Bone Microenvironment (bone + microenvironment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Tumor expressed PTHrP facilitates prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic lesions

Jinhui Liao
Abstract Expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) correlates with prostate cancer skeletal progression; however, the impact of prostate cancer-derived PTHrP on the microenvironment and osteoblastic lesions in skeletal metastasis has not been completely elucidated. In this study, PTHrP overexpressing prostate cancer clones were stably established by transfection of full length rat PTHrP cDNA. Expression and secretion of PTHrP were verified by western blotting and IRMA assay. PTHrP overexpressing prostate cancer cells had higher growth rates in vitro, and generated larger tumors when inoculated subcutaneously into athymic mice. The impact of tumor-derived PTHrP on bone was investigated using a vossicle co-implant model. Histology revealed increased bone mass adjacent to PTHrP overexpressing tumor foci, with increased osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis and angiogenesis. In vitro analysis demonstrated pro-osteoclastic and pro-osteoblastic effects of PTHrP. PTHrP enhanced proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells and early osteoblast differentiation. PTHrP exerted a pro-angiogenic effect indirectly, as it increased angiogenesis but only in the presence of bone marrow stromal cells. These data suggest PTHrP plays a role in tumorigenesis in prostate cancer, and that PTHrP is a key mediator for communication and interactions between prostate cancer and the bone microenvironment. Prostate cancer-derived PTHrP is actively involved in osteoblastic skeletal progression. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Osteoblast-Specific Targeting of Soluble Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Increases Cortical Bone Thickness in Mice,,

SL Abboud
Abstract The soluble and membrane-bound forms of CSF-1 are synthesized by osteoblasts and stromal cells in the bone microenvironment. Transgenic mice, generated to selectively express sCSF-1 in bone, showed increased cortical thickness in the femoral diaphysis caused by new bone formation along the endosteal surface. The ability of sCSF-1 to enhance bone cell activity in vivo is potentially relevant for increasing cortical bone in a variety of disorders. Introduction: The soluble form of colony-stimulating factor-1 (sCSF-1) and the membrane-bound form of CSF-1 (mCSF-1) have been shown to support osteoclastogenesis in vitro; however, the effect of each peptide on bone remodeling in vivo is unclear. To determine the effect of sCSF-1, selectively expressed in bone, the skeletal phenotype of transgenic mice harboring the human sCSF-1 cDNA under the control of the osteocalcin promoter was assessed. Methods: At 5 and 14 weeks, mice were analyzed for CSF-1 protein levels, weighed, and X-rayed, and femurs were removed for peripheral quantitative computed tomography, histology, and histomorphometry. Results: High levels of human sCSF-1 were detected in bone extracts and, to a lesser extent, in plasma. Adult transgenic mice showed normal body weight and increased circulating monocytic cells. At 5 weeks, the femoral diaphysis was similar in CSF-1T and wt/wt littermates. However, by 14 weeks, the femoral diaphysis in CSF-1T mice showed increased cortical thickness and bone mineral density. In contrast to the diaphysis, the femoral metaphysis of CSF-1T mice showed normal cancellous bone comparable with wt/wt littermates at each time point. Histological sections demonstrated increased woven bone along the endosteal surface of the diaphysis and intracortical remodeling. Fluorochrome-labeling analysis confirmed endocortical bone formation in CSF-1T, with a 3.1-fold increase in the percentage of double-labeled surfaces and a 3.6-fold increase in the bone formation rate compared with wt/wt mice. Although remodeling resulted in a slightly porous cortex, sCSF-1 preferentially stimulated endocortical bone formation, leading to increased cortical thickness. Conclusions: These findings indicate that sCSF-1 is a key determinant of bone cell activity in the corticoendosteal envelope. [source]

IL-12 stimulates the osteoclast inhibitory peptide-1 (OIP-1/hSca) gene expression in CD4+ T cells,

