone formation in vivo. [source]

    Growth Hormone Induces Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Bone-Related Proteins in the Developing Rat Periodontium

    Huika Li
    Abstract The hypothesis that growth hormone (GH) up-regulates the expression of enzymes, matrix proteins, and differentiation markers involved in mineralization of tooth and bone matrices was tested by the treatment of Lewis dwarf rats with GH over 5 days. The molar teeth and associated alveolar bone were processed for immunohistochemical demonstration of bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 (BMP-2 and -4), bone morphogenetic protein type IA receptor (BMPR-IA), bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and E11 protein (E11). The cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and periodontal ligament (PDL) cells responded to GH by expressing BMP-2 and -4, BMPR-IA, ALP, OC, and OPN and increasing the numbers of these cells. No changes were found in patterns of expression of the late differentiation markers BSP and E11 in response to GH. Thus, GH evokes expression of bone markers of early differentiation in cementoblasts, PDL cells, and osteoblasts of the periodontium. We propose that the induction of BMP-2 and -4 and their receptor by GH compliments the role of GH-induced insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in promoting bone and tooth root formation. [source]

    bmp2b and bmp4 are dispensable for zebrafish tooth development

    Sarah B. Wise
    Abstract Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling has been shown to play important roles in tooth development at virtually all stages from initiation to hard tissue formation. The specific ligands involved in these processes have not been directly tested by loss-of-function experiments, however. We used morpholino antisense oligonucleotides and mutant analysis in the zebrafish to reduce or eliminate the function of bmp2b and bmp4, two ligands known to be expressed in zebrafish teeth and whose mammalian orthologs are thought to play important roles in tooth development. Surprisingly, we found that elimination of function of these two genes singly and in combination did not prevent the formation of mature, attached teeth. The mostly likely explanation for this result is functional redundancy with other Bmp ligands, which may differ between the zebrafish and the mouse. Developmental Dynamics 239:2534,2546, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Bmp2 is required for migration but not for induction of neural crest cells in the mouse

    Ana Catarina Correia
    Abstract Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is essential for neural crest development in several vertebrates. Genetic experiments in the mouse have shown that Bmp2 is essential for the genesis of migratory neural crest cells. Using several markers and a transgenic reporter approach, we now show that neural crest cells are induced in Bmp2 null mutant embryos, but that these cells fail to migrate out of the neural tube. The absence of migratory neural crest cells in these mutants is not due to their elimination by cell death. The neuroectoderm of Bmp2,/, embryos fail to close and create abnormal folds both along the anterior,posterior and medio,lateral axes, which are associated with an apparent medio,lateral expansion of the neural tube. Finally, our data suggest that the molecular cascade downstream of BMP signaling in early neural crest development may be different in mouse and avian embryos. Developmental Dynamics 236:2493,2501, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Stromal cells promote bone invasion by suppressing bone formation in ameloblastoma

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    G S A Sathi
    Aims:, To study the stromal variation and role of stromal,tumour cell interaction in impaired bone formation as well as enhanced bone resorption in ameloblastoma. Methods and results:, Four types of stroma were observed histologically; fibrous, desmoplastic, myxoid and myxoid with hyalinization. Osteoblast and osteoclast were counted using haematoxylin and eosin sections and immunohistochemistry with CD68. After histomorphometric analysis, only fibrous and myxoid types of stroma were distinctly identified. Secreted frizzled-related peptide (sFRP)-2, transforming growth factor-beta 1 and receptor activator of nuclear factor-,B ligand (RANKL) revealed strong expression in myxoid type compared with the normal stroma. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 was negative in myxoid type, but positive in normal stroma. Fibrous-type stroma showed weak expression of all antigens except RANKL compared with myxoid type. Conclusions:, The results suggest that stroma does not act only in bone resorption, but also in the suppression of new bone formation. sFRP-2 is the main factor for impaired bone formation. The expression of markers related to osteoclastogenesis and suppression of osteoblast formation is higher in myxoid-type than in fibrous-type stroma. Tumour cells create a favourable environment for impaired bone formation by secreting sFRP-2 as well as bone resorption by secreting RANKL and interleukin-6. [source]

    Sustained BMP Signaling in Osteoblasts Stimulates Bone Formation by Promoting Angiogenesis and Osteoblast Differentiation,,

