Bone Dimensions (bone + dimension)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 in maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery in 3 patients compared to autogenous bone grafts

A clinical pilot study
Abstract Background/Aims: This pilot study was designed to determine the clinical bone formation ability of a human recombinant DNA bone morphogenetic protein-7, also referred to as Osteogenic Protein-1 [OP-1] combined with a collagen carrier, implanted in the maxillary sinus of 3 patients. The results were compared with a group of 3 patients treated with sinus floor elevation and autogenous bonegrafts. Methods: 6 consecutive patients, 4 female and 2 male, between 48 and 57 years of age were treated by means of sinus floor elevation for insufficient bone height in the posterior maxilla for implant surgery. 3 patients, 2 female and 1 male, were treated with OP-1 attached to a collagen device. In these patients, 4 maxillary sinus grafting procedures according to Tatum's method were carried out. 1 g of collagen carrier containing 2.5 mg rhOP-1 mixed with 3 ml of saline was placed between the bony floor and the elevated mucosal lining of the most caudal part of the maxillary sinus, in order to increase the vertical bone dimension to place dental implants of a sufficient length. The 3 other patients, also 2 female and 1 male, with a total of 5 sinus sites, were treated with sinus floor elevation and autogenous iliac crest bonegrafts. After 6 months, during dental implant preparation, bone cores were taken for histology. Thus, clinical, radiological and histological results of the 2 groups of 3 patients were compared. Results: 6 months after sinus grafting with OP-1, in 1 male, well-vascularized bonelike tissue of good quality was observed clinically. This could be confirmed by histology. In the second, female, patient no bone formation was observed at all. A cyst-like granular tissue mass, without purulent content, was removed. In the 3rd, female, patient, who received bilateral sinus grafts, some bonelike formation was seen, however it showed flexible tissue which led to the decision that at 6 months after the sinus grafting, the implant placement had to be postponed. In all 5 autogenous grafted sinuses a bone appearance similar to normal maxillary bone was observed clinically as well as histologically and dental implants could be placed six months after sinus floor elevation surgery. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the OP-1 device has the potential for initiating bone formation in the human maxillary sinus within 6 months after a sinus floor elevation operation. However, the various findings in these 3 patients indicate that the behaviour of the material is at this moment insufficiently predictable, in this indication area. Further investigation is indicated before OP-1 can be successfully used instead of the "gold standard" autogenous bone graft. [source]

Compensatory bone remodelling in moose: a study of age, sex, and cross-sectional cortical bone dimensions in moose at Isle Royale National Park

Mary Hindelang
Abstract We studied interrelationships among age, sex, and cross-sectional cortical bone dimensions using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans of metatarsal bones of 180 moose (Alces alces) that died in Isle Royale National Park, Michigan. As a large-bodied quadruped with demanding ecological constraints on movement and behaviour, a moose experiences different weight-bearing and mechanical stressors than humans, to whom most existing studies of mechanical adaptations of bone pertain. In moose, both sexes showed significant subperiosteal expansion and an increase in medullary area, with an overall increase in cortical bone area over time. Female moose did not exhibit cortical thinning or reduction in cross-sectional area with age, rather they showed an increase in cortical bone area with periosteal apposition exceeding endosteal resorption, similar to the males. We also found that moose undergo changes in bone geometry through remodelling of bone similar to humans, suggesting a compensatory mechanism for increasing bone strength under conditions of decline in bone mineral density with age. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Treatment of Idiopathic Hyperphosphatasia With Intensive Bisphosphonate Therapy

