Body Weight Increase (body + weight_increase)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A randomized, placebo- and active-controlled study of paliperidone extended release for the treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder

Eduard Vieta
Vieta E, Nuamah IF, Lim P, Yuen EC, Palumbo JM, Hough DW, Berwaerts J. A randomized, placebo- and active-controlled study of paliperidone extended release for the treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder. Bipolar Disord 2010: 12: 230,243. 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objectives:, To evaluate the antimanic efficacy and safety of paliperidone extended-release (ER) tablets in patients with bipolar I disorder. Methods:, This study included a 3-week, double-blind, acute treatment phase (paliperidone ER versus placebo, with quetiapine as control), and a 9-week, double-blind, maintenance phase (paliperidone ER versus quetiapine). Patients [n = 493; Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score , 20] were randomized (2:2:1) to flexibly dosed paliperidone ER (3,12 mg/day), quetiapine (400,800 mg/day), or placebo for the acute treatment phase. During the maintenance phase, patients assigned to placebo were switched to paliperidone ER but not included in analysis of efficacy. Results:, Paliperidone ER was superior to placebo at the 3-week endpoint {primary outcome; least-squares mean difference in change from baseline in YMRS scores [95% confidence interval (CI)]: ,5.5 (,7.57; ,3.35); p < 0.001} and noninferior to quetiapine at the 12-week endpoint [least-squares mean difference (95% CI): 1.7 (,0.47; 3.96)]. The median mode dose during the 12-week treatment period was 9 mg for paliperidone ER and 600 mg for quetiapine. The most common (, 10%) treatment-emergent adverse events during the 12-week period were: headache (16%), somnolence (10%), and akathisia (10%) for paliperidone ER; somnolence (21%), sedation and dry mouth (17% each), headache (14%), and dizziness (13%) for quetiapine. Body weight increase , 7% from baseline to 12-week endpoint was 8% with paliperidone ER and 17% with quetiapine. A higher percentage of paliperidone ER (13.9%) versus quetiapine patients (7.5%) ,switched to depression' at the12-week endpoint. Conclusions:, Paliperidone ER (3,12 mg/day) was efficacious and tolerable in the treatment of acute mania. [source]

Hormone Replacement Therapy Dissociates Fat Mass and Bone Mass, and Tends to Reduce Weight Gain in Early Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled 5-Year Clinical Trial of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study,

LB Jensen MD
Abstract The aim of this study was to study the influence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on weight changes, body composition, and bone mass in early postmenopausal women in a partly randomized comprehensive cohort study design. A total of 2016 women ages 45,58 years from 3 months to 2 years past last menstrual bleeding were included. One thousand were randomly assigned to HRT or no HRT in an open trial, whereas the others were allocated according to their preferences. All were followed for 5 years for body weight, bone mass, and body composition measurements. Body weight increased less over the 5 years in women randomized to HRT (1.94 4.86 kg) than in women randomized to no HRT (2.57 4.63, p = 0.046). A similar pattern was seen in the group receiving HRT or not by their own choice. The smaller weight gain in women on HRT was almost entirely caused by a lesser gain in fat. The main determinant of the weight gain was a decline in physical fitness. Women opting for HRT had a significantly lower body weight at inclusion than the other participants, but the results in the self-selected part of the study followed the pattern found in the randomized part. The change in fat mass was the strongest predictor of bone changes in untreated women, whereas the change in lean body mass was the strongest predictor when HRT was given. Body weight increases after the menopause. The gain in weight is related to a decrease in working capacity. HRT is associated with a smaller increase in fat mass after menopause. Fat gain protects against bone loss in untreated women but not in HRT-treated women. The data suggest that women's attitudes to HRT are more positive if they have low body weight, but there is no evidence that the conclusions in this study are skewed by selection bias. [source]

Growth hormone secretagogue receptor antagonists as potential therapeutic agents for obesity

Hongyu Zhao
Abstract Safe and efficacious medicines for obesity treatment are greatly needed. As an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R 1a), ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigen. Administration of ghrelin causes food intake and body weight increase in both rodents and humans, whereas inhibiting its actions by antibodies, peptide antagonists, and anti-sense oligonucleotides leads to decreased food intake and weight loss. Recent progress in developing nonpeptidyl small molecule GHS-R antagonists is reviewed in this article. Drug Dev. Res. 65:50,54, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

An insulin-resistant hypertriglyceridaemic normotensive obese dog model: assessment of insulin resistance by the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp in combination with the stable isotope technique

E. Bailhache
Summary Many studies have shown that in humans insulin resistance (IR) is associated with obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia. The aim of our study was to develop slowly dietary-induced obesity in dogs through long-term overfeeding of a high-fat diet, and to characterize this IR, hypertriglyceridaemic and normotensive model. Insulin resistance was assessed by the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique. The contribution of hepatic glucose production during the clamp was evaluated using a constant stable-isotope-labelled glucose infusion. Overfeeding a high-fat diet for 7 months was associated with a 43 5% body weight increase. Insulin resistance was characterized by hyperinsulinaemia in the unfed state (10 1 vs. 24 1 ,U/ml, in healthy and obese dogs, respectively, p < 0.02) and by a reduction of the insulin-mediated glucose uptake (28 3 vs. 16 1 mg/kg/min, p < 0.02). Hepatic glucose production suppression under insulin infusion allowed to conclude that this reduced glucose uptake resulted from a decrease of insulin sensitivity in obese dogs. Furthermore, animals remained normotensive and exhibited a marked hypertriglyceridaemia (0.26 0.04 vs. 0.76 0.15 mmol/l, in healthy and obese dogs, respectively, p < 0.02). Because hypertriglyceridaemia is the most common lipid abnormality in insulin-resistant humans, this dog with slowly induced obesity may constitute a good model to study the consequences of IR in lipid metabolism independently of vascular changes. [source]