    Fengjie Zhang
    Abstract Angiogenesis and bone formation are tightly coupled during the formation of the skeleton. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is required for both bone development and angiogenesis. We recently identified endosome-associated FYVE-domain protein (endofin) as a Smad anchor for BMP receptor activation. Endofin contains a protein-phosphatase pp1c binding domain, which negatively modulates BMP signals through dephosphorylation of the BMP type I receptor. A single point mutation of endofin (F872A) disrupts interaction between the catalytic subunit pp1c and sensitizes BMP signaling in vitro. To study the functional impact of this mutation in vivo, we targeted expression of an endofin (F872A) transgene to osteoblasts. Mice expressing this mutant transgene had increased levels of phosphorylated Smad1 in osteoblasts and showed increased bone formation. Trabecular bone volume was significantly increased in the transgenic mice compared with the wildtype littermates with corresponding increases in trabecular bone thickness and number. Interestingly, the transgenic mice also had a pronounced increase in the density of the bone vasculature measured using contrast-enhanced ,CT imaging of Microfil-perfused bones. The vessel surface and volume were both increased in association with elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in osteoblasts. Endothelial sprouting from the endofin (F872A) mutant embryonic metatarsals cultured ex vivo was increased compared with controls and was abolished by an addition of a VEGF neutralizing antibody. In conclusion, osteoblast targeted expression of a mutant endofin protein lacking the pp1c binding activity results in sustained signaling of the BMP type I receptor, which increases bone formation and skeletal angiogenesis. [source]

    Murine and Chicken Chondrocytes Regulate Osteoclastogenesis by Producing RANKL in Response to BMP2,

    Michihiko Usui
    Abstract Chondrocytes express RANKL, but their role in osteoclastogenesis is not clear. We report that hypertrophic chondrocytes induce osteoclast formation through RANKL production stimulated by BMP2 and Runx2/Smad1 and thus they may regulate resorption of calcified matrix by osteoclasts at growth plates. Introduction: Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and Runx2 regulate chondrogenesis during bone development and fracture repair and RANKL expression by osteoblast/stromal cells. Chondrocytes express RANKL, and this expression is stimulated by vitamin D3, but it is not known if chondrocytes directly support osteoclast formation or if BMPs or Runx2 is involved in this potential regulation of osteoclastogenesis. Material and Methods: The chondrocyte cell line, ATDC5, primary mouse sternal chondrocytes, and chick sternal chondrocytes were used. Cells were treated with BMP2, and expression of RANKL and chondrocyte marker genes was determined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. Chondrocytes and spleen-derived osteoclast precursors ± BMP2 were co-cultured to examine the effect of chondrocyte-produced RANKL on osteoclast formation. A reporter assay was used to determine whether BMP2-induced RANKL production is through transcriptional regulation of the RANKL promoter and whether it is mediated by Runx2. Results: BMP2 significantly increased expression of RANKL mRNA and protein in all three types of chondrocytes, particularly by Col X-expressing and upper sternal chondrocytes. Chondrocytes constitutively induced osteoclast formation. This effect was increased significantly by BMP2 and prevented by RANK:Fc. BMP2 significantly increased luciferase activity of the RANKL-luc reporter, and Smad1 increased this effect. Deletion or mutation of Runx2 binding sites within the RANKL promoter or overexpression of a dominant negative Runx2 abolished BMP2- and Smad1-mediated activation of RANKL promoter activity. Conclusions: Hypertrophic chondrocytes may regulate osteoclastogenesis at growth plates to remove calcified matrix through BMP-induced RANKL expression. [source]

    BMP-9-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors requires functional canonical Wnt/,-catenin signalling

    Ni Tang
    Abstract Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP-9) is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-,/BMP superfamily, and we have demonstrated that it is one of the most potent BMPs to induce osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here, we sought to investigate if canonical Wnt/,-catenin signalling plays an important role in BMP-9-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Wnt3A and BMP-9 enhanced each other's ability to induce alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in MSCs and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Wnt antagonist FrzB was shown to inhibit BMP-9-induced ALP activity more effectively than Dkk1, whereas a secreted form of LPR-5 or low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP)-6 exerted no inhibitory effect on BMP-9-induced ALP activity. ,-Catenin knockdown in MSCs and MEFs diminished BMP-9-induced ALP activity, and led to a decrease in BMP-9-induced osteocalcin reporter activity and BMP-9-induced expression of late osteogenic markers. Furthermore, ,-catenin knockdown or FrzB overexpression inhibited BMP-9-induced mineralization in vitro and ectopic bone formation in vivo, resulting in immature osteogenesis and the formation of chondrogenic matrix. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis indicated that BMP-9 induced recruitment of both Runx2 and ,-catenin to the osteocalcin promoter. Thus, we have demonstrated that canonical Wnt signalling, possibly through interactions between ,-catenin and Runx2, plays an important role in BMP-9-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. [source]