Srinivasan Shanmugarajan
Abstract Immune cell products such as interferon (IFN)-, and interleukin (IL)-12 are potent inhibitors of osteoclast formation. We previously characterized the human osteoclast inhibitory peptide-1 (OIP-1/hSca), a Ly-6 gene family member and showed IFN-, modulation of OIP-1 expression in bone marrow cells. Whether, IL-12 regulates OIP-1 expression in the bone microenvironment is unclear. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that IL-12 treatment significantly enhanced OIP-1 mRNA expression in human bone marrow mononuclear cells. Because IL-12 induces IFN-, production by T cells, we tested whether IFN-, participates in IL-12 stimulation of OIP-1 gene expression in these cells. IL-12 treatment in the presence of IFN-, neutralizing antibody significantly increased OIP-1 mRNA expression, suggesting that IL-12 directly regulates OIP-1 gene expression. Interestingly, real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that IL-12 induces OIP-1 expression (3.2-fold) in CD4+ T cells; however, there was no significant change in CD8+ T cells. Also, IL-12 (10 ng/ml) treatment of Jurkat cells transfected with OIP-1 gene (,1 to ,1,988 bp) promoter-luciferase reporter plasmid demonstrated a 5-fold and 2.7-fold increase in OIP-1 gene promoter activity in the presence and absence of antibody against IFN-,, respectively. We showed that STAT-1,3 inhibitors treatment significantly decreased IL-12 stimulated OIP-1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed STAT-3, but not STAT-1 binding to the OIP-1 gene promoter in response to IL-12 stimulation. These results suggest that IL-12 stimulates the OIP-1 gene expression through STAT-3 activation in CD4+ T cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 107: 104,111, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A paradigm for the treatment of prostate cancer bone metastases based on an understanding of tumor cell,microenvironment interactions

Robert D. Loberg
Abstract The pliability of cancer cells to mutate into several different phenotypes in an attempt to find one that will survive and colonize at the metastatic site is a tremendous "hurdle" to overcome in designing novel cancer therapeutics. New targets of therapy are essential if we are to effectively overcome the evasiveness of cancer. The interaction between the tumor cell and the surrounding microenvironment creates a vicious cycle that perpetuates disease survival and progression. The future of cancer therapy resides in the ability to focus on the recruited and exploited relationships of the cancer cell with the host environment. These therapies target cancer cell growth early and interrupt the vicious cycle that is created by the tumor cells interacting with bone components by inhibiting osteoclasts, osteoblasts, stromal cells, and endothelial cells. They alter the bone microenvironment, creating a hostile "soil" that prevents the "seed" from developing into bone metastases and represent a potential new platform for the development of prostate cancer therapeutics. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Immunohistochemical detection of insulin-like growth factors, platelet-derived growth factor, and their receptors in ameloblastic tumors

H. Kumamoto
Background:, To evaluate the roles of growth factors in oncogenesis and cytodifferentiation of odontogenic tumors, expression of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and their receptors was analyzed in ameloblastic tumors as well as in tooth germs. Methods:, Tissue specimens of 10 tooth germs, 47 ameloblastomas, and five malignant ameloblastic tumors were examined immunohistochemically with the use of antibodies against IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), PDGF A-chain, PDGF B-chain, PDGF , -receptor, and PDGF , -receptor. Results:, Immunohistochemical reactivity for IGFs, PDGF chains, and their receptors was detected predominantly in odontogenic epithelial cells near the basement membrane in tooth germs and in benign and malignant ameloblastic tumors. The expression levels of IGF-II and PDGF chains were significantly higher in ameloblastic tumors than in tooth germs. Malignant ameloblastic tumors showed higher reactivity for PDGF chains than benign ameloblastomas and higher reactivity for platelet-derived growth factor receptors than tooth germs. The expression levels of PDGF chains were significantly higher in follicular ameloblastomas than in plexiform ameloblastomas. Desmoplastic ameloblastomas showed higher expression of IGFs and IGF-IR when compared with other ameloblastoma subtypes. Conclusion:, Expression of IGFs, PDGF, and their receptors in tooth germs and ameloblastic tumors suggests that these growth factor signals contribute to cell proliferation or survival in both normal and neoplastic odontogenic tissues. Expression of these molecules in odontogenic tissues possibly affects interactions with the bone microenvironment during tooth development and intraosseous progression of ameloblastic tumors. Altered expression of the ligands and receptors in ameloblastic tumors may be involved in oncogenesis, malignant potential, and tumor cell differentiation. [source]