Tim Cundy MD
Abstract In a family with IH, a rare high turnover bone disease, two older siblings were wheelchair-bound with severe skeletal deformity by age 15. Their youngest affected sibling was treated intensively with intravenous bisphosphonates for 3 years. The treatment was well tolerated and prevented the development of deformity and disability. Introduction: Idiopathic hyperphosphatasia (IH, also known as juvenile Paget's disease) is a rare genetic bone disease characterized by very high bone turnover and progressive bony deformity. Inhibitors of bone resorption have been used to suppress bone turnover in the short term, but there is no published data on long-term efficacy. Materials and Methods: An 11-year-old girl with IH, who had two severely affected older siblings, presented with progressive deformity and deafness and long bone fractures. Conventional pediatric doses of pamidronate had failed to prevent clinical deterioration or suppress bone turnover completely. Intensive bisphosphonate therapy (frequent 5-mg ibandronate infusions) was given to try and arrest progression of the skeletal disease. Growth and development, pure tone audiometry, biochemistry, radiology, densitometry (DXA), and bone histology were monitored. Results: A total of 45 mg ibandronate was given over 3 years until skeletal maturity was reached (20, 15, and 10 mg for years 1,3, respectively). Ibandronate treatment was well tolerated, and biochemical markers of bone turnover suppressed to within the age-appropriate normal range There was some progression of her thoracic kyphosis, but she had no further fractures and remained mobile and active at an age when her siblings had become wheelchair-bound. A significant recovery of hearing (p < 0.01) was documented, particularly at low frequencies. Radiographs showed improvement in spinal osteoporosis and cortical bone dimensions and arrest of progressive acetabular protrusion. Areal bone density increased substantially (lumbar spine z-score from ,2.2 to + 1.8). Tetracycline-labeled bone biopsy specimens were taken before and after 18 months of intensive treatment. The second biopsy showed suppression of bone turnover and a doubling of trabecular thickness, with no mineralization defect, and no osteopetrosis. Conclusions: Intensive bisphosphonate treatment prevented the development of deformity and disability and improved hearing in this child with IH. The dose of bisphosphonate, which is substantially greater than is usually used in pediatric bone disease, had no adverse effects, in particular on bone mineralization. [source]

Hard tissue alterations after socket preservation with additional buccal overbuilding: a study in the beagle dog

Stefan Fickl
Abstract Objectives: The aim of this study was to histometrically assess alterations of the ridge following socket preservation alone and socket preservation with additional buccal overbuilding. Material and Methods: In five beagle dogs four extraction sites were randomly subjected to one of the following treatments: Tx 1: The socket was filled with BioOss Collagen® and covered with a free gingival graft from the palate. Tx 2: The buccal bone plate was augmented using the GBR-technique, the socket was filled with BioOss Collagen® and covered with a free gingival graft. Tx 3: The buccal bone plate was forced into a buccal direction using a manual bone spreader. The socket was filled with BioOss Collagen® and covered with a free gingival graft from the palate. Tx 4: The socket was filled with BioOss Collagen® and a combined free gingival/connective tissue graft was used to cover the socket and for buccal tissue augmentation. For each experimental site, two histological sections were subjected to histometric analysis and evaluated for (i) vertical bone dimensions and (ii) horizontal bone dimensions. Results: All treatment groups showed horizontal and vertical bone loss. The mean vertical bone loss of the buccal bone plate was significantly lower in Tx 4 than in the other groups, while no statistical significant differences could be detected among the groups in the horizontal dimension. Conclusion: Overbuilding the buccal aspect in combination with socket preservation does not seem to be a suitable technique to compensate for the alterations after tooth extraction. [source]

The effects of socioeconomic status on endochondral and appositional bone growth, and acquisition of cortical bone in children from 19th century Birmingham, England

Simon Mays
Abstract Endochondral growth, appositional growth, and acquisition of cortical bone thickness in the femur are investigated in subadult skeletons (N = 43, dental age range birth to 12 years) from the 19th -century AD burial site of St. Martin's churchyard, Birmingham, England. Endochondral growth is monitored using diaphyseal femoral length. Appositional growth is monitored using radiographic midshaft mediolateral width and acquisition of cortical bone using combined mediolateral cortical thickness measured at the midshaft from radiographs. The methodology involves plotting these variables against dental age. Growth is compared in children of differing socioeconomic status. Higher and lower status individuals are identified in the assemblage by their burial in brick vaults in the case of the former and in earth-cut graves in the case of the latter. The relationships between bone dimensions and dental age are described using a polynomial regression procedure, and analysis of regression residuals is used to evaluate differences in bone dimension-for-dental age between the two status groups. Results show that lower socioeconomic status individuals had lower cortical thickness-for-dental age than those of higher status. This was interpreted as likely reflecting poorer nutrition in the children of lower socioeconomic backgrounds. There was no patterning with respect to socioeconomic status in femur diaphyseal length or midshaft width. The results support the idea that, for skeletal populations, growth in cortical thickness may be a more sensitive indicator of adverse conditions in childhood than growth in bone length or width. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]