    Ultrasound increased BMP-2 expression via PI3K, Akt, c-Fos/c-Jun, and AP-1 pathways in cultured osteoblasts

    Chun-Han Hou
    Abstract It has been shown that ultrasound (US) stimulation accelerates fracture healing in the animal models and in clinical studies. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is a crucial mediator in bone formation during fracture healing. Here we found that US stimulation increased BMP-2 expression but not other BMPs. US induced BMP-2 transcription is mediated by AP-1 element but not estrogen receptor response element and GC-rich Sp1 response element. Pretreatment of osteoblasts with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (Ly294002) and Akt inhibitor inhibited the potentiating action of US; these results were further substantiated by transfecting with the dominant negative mutants of p85 and Akt. US stimulation increased the phosphorylation of p85 subunit of PI3K and serine 473 of Akt. Transfection of osteoblasts with c-Fos and c-Jun antisense oligonucleotide also reduced US-increased BMP-2 expression. US-increased the binding of c-Fos and c-Jun to the AP-1 element on the BMP-2 promoter and the enhancement of AP-1 luciferase activity was inhibited by Ly294002 and Akt inhibitor. Our results suggest that US increased BMP-2 expression in osteoblasts via the PI3K, Akt, c-Fos/c-Jun, and AP-1 signaling pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 106: 7,15, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Bone morphogenetic protein 4 modulates c-Kit expression and differentiation potential in murine embryonic aorta-gonad-mesonephros haematopoiesis in vitro

    Caroline J. Marshall
    Summary The transforming growth factor- , -related factor bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is expressed in the human embryonic aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) coincident with the emergence of haematopoietic cells and influences postnatal mammalian haematopoietic stem cells in vitro. To investigate the role of BMP4 in mammalian embryonic haematopoiesis, cells were isolated from murine AGM and two populations of CD34+ cells with different levels of c-Kit expression and multipotency were identified. CD34+/c-Kithigh cells express CD45 and are haematopoietic-restricted progenitors. In contrast, CD34+/c-Kitlow cells are Flk1+/CD45neg and generate adherent colonies in ex vivo culture that resemble haemangioblast colonies identified in other systems. The addition of BMP4 to AGM cells resulted in expansion of the CD34+/c-Kitlow cell pool within 48 h, via a combination of down modulation of the c-Kit receptor in CD34+/c-Kithigh cells and proliferation. In long-term culture, BMP4 increased the growth/survival of CD34+/c-Kithigh haematopoietic progenitors, effects that were blocked by BMP inhibitors. CD34+/c-Kithigh progenitors cultured with BMP4 also generated adherent colonies typical of c-Kitlow cells. These results suggest that BMP4 regulates c-Kit expression and differentiation potential in CD34+ AGM cells and supports a role for BMP signalling in the maintenance of multipotency during embryonic haematopoiesis, providing an insight into stem cell homeostasis within the mammalian haematopoietic niche. [source]

    Bone morphogenetic protein 7 induces mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition in melanoma cells, leading to inhibition of metastasis

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 11 2009
    Yi-Rang Na
    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 7 counteracts physiological epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a process that is indicative of epithelial plasticity in developmental stages. Because epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and its reversed process mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) are also involved in cancer progression, we investigated whether BMP7 plays a role in WM-266-4 melanoma cell growth and metastasis. An MTT assay was conducted in WM-266-4 and HEK293T cell lines to show the cell growth inhibition ability of BMP7 and cisplatin. Semiquantitative RT-PCR was used to determine MET in morphologically changed BMP7-treated melanoma cells. MET-induced cells expressed less a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (TWIST) in western blot analysis, and we confirm that BMP receptor (Alk2) siRNA transduction could restore TWIST protein expression via blocking of Smad 1, 5 and 8 signaling. Matrigel invasion and cell migration assays were done to investigate the BMP7-induced metastasis inhibition ability. BMP7 treatment only slightly reduced cell growth rate, but induced apparent MET. BMP7 also reduced the invasion and migration ability. Furthermore, BMP7 reduced the resistance of WM-266-4 cells to cisplatin. Collectively, our findings indicate that the metastatis inhibition ability of BMP7 is involved in MET, and that BMP7 could be used as a potential metastasis inhibitor in human melanoma cells. (Cancer Sci 2009) [source]

