Body Wt. (body + wt)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Protective effects of cysteine, methionine and vitamin C on the stomach in chronically alcohol treated rats

JOURNAL OF APPLIED TOXICOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
Ramazan Amanvermez
Abstract A chronic intake of high dose alcohol may cause oxidative stress and inflammation in the stomach. It is hypothesized that cysteine-methionine and vitamin C may neutralize harmful compounds while potentiating the antioxidant capacity of the cell or tissue. The experimental animals were fed regular diets and were maintained for 90 days in the control group, the alcoholic group, which was given 2.5 g of 50% ethanol kg,1 body wt. administered intragastrically every other day, or the alcoholic with antioxidant supplement group, to whom 2.5 g of 50% ethanol kg,1 body wt. + a solution that contained 200 mg vitamin C, 100 mg cysteine and 100 mg methionine was administered intragastrically every other day. After the treatments, the stomach was taken for pathological and biochemical analysis. The stomach of the alcoholic group rats had higher scores of pathological findings compared with the control group, whereas the scores of the antioxidant-supplemented group were lower than the alcoholic group. In addition, the oxidized protein and lipid content in the stomachs of the alcoholic group were significantly higher than the control, but antioxidant supplementation lowered the amount of oxidation in the antioxidant supplemented group. The amount of stomach glutathione in the alcoholic group was higher than that of the control and antioxidant-supplemented groups. Interestingly, the level of total thiol in the stomach tissue of rats with antioxidant supplement was statistically higher than that of the control and alcoholic groups. In conclusion, the scores of the pathological findings in the stomach of rats with the antioxidant supplement were lower than the chronic alcohol-treated rats, albeit the amount of total thiol was increased in this group. Moreover, chronic alcohol treatment led to an increase in the level of lipid and protein oxidation in the stomach tissue of rats. A simultaneous intake of ascorbate/l -cys/l -met along with ethanol attenuated the amount of oxidation which suggested that cysteine-methionine and vitamin C could play a protective role in the stomach against oxidative damage resulting from chronic alcohol ingestion. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Effect of textile waste water on the spermatogenesis of male albino rats

JOURNAL OF APPLIED TOXICOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
R. S. Gupta
Abstract Textile waste water released from dyeing and printing industries situated in Sanganer, Jaipur (India), brought about inhibition of spermatogenesis in male rats. Water analysis showed the presence of heavy metals at more than permissible limits. Oral administration of waste water to the rats at the dose level of 26.6 ml kg,1 body wt. significantly reduced the weights of testes, epididymides and seminal vesicle. Treated animals showed a notable depression of various stages of spermatogenesis. The production of spermatids was inhibited by 70.8% in waste-water-treated rats. The populations of spermatogonia, preleptotene spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes were decreased by 67.2, 71.1 and 73.2%, respectively. The total number of Sertoli cells was affected after waste water treatment. Reduced sperm count and motility resulted in treated groups. A significant fall in the content of various biochemical parameters of reproductive tissues was observed after water treatment. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Critical analysis of potential body temperature confounders on neurochemical endpoints caused by direct dosing and maternal separation in neonatal mice: a study of bioallethrin and deltamethrin interactions with temperature on brain muscarinic receptors

JOURNAL OF APPLIED TOXICOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
Jürgen Pauluhn
Abstract The present investigation was conducted to understand better possible confounding factors caused by direct dosing of neonatal mice during the pre-weaning developmental period. By direct dosing, pups might encounter thermal challenges when temporarily removed from their ,natural habitat'. Typically, this leads to a cold environment and food deprivation (impaired lactation) and modulation of the toxic potency of the substance administered. Growth retardation as a consequence of such behavioural changes in pups makes it increasingly difficult to differentiate specific from non-specific mechanisms. Neonatal NMRI mice were dosed daily by gavage (0.7 mg kg,1 body wt.) from postnatal day (PND) 10,16 with S -bioallethrin, deltamethrin or the vehicle. Then the pups, including their non-treated foster dams, were subjected temporarily for 6 h day to a hypo-, normo- or hyperthermic environment, which was followed by normal housing. The measured temperatures in the environmental chambers were ca. 21, 25 and 30°C, respectively. Thus, temperatures in the hypo- and normothermic groups are comparable to the temperatures commonly present in testing laboratories, whereas the hyperthermic condition is that temperature typically present in the ,natural habitat' of pups. A deviation from the normal behaviour of both pups and dams was observed in the hypo- and normothermic groups. In these groups the rectal temperatures of pups were markedly decreased, especially in the early phase of the study (PND 10,12). Neonates that received either test substance displayed changes in body weights and brain weights at terminal sacrifice (PND 17) when subjected temporarily to a non-physiological environment. An enormous influence of environmental temperature on the density of muscarinic receptors in the crude synaptosomal fraction of the cerebral cortex was ascertained. In summary, these results demonstrate that the direct dosing of thermolabile neonatal mice by gavage is subject to significant artefacts that render the interpretation of findings from such studies difficult. It appears that if direct dosing of neonatal pups is mandated, and inhalation is a relevant route of exposure, the combined inhalation exposure of dams with their litters is an alternative procedure that does not cause disruption of the ,natural habitat' of pups. However, owing to their higher ventilation, under such conditions the pups may receive dosages at least double those of the dams. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Protective effects of quercetin on ultraviolet A light-induced oxidative stress in the blood of rat