Statins and osteoporosis: new role for old drugs

Satyawan B. Jadhav
Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease, affecting millions of people worldwide and leading to significant morbidity and high expenditure. Most of the current therapies available for its treatment are limited to the prevention or slowing down of bone loss rather than enhancing bone formation. Recent discovery of statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) as bone anabolic agents has spurred a great deal of interest among both basic and clinical bone researchers. In-vitro and some animal studies suggest that statins increase the bone mass by enhancing bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-mediated osteoblast expression. Although a limited number of case,control studies suggest that statins may have the potential to reduce the risk of fractures by increasing bone formation, other studies have failed to show a benefit in fracture reduction. Randomized, controlled clinical trials are needed to resolve this conflict. One possible reason for the discrepancy in the results of preclinical, as well as clinical, studies is the liver-specific nature of statins. Considering their high liver specificity and low oral bioavailability, distribution of statins to the bone microenvironment in optimum concentration is questionable. To unravel their exact mechanism and confirm beneficial action on bone, statins should reach the bone microenvironment in optimum concentration. Dose optimization and use of novel controlled drug delivery systems may help in increasing the bioavailability and distribution of statins to the bone microenvironment. Discovery of bone-specific statins or their bone-targeted delivery offers great potential in the treatment of osteoporosis. In this review, we have summarized various preclinical and clinical studies of statins and their action on bone. We have also discussed the possible mechanism of action of statins on bone. Finally, the role of drug delivery systems in confirming and assessing the actual potential of statins as anti-osteoporotic agents is highlighted. [source]

Regulation of global gene expression in the bone marrow microenvironment by androgen: Androgen ablation increases insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 expression

THE PROSTATE, Issue 15 2007
Chang Xu
Abstract BACKGROUND Prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to bone. Androgen suppression treatment is initially highly effective, but eventually results in resistant cancer cells. This study evaluates the effects of androgen suppression on the bone and bone marrow (BM). In particular we questioned whether the androgen therapy could adversely facilitate prostate cancer progression through an increase growth factor secretion by the bone microenvironment. METHODS Global gene expression is analyzed on mPEDB DNA microarrays. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP5) is detected by immunohistochemistry in mouse tissues and its regulation measured by qPCR and Western blotting in human BM stromal cells. Effects of extracellular matrix-associated IGFBP5 on human prostate epithelial cells are tested in an MTS cell-growth assay. RESULTS Castration increases expression of 159 genes (including 4 secreted cytokines) and suppresses expression of 84 genes. IGFBP5 is most consistently increased and the increase in expression is reversed by testosterone administration. IGFBP5 protein is detected in vivo in osteoblasts, BM stromal cells, and endothelial cells. Primary human stromal cell cultures secrete IGFBP5. In vitro, treatment of immortalized human marrow stromal cells with charcoal-stripped serum increases IGFBP5 mRNA expression, which is reversed by androgen supplementation. IGFBP5 is incorporated into the extracellular matrix. Further, IGFBP5 immobilized on extracellular matrices of stromal cells enhances the growth of immortalized prostate epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS Androgen suppressive therapy increases IGFBP5 in the BM microenvironment and thereby may facilitate the progression of prostate cancer. Prostate 67: 1621,1629, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Transforming growth factor-, signaling at the tumor,bone interface promotes mammary tumor growth and osteoclast activation

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 1 2009
Mitsuru Futakuchi
Understanding the cellular and molecular changes in the bone microenvironment is important for developing novel therapeutics to control breast cancer bone metastasis. Although the underlying mechanism(s) of bone metastasis has been the focus of intense investigation, relatively little is known about complex molecular interactions between malignant cells and bone stroma. Using a murine syngeneic model that mimics osteolytic changes associated with human breast cancer, we examined the role of tumor,bone interaction in tumor-induced osteolysis and malignant growth in the bone microenvironment. We identified transforming growth factor-, receptor 1 (TGF-,RI) as a commonly upregulated gene at the tumor-bone (TB) interface. Moreover, TGF-,RI expression and activation, analyzed by nuclear localization of phospho-Smad2, was higher in tumor cells and osteoclasts at the TB interface as compared to the tumor-alone area. Furthermore, attenuation of TGF-, activity by neutralizing antibody to TGF-, or TGF-,RI kinase inhibitor reduced mammary tumor-induced osteolysis, TGF-,RI expression and its activation. In addition, we demonstrate a potential role of TGF-, as an important modifier of receptor activator of NF-,B ligand (RANKL)-dependent osteoclast activation and osteolysis. Together, these studies demonstrate that inhibition of TGF-,RI signaling at the TB interface will be a therapeutic target in the treatment of breast cancer-induced osteolysis. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 71,81) [source]