    Characterization and expression of AmphiBMP3,/3b gene in amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum

    Yi Sun
    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are responsible for regulating embryo development and tissue homeostasis beyond osteogenesis. However, the precise biological roles of BMP3 and BMP3b remain obscure to a certain extent. In the present study, we cloned an orthologous gene (AmphiBMP3/3b) from amphioxus (Branchiostoma japonicum) and found its exon/intron organization is highly conserved. Further, in situ hybridization revealed that the gene was strongly expressed in the dorsal neural plate of the embryos. The gene also appeared in Hatschek's left diverticulum, neural tube, preoral ciliated pit and gill slit of larvae, and adult tissues including ovary, neural tube and notochordal sheath. Additionally, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR) analysis revealed that the expression displayed two peaks at gastrula and juvenile stages. These results indicated that AmphiBMP3/3b, a sole orthologue of vertebrate BMP3 and BMP3b, might antagonize ventralizing BMP2 orthologous signaling in embryonic development, play a role in the evolutionary precursors of adenohypophysis, as well as act in female ovary physiology in adult. [source]

    Temporal and spatial regulation of bone morphogenetic protein signaling in late lung development

    Miguel A. Alejandre-Alcázar
    Abstract Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in early lung development. No study to date has addressed a role for BMP signaling in late lung development. We describe changes in the expression and localization of BMP receptors (Bmpr1a, Bmpr1b, and Bmpr2) and Smad (Smad1, Smad4, Smad5, and Smad8) intracellular signaling proteins during the saccular and alveolarization stages of late lung development. BMP signaling, assessed by Smad1/5 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and induction of id1, id2, and id3 gene expression, was evident throughout late lung development. Our data indicate that BMP signaling is active during late lung development, and points to roles for the BMP system in septal and vascular development, and in the homeostasis of the epithelial layer of large conducting airways in the mature lung. Developmental Dynamics 236:2825,2835, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Dendritic growth induced by BMP-7 requires Smad1 and proteasome activity

    Xin Guo
    Abstract Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce dendritic growth in cultured sympathetic neurons; however, the signaling pathways that mediate this dendrite-promoting activity have not been previously characterized. Here we report studies of the signaling events that regulate the growth of these afferent processes. We find that Smad1 is expressed in sympathetic neurons and that BMPs rapidly induce its phosphorylation and translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Furthermore, a dominant negative form of Smad1 inhibits BMP-7-induced dendritic growth, suggesting a requirement for Smad1 activation in this biological activity of BMP-7. A physical interaction between Smad1 and components involved in the proteasome-mediated degradation system was detected with a yeast two-hybrid screen, thereby prompting an examination of the effects of proteasome inhibitors on dendritic growth. Lactacystin and ALLN (N -acetyl-Leu-Leu-norleucinal) selectively blocked BMP-7-induced dendritic growth without adversely affecting either cell viability or axonal growth. Moreover, studies of transfected P19 cells suggest that the proteasome inhibitors directly block the effects of Smad1 on the transcriptional activity of the Tlx-2 promoter. These data indicate that BMP-induced dendritic growth requires Smad1 activation and involves proteasome-mediated degradation events. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Neurobiol 48: 120,130, 2001 [source]

    Bone morphogenetic protein-6 induces the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1pt2 2009
    Seok J. Kwon
    Summary Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-, (TGF-,) superfamily. In the present study, we investigated the effect of BMPs on the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, and in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Among the BMPs, only BMP-6 induced iNOS expression in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner in both cell types. Induction of iNOS was inhibited by both cycloheximide and actinomycin D, indicating that the induction of iNOS expression by BMP-6 requires new protein synthesis. Mechanistic studies revealed that the BMP-6-induced iNOS expression requires both Smads and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-,B) signalling pathways. Furthermore, induction of interleukin-1, (IL-1,) was necessary for iNOS induction by BMP-6. These observations suggest that BMP-6 stimulates macrophages to produce iNOS through IL-1, via Smad and NF-,B signalling pathways and that BMP-6 may be an important regulator of macrophages. [source]

    rBMP represses Wnt signaling and influences skeletal progenitor cell fate specification during bone repair

