Bone Marrow Specimens (bone + marrow_specimen)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A Retrospective Study of the Incidence and the Classification of Bone Marrow Disorders in the Dog at a Veterinary Teaching Hospital (1996,2004)

Douglas J. Weiss
Background: An 8-year retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and the classification of canine bone marrow disorders in a clinical pathology service at a university referral hospital. Animals: Dogs evaluated for bone marrow disorders at a veterinary teaching hospital. Hypothesis: A better understanding of the spectrum and the prevalence of canine bone marrow disorders can be achieved with a multiyear retrospective study. Methods: Bone marrow aspirate smears, core biopsy specimens, and case records from 717 dogs were reviewed. Results: Bone marrow specimens were first categorized based on the presence or the absence of a primary bone marrow disorder. Nondysplastic and nonmalignant pathologic changes were placed into 14 subcategories. Frequently observed pathologic disorders included nonregenerative immune-mediated anemia, pure red cell aplasia, bone marrow necrosis, myelofibrosis, and hemophagocytic syndrome. Dysmyelopoiesis (n = 61) was subcategorized into myelodysplastic syndromes (n = 27), and congenital (n = 1) and secondary (n = 33) dysmyelopoiesis. One hundred twenty-six cases of neoplasia were divided into acute leukemia (n = 46), chronic leukemia (n = 7), stage 5 malignant lymphoma (n = 28), multiple myeloma (n = 25), malignant histiocytosis (n = 11), metastatic mast-cell tumor (n = 3), sarcoma (n = 5), and carcinoma (n = 1). Conclusions and Clinical Importance: This study provides a general indication of the spectrum and the prevalence of canine bone marrow disorders at a referral center in North America. [source]

Epstein-Barr virus-associated haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

S Pasic
A patient with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome who developed Epstein-Barr virus-associated haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) is described in this study. At 4 mo of age the patient developed fever associated with bicytopenia and splenomegaly. Analysis of a bone marrow specimen revealed extensive haemophagocytosis, and in situ hybridization for EBV of the bone marrow specimen using an EBV-encoded RNA probe was positive. Diagnosis of EBV-HLH was established and immunotherapy with HLH-94 protocol was started. HLH has been described in patients with other well-defined primary immunodeficiencies such as X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome and Griscelli disease. Also, HLH was reported recently in severe combined immunodeficiency and DiGeorge syndrome. Conclusion: The possibility of an underlying primary immunodeficiency should be considered in paediatric patients who present with HLH during infancy. [source]

Comparison of bone marrow and peripheral blood ZAP-70 status examined by flow cytometric immunophenotyping in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

CYTOMETRY, Issue 4 2006
Rachel Sheridan
Abstract Background: The mutational status of the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia correlates with prognosis. Patients with mutated IgVH genes fare better than those with unmutated genes. Gene expression profiling studies identified the tyrosine kinase ZAP-70 to be expressed in unmutated CLL samples. Flow cytometric examination of ZAP-70 expression in tumor cells has been proposed to be a convenient surrogate marker for IgVH mutational status. However, a few studies have shown a small number of discordant results between ZAP-70 positivity, IgVH mutational status, and clinical outcome. There have been no reported studies comparing bone marrow samples with peripheral blood for ZAP-70 expression in CLL patients. Methods: We searched our flow cytometry files from October 2004 through April 2006 and identified CLL in 311 bone marrow and peripheral blood specimens from 256 patients. We defined ZAP-70 positivity as greater than 30% of the CD19+ B-cells above the isotype control value that coexpress ZAP-70. Statistical analyses were performed using the Fisher exact test and student t -test. Results: A significantly greater number of bone marrow specimens were positive for ZAP-70 when compared with the number of peripheral blood specimens. Of all the ZAP-70 negative specimens, CLL cells from bone marrow had a greater mean percentage of ZAP-70 positive cells when compared with the CLL cells from peripheral blood. Finally, six patients were identified who were ZAP-70 positive in the bone marrow but ZAP-70 negative in the peripheral blood. Conclusions: These results may be due to either an increase in the false positive rate in bone marrow specimens or to an intrinsic feature of CLL cells in the compartment that is biologically distinct from peripheral tumor cells. As prognosis and treatment decisions may be based on ZAP-70 results from either specimen type, it is prudent to further examine this observation. © 2006 International Society for Analytical Cytology [source]

Clinical utility of CD23 and FMC7 antigen coexistent expression in B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder subclassification

CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2002
Ejaz Ahmad
Abstract Background: CD23 and FMC7 are normal B-cell antigens utilized during diagnostic immunophenotyping of suspected lymphoproliferative disorders. However, the diagnostic utility of coexistent antigenic expression patterns with simultaneous two-color staining and flow cytometric analysis has not been studied extensively. Methods: Using multiparameter flow cytometry, we evaluated the expression pattern of FMC7 and CD23 in 218 cases of B-cell lymphoma from blood and bone marrow specimens. Results: The CD23(+)/FMC7(-) pattern was the most common pattern in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and related variants. The widest variation of patterns was found in patients with follicular cell lymphoma, large cell lymphoma, and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, a lymphoplasmacytoid disorder, although most cases expressed the CD23-/FMC7(+) pattern. The CD23 and FMC7 antigen, along with the CD5 coexpression pattern, provides critical adjunctive data. These data allow accurate classification of the majority of cases, thereby providing a key aspect of a reliable diagnostic algorithm. The CD23 and FMC7 antigen expression pattern, along with selected other antigens, was predictive of subtypes in >95% of lymphoproliferative cases and narrowed the differential diagnosis in the remaining cases. Conclusion: The flow cytometric CD23/FMC7 expression pattern achieved by multicolor immunophenotyping facilitates accurate and reproducible classification of B-cell lymphomas and has diagnostic utility. Cytometry (Clin. Cytometry) 50:1,7, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Localisation and distribution of hyaluronan in normal bone marrow matrix: a novel method to evaluate impending fibrosis?

Gunnel Sundström
Abstract: Bone marrow trephine biopsies from 30 healthy volunteers, 10 men and 20 women aged 18,60 yr were obtained for identification and localisation of hyaluronan (HYA). Fixation, decalcification and embedding were performed by two different methods, with identical results in both. For comparison bone marrow trephine biopsies from three patients with different haematological diseases and known fibrosis were studied. All bone marrow specimens were also stained for reticulin grading. HYA was found in the bone marrow specimens from healthy individuals in a pattern that was concordant with the reticulin staining, the common way of visualising bone marrow fibrosis. In bone marrow from the patients with known fibrosis the HYA and reticulin staining were both more intense and abundant. Interestingly, HYA was also found intracellularly in eosinophilic cells in normal bone marrow. HYA is a polysaccharide unique both in structural and biological properties, and in excess it may predict bone marrow fibrosis. [source]

Expression of CD66a in multiple myeloma

Yukihiko Satoh
Abstract CD66a is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen family and has been suggested to function as an intercellular adhesion molecule and cell growth regulator. Expression of CD66a in myeloma cells was examined with mAb TS135 against CD66a transfectants of murine-transformed fibroblasts. The reactivity of mAb TS135 with CD66a, CD66c, and CD66e was revealed. CD66a in myeloma cells was considered to be detectable with this mAb, since CD66c and CD66e are not expressed in them. CD66a was detected in three myeloma cell lines and an IgM-producing B-cell line. In clinical bone marrow specimens, including 18 multiple myeloma, two primary macroglobulinemia, and a case of CLL-like chronic lymphoproliferation with monoclonal IgG production, CD66a and three conventional myeloma cell markers (PCA-1, CD38, and CD56) were examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The results showed that 18 out of 21 cases (86%) were CD66a+, and PCA-1 showed the highest correlation with CD66a among conventional markers. Primary macroglobulinemia and chronic lymphoproliferation were also CD66a+. Two-dimensional flow cytometry with mAbs TS135 and CD38 confirmed the reactivity of TS135 with myeloma cells in those bone marrow specimens. The findings suggest that CD66a is expressed in multiple myeloma with high frequency. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 16:79,85, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Flow cytometric analysis of BCL-2 can distinguish small numbers of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells from B-cell precursors

Leah Hartung
Summary Flow cytometric identification of small numbers of precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) cells in post-treatment marrow specimens could benefit from the identification of additional, easily detectable markers that could be used in most cases. In this study, we evaluate whether bcl-2 expression quantified by four-colour flow cytometry can be effectively used to discriminate precursor B-ALL blasts from normal B-cell precursors (haematogones) and function as a leukaemia-specific marker. Levels of bcl-2 in the 22 precursor B-ALL cases studied were found to be significantly higher (over sixfold higher on average) than those present in haematogone populations from 22 control marrow specimens. Higher relative levels of bcl-2 expression in the B-ALL cases were maintained with respect to both immature CD34+ and more mature CD34, haematogone subsets, and appeared stable. Dilutional studies indicated that multiparameter flow cytometry analysis using bcl-2 could identify precursor B-ALL blasts representing as few as 1% of CD19+ cells or 0·01% of total leucocytes in bone marrow specimens containing substantial numbers of haematogones. This study suggests that bcl-2 may be an important marker for flow cytometric detection and quantification of small numbers of residual precursor B-ALL cells in bone marrow specimens. [source]