JOURNAL OF APPLIED TOXICOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
Ahmet Kahraman
Abstract The oxidative effects of ultraviolet A (UVA) light (320,400 nm) and the antioxidant effects of quercetin were examined in rat blood. For this purpose, rats were divided into three groups: control, ultraviolet (UV) and ultraviolet + quercetin (UV + Q). The UV and UV + Q groups were irradiated for 4 h a day with UVA light (1.25 mW cm2) during periods of 3, 6 and 9 days. Quercetin (50 mg kg,1 body wt.) was administered intraperitoneally in the UV + Q group rats before irradiation periods. Blood was taken 3, 6 and 9 days post-treatment. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels significantly increased after 9 days of daily exposure to UVA. Whole blood glutathione (GSH) levels significantly declined after 3,9 days of irradiation. Glutathione peroxidase activity on days 6 and 9 and glutathione reductase activities on days 3, 6 and 9 post-irradiation were diminished significantly. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities decreased significantly 3,9 days post-irradiation. The administration of quercetin before the 9-day period of irradiation significantly reduced the increase in plasma MDA value. Whole blood GSH levels significantly decreased with the administration of quercetin on all days. Quercetin significantly increased antioxidant enzymes diminished by UVA irradiation. Exposure of rats to UVA light leads to oxidative stress, reflected by increased MDA and reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. The administration of quercetin appears to be a useful approach to reduce the damage produced by UVA radiation. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Modulatory potential of ellagic acid, a natural plant polyphenol on altered lipid profile and lipid peroxidation status during alcohol-induced toxicity: A pathohistological study

JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR TOXICOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
Nagarajan Devipriya
Abstract Polyphenol-rich dietary foodstuffs, consumed as an integral part of vegetables, fruits, and beverages have attracted attention due to their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound widely distributed in fruits and nuts, has been reported to scavenge free radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation. Chronic consumption of alcohol potentially results in serious illness including hepatitis, fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia, and cirrhosis. A little is known about the influence of EA on alcohol toxicity in vivo. Accordingly, in the present study, we have evaluated the protective effects of EA on lipid peroxidation and lipid levels during alcohol-induced toxicity in experimental rats. Forty female albino Wistar rats, which were weighing between 150,170 g were used for the study. The toxicity was induced by administration of 20% alcohol orally (7.9 g/kg body wt.) for 45 days. Rats were treated with EA at three different doses (30, 60, and 90 mg/kg body wt.) via intragastric intubations together with alcohol. At the end of experimental duration, liver marker enzymes (i.e., aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase), lipid peroxidative indices (i.e., thiobarbituriacid reactive substances and hydroperoxides) in plasma, and lipid levels (i.e., cholesterol, free fatty acids, triglycerides and phospholipids) in tissues were analyzed to evaluate the antiperoxidative and antilipidemic effects of EA. Liver marker enzymes, lipid peroxidative indices, and lipid levels, i.e., cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids, were significantly increased whereas phospholipid levels were significantly decreased in the alcohol-administered group. EA treatment resulted in positive modulation of marker enzymes, peroxidative indices, and lipid levels. EA at the dose of 60 mg/kg body wt. was found to be more effective when compared to the other two doses. Histological changes observed were also inconsistent with the biochemical parameters. Our study suggests that EA exerts beneficial effects at the dosage of 60 mg/kg body wt. against alcohol-induced damage, and it can be used as a potential drug for the treatment of alcohol-abuse ailments in the near future. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 22:101,112, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jbt.20226 [source]