    Steve Minear
    Abstract Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) participate in multiple stages of the fetal skeletogenic program from promoting cell condensation to regulating chondrogenesis and bone formation through endochondral ossification. Here, we show that these pleiotropic functions are recapitulated when recombinant BMPs are used to augment skeletal tissue repair. In addition to their well-documented ability to stimulate chondrogenesis in a skeletal injury, we show that recombinant BMPs (rBMPs) simultaneously suppress the differentiation of skeletal progenitor cells in the endosteum and bone marrow cavity to an osteoblast lineage. Both the prochondrogenic and antiosteogenic effects are achieved because rBMP inhibits endogenous ,-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling. In the injured periosteum, this repression of Wnt activity results in sox9 upregulation; consequently, cells in the injured periosteum adopt a chondrogenic fate. In the injured endosteum, rBMP also inhibits Wnt signaling, which results in the runx2 and collagen type I downregulation; consequently, cells in this region fail to differentiate into osteoblasts. In muscle surrounding the skeletal injury site, rBMP treatment induces Smad phosphorylation followed by exuberant cell proliferation, an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, and chondrogenic differentiation. Thus different populations of adult skeletal progenitor cells interpret the same rBMP stimulus in unique ways, and these responses mirror the pleiotropic effects of BMPs during fetal skeletogenesis. These mechanistic insights may be particularly useful for optimizing the reparative potential of rBMPs while simultaneously minimizing their adverse outcomes. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research [source]

    Bone morphogenetic proteins in vertebrate hematopoietic development

    Alexandra Snyder
    Abstract During embryonic development, the hematopoietic system is the first to generate terminally differentiated, functional cell types. The urgent necessity for the early formation of blood and blood vessels during embryogenesis means that the induction, expansion, and maturation of these systems must be rapidly and precisely controlled. Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) have been implicated in hematopoietic development in the vertebrate embryo and stimulate the proliferation and/or differentiation of human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and embryonic stem cells in vitro. Here we review the mechanisms of action and potential roles of these soluble signaling molecules in vertebrate hematopoiesis. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Glial aromatization increases the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the injured zebra finch brain

    Bradley J. Walters
    Abstract In songbirds, brain injury upregulates glial aromatase. The resulting local estrogen synthesis mitigates apoptosis and enhances cytogenesis by poorly understood mechanisms. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), long studied for their role in neural development, are also neuroprotective and cytogenic in the adult brain. BMPs remain uncharacterized in songbirds, as do the mechanisms regulating their post-injury expression. We first established the expression of BMPs 2, 4, 6, and 7 in the adult zebra finch brain using RT-PCR. Next, we determined the effect of neural insult on BMP expression, by comparing BMP transcripts between injured and uninjured telencephalic hemispheres using semi-quantitative PCR. The expression of BMPs 2 and 4, but not 6 and 7, increased 24 h post-injury. To determine the influence of aromatase on BMP expression, we compared BMP expression following delivery of the aromatase inhibitor Fadrozole or vehicle into contralateral hemispheres. Fadrozole decreased BMP2, but not BMP4, expression, suggesting that aromatization may induce BMP2 expression following injury. Since BMPs are gliogenic and neurotrophic, future studies will test if the neuroprotective and cytogenic effects of aromatase upregulation are mediated by BMP2. Songbirds may be excellent models towards understanding the role of local estrogen synthesis and its downstream mechanisms on neuroprotection and repair. [source]

    BMP inhibition enhances axonal growth and functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    Iichiro Matsuura
    Abstract Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional growth factors that belong to the transforming growth factor-, superfamily. BMPs regulate several crucial aspects of embryonic development and organogenesis. The reemergence of BMPs in the injured adult CNS suggests their involvement in the pathogenesis of the lesion. Here, we demonstrate that BMPs are potent inhibitors of axonal regeneration in the adult spinal cord. The expression of BMP-2/4 is elevated in oligodendrocytes and astrocytes around the injury site following spinal cord contusion. Intrathecal administration of noggin , a soluble BMP antagonist,leads to enhanced locomotor activity and reveals significant regrowth of the corticospinal tract after spinal cord contusion. Thus, BMPs play a role in inhibiting axonal regeneration and limiting functional recovery following injury to the CNS. [source]

    Bone morphogenetic proteins 4, 6, and 7 are up-regulated in mouse spinal cord during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Jahan Ara
    Abstract Although spontaneous remyelination occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS), the extent of myelin repair is often inadequate to restore normal function. Oligodendrocyte precursors remaining in nonremyelinating MS plaques may be restricted by an inhibitory signal. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been implicated as repressors of oligodendrocyte development and inducers of astrogliogenesis. We hypothesized that BMPs are up-regulated in MS lesions and play a role in demyelination and astrogliosis. We examined expression of BMPs in an animal model of MS, chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide in C57BL/6 mice. By 14 days postimmunization, compared to those of control mice, the lumbar spinal cords of MOG-peptide EAE mice demonstrated prominent astrogliosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and disrupted expression of myelin proteins. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that expression of BMP4, BMP6, and BMP7 mRNA increased 2- to 4-fold in the lumbar spinal cords of animals with symptomatic EAE versus in vehicle-treated and untreated controls on days 14, 21, and 42 postimmunization. BMP2 mRNA expression was not altered. BMP4 mRNA was much more abundant in the spinal cords of all animals than was mRNA encoding BMP2, BMP6, and BMP7. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the increased expression of BMP4 in the EAE animals. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased BMP4 immunoreactivity in areas of inflammation in MOG-peptide EAE animals. BMP4 labeling was mostly limited to macrophages but was sometimes associated with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. These results indicate that members of the BMP family are differentially expressed in adult spinal cord and are up-regulated during EAE. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Global gene profiling reveals a downregulation of BMP gene expression in experimental atrophic nonunions compared to standard healing fractures

    Takahiro Niikura
    Abstract Nonunion is a challenging problem that may occur following certain bone fractures. However, there has been little investigation of the molecular basis of nonunions. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a significant role in osteogenesis. However, little is known about the expression patterns of BMPs in abnormal bone healing that results in nonunion formation. These facts prompted us to investigate and compare the gene expression patterns of BMPs and their antagonists in standard healing fractures and nonunions using rat experimental models. Standard closed healing fractures and experimental atrophic nonunions produced by periosteal cauterization at the fracture site were created in rat femurs. At postfracture days 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28, total RNA was extracted from the callus of standard healing fracture and fibrous tissue of nonunion (n,=,4 per each time point and each group). Gene expression of BMPs, BMP antagonists, and other regulatory molecules were studied by methods including Genechip® microarray and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Gene expression of BMP-2, 3, 3B, 4, 6, 7, GDF-5, 7, and BMP antagonists noggin, drm, screlostin, and BAMBI were significantly lower in nonunions compared to standard healing fractures at several time points. Downregulation in expression of osteogenic BMPs may account for the nonunions of fracture. The balance between BMPs and their endogenous antagonists is critical for optimal fracture healing. © 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 24:1463,1471, 2006 [source]

    Bone morphogenetic proteins in tissue engineering: the road from laboratory to clinic, part II (BMP delivery)

    P. C. Bessa
    Abstract Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are cytokines with a strong effect on bone and cartilage growth and with important roles during embryonic patterning and early skeletal formation. BMPs have promising potential for clinical bone and cartilage repair, working as powerful bone-inducing components in diverse tissue-engineering products. Synthetic polymers, natural origin polymers, inorganic materials and composites may be used as carriers for the delivery of BMPs. Carriers range from nanoparticles to complex three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds, membranes for tissue-guided regeneration, biomimetic surfaces and smart thermosensitive hydrogels. Current clinical uses include spinal fusion, healing of long bone defects and craniofacial and periodontal applications, amongst others. BMP-2 and BMP-7 have recently received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for specific clinical cases, delivered in absorbable collagen sponges. Considering the expanding number of publications in the field of BMPs, there are prospects of a brilliant future in the field of regenerative medicine of bone and cartilage with the use of BMPs. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Bone morphogenetic proteins in tissue engineering: the road from the laboratory to the clinic, part I (basic concepts)

    P. C. Bessa
    Abstract Discovered in 1965, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of cytokines from the transforming growth factor-, (TGF,) superfamily with significant roles in bone and cartilage formation. BMPs are used as powerful osteoinductive components of diverse tissue-engineering products for the healing of bone. Several BMPs with different physiological roles have been identified in humans. The purpose of this review is to cover the biological function of the main members of BMP family, the latest research on BMPs signalling pathways and advances in the production of recombinant BMPs for tissue engineering purposes. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Bone morphogenetic proteins and osseointegration: current knowledge , future possibilities

    PERIODONTOLOGY 2000, Issue 1 2008
    Yi-Hao Huang
    First page of article [source]

    Interventions for replacing missing teeth: bone augmentation techniques for dental implant treatment

    M Esposito
    Background:, Dental implants require sufficient bone to be adequately stabilized. For some patients implant treatment would not be an option without bone augmentation. A variety of materials and surgical techniques are available for bone augmentation. Objectives:, General objectives: To test the null hypothesis of no difference in the success, function, morbidity and patient satisfaction between different bone augmentation techniques for dental implant treatment. Specific objectives: (A) to test whether and when augmentation procedures are necessary; (B) to test which is the most effective augmentation technique for specific clinical indications. Trials were divided into three broad categories according to different indications for the bone augmentation techniques: (1) major vertical or horizontal bone augmentation or both; (2) implants placed in extraction sockets; (3) fenestrated implants. Search strategy:, The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched. Several dental journals were handsearched. The bibliographies of review articles were checked, and personal references were searched. More than 55 implant manufacturing companies were also contacted. Last electronic search was conducted on 9 January 2008. Selection criteria:, Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of different techniques and materials for augmenting bone for implant treatment reporting the outcome of implant therapy at least to abutment connection. Data collection and analysis:, Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the trials and data extraction were conducted independently and in duplicate. Authors were contacted for any missing information. Results were expressed as random-effects models using mean differences for continuous outcomes and odd ratios for dichotomous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals. The statistical unit of the analysis was the patient. Main results:, Seventeen RCTs out of 40 potentially eligible trials reporting the outcome of 455 patients were suitable for inclusion. Since different techniques were evaluated in different trials, no meta-analysis could be performed. Ten trials evaluated different techniques for vertical or horizontal bone augmentation or both. Four trials evaluated different techniques of bone grafting for implants placed in extraction sockets and three trials evaluated different techniques to treat bone dehiscence or fenestrations around implants. Authors' conclusions:, Major bone grafting procedures of resorbed mandibles may not be justified. Bone substitutes (Bio-Oss or Cerasorb) may replace autogenous bone for sinus lift procedures of atrophic maxillary sinuses. Various techniques can augment bone horizontally and vertically, but it is unclear which is the most efficient. It is unclear whether augmentation procedures at immediate single implants placed in fresh extraction sockets are needed, and which is the most effective augmentation procedure, however, sites treated with barrier plus Bio-Oss showed a higher position of the gingival margin when compared to sites treated with barriers alone. Non-resorbable barriers at fenestrated implants regenerated more bone than no barriers, however it remains unclear whether such bone is of benefit to the patient. It is unclear which is the most effective technique for augmenting bone around fenestrated implants. Bone morphogenetic proteins may enhance bone formation around implants grafted with Bio-Oss. Titanium may be preferable to resorbable screws to fixate onlay bone grafts. The use of particulate autogenous bone from intraoral locations, also taken with dedicated aspirators, might be associated with an increased risk of infective complications. These findings are based on few trials including few patients, sometimes having short follow up, and often being judged to be at high risk of bias. [source]

    Coordinated regulation of dorsal bone morphogenetic protein 4 and ventral Sonic hedgehog signaling specifies the dorso-ventral polarity in the optic vesicle and governs ocular morphogenesis through fibroblast growth factor 8 upregulation

    Takuma Kobayashi
    Dorsal and ventral specification in the early optic vesicle plays a crucial role in vertebrate ocular morphogenesis, and proper dorsal-ventral polarity in the optic vesicle ensures that distinct structures develop in separate domains within the eye primordium. The polarity is determined progressively during development by coordinated regulation of extraocular dorsal and ventral factors. In the present study, we cultured discrete portions of embryonic chick brains by preparing anterior cephalon, anterior dorsal cephalon and anterior ventral cephalon, and clearly demonstrate that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) constitute a dorsal-ventral signaling system together with fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8). BMP4 and Shh upregulate Tbx5 and Pax2, as reported previously, and at the same time Shh downregulates Tbx5, while BMP4 affects Pax2 expression to downregulate similarly. Shh induces Fgf8 expression in the ventral optic vesicle. This, in turn, determines the distinct boundary of the retinal pigmented epithelium and the neural retina by suppressing Mitf expression. The lens develops only when signals from both the dorsal and ventral regions come across together. Inverted deposition of Shh and BMP4 signals in organ-cultured optic vesicle completely re-organized ocular structures to be inverted. Based on these observations we propose a novel model in which the two signals govern the whole of ocular development when they encounter each other in the ocular morphogenic domain. [source]

    Differing strategies for forming the arthropod body plan: Lessons from Dpp, Sog and Delta in the fly Drosophila and spider Achaearanea

    Hiroki Oda
    In the insect Drosophila embryo, establishment of maternal transcription factor gradients, rather than cell,cell interactions, is fundamental to patterning the embryonic axes. In contrast, in the chelicerate spider embryo, cell,cell interactions are thought to play a crucial role in the development of the embryonic axes. A grafting experiment by Holm using spider eggs resulted in duplication of the embryonic axes, similar to the Spemann's organizer experiment using amphibian eggs. Recent work using the house spider Achaearanea tepidariorum has demonstrated that the homologs of decapentaplegic (dpp), short gastrulation (sog) and Delta, which encode a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-type ligand, its antagonist and a Notch ligand, respectively, are required in distinct aspects of axis formation. Achaearanea Dpp appears to function as a symmetry-breaking signal, which could account for Holm's results to some extent. Experimental findings concerning Achaearanea sog and Delta have highlighted differences in the mechanisms underlying ventral and posterior development between Drosophila and Achaearanea. Achaearanea ventral patterning essentially depends on sog function, in contrast to the Drosophila patterning mechanism, which is based on the nuclear gradient of Dorsal. Achaearanea posterior (or opisthosomal) patterning relies on the function of the caudal lobe, which develops from cells surrounding the blastopore through progressive activation of Delta-Notch signaling. In this review, we describe the differing strategies for forming the arthropod body plan in the fly and spider, and provide a perspective towards understanding the relationship between the arthropod and vertebrate body plans. [source]

    Induction of initial heart ,-actin, smooth muscle ,-actin, in chick pregastrula epiblast: The role of hypoblast and fibroblast growth factor-8

    Hiroko Matsui
    During heart development at the gastrula stage, inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) activity affects the heart specification but does not impair the expression of smooth muscle , -actin (SMA), which is first expressed in the heart mesoderm and recruited into initial heart myofibrils. Interaction of tissues between posterior epiblast and hypoblast at the early blastula stage is necessary to induce the expression of SMA, in which Nodal and Chordin are thought to be involved. Here we investigated the role of fibroblast growth factor-8 (FGF8) in the expression of SMA. In situ hybridization and reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction showed that Fgf8b is expressed predominantly in the nascent hypoblast. Anti-FGF8b antibody inhibited the expression of SMA, cTNT, and Tbx5, which are BMP-independent heart mesoderm/early cardiomyocyte genes, but not Brachyury in cultured posterior blastoderm, and combined FGF8b and Nodal, but neither factor alone induced the expression of SMA in association with heart specific markers in cultured epiblast. Although FGF8b did not induce the upregulation of phospho-Smad2, anti-FGF8b properties suppressed phospho-Smad2 in cultured blastoderm. FGF8b was able to reverse the BMP-induced inhibition of cardiomyogenesis. The results suggest that FGF8b acts on the epiblast synergistically with Nodal at the pregastrula stage and may play a role in the expression of SMA during early cardiogenesis. [source]

    Involvement of BMP-4/msx-1 and FGF pathways in neural induction in the Xenopus embryo

    Akihiko Ishimura
    The msx homeodomain protein is a downstream transcription factor of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 signal and a key regulator for neural tissue differentiation. Xmsx-1 antagonizes the dorsal expression of noggin and cerberus, as revealed by in situ hybridization and reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction assays. In animal cap explants, Xmsx-1 and BMP-4 inhibit the neural tissue differentiation induced by noggin or cerberus. A loss-of-function study using the Xmsx-1/VP-16 fusion construct indicated that neural tissue formation was directly induced by the injection of fusion ribonucleic acid, although the expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) in the cap was less than that in the cap injected with tBR or noggin. In contrast to the single cap assay, unexpectedly, both BMP-4 and Xmsx-1 failed to inhibit neurulation in the ectodermal explants to which the organizer mesoderm was attached. The results of cell-lineage tracing experiments indicated that the neural cells were differentiated from the animal pole tissue where the excess RNA of either BMP-4 or Xmsx-1 was injected, whereas notochord was differentiated from the organizer mesoderm. Neural tissue differentiated from BMP-4 -injected ectodermal cells strongly expressed posterior neural markers, such as hoxB9 and krox20, suggesting that the posterior neural cells differentiated regardless of the existence of the BMP signal. The introduction of a dominant-negative form of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor (XFD) into the ectodermal cells drastically reduced the expression of pan and posterior neural markers (N-CAM and hoxB-9) if co-injected with BMP-4 RNA, although XFD alone at the same dose did not shut down the expression of N-CAM in the combination explants. Therefore, it is proposed that an FGF-related molecule was involved in the direct induction of posterior neural tissue in the inducing signals from the organizer mesoderm in vivo. [source]