Body Surface (body + surface)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Body Surface

  • body surface area

  • Selected Abstracts


    Evaluation of a severity score to predict the prognosis of Fournier's gangrene

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2010
    Saturnino Luján Marco
    Study Type , Prognosis (case series) Level of Evidence 4 OBJECTIVE To determine the validity of a Fournier's gangrene severity index (FGSI), developed to assign a numerical score describing the severity of FG, and evaluate factors in the survival of patients with FG. PATIENTS AND METHODS We retrospectively reviewed 51 patients diagnosed with FG between 1994 and 2006. Data were collected on their medical history, which included vital signs (temperature, heart and respiratory rates) and metabolic variables (sodium, potassium, creatinine, bicarbonate levels, haematocrit, and white blood cell count). We computed a score relating to the severity of the disease at the time, and compared it to other features according to whether the patient survived or died. The different prognostic factors were assessed by univariate analysis with the Mann,Whitney U and Kendall A-B tests. RESULTS Of the evaluated 51 inpatients, eight died (16%) and 43 survived (84%). The median (range) age was 63 (17,85) years and the median time from the onset of the symptoms until the admission to the emergency room was 7.8 (1,60) days. The mean hospital stay was 33 (2,90) days and 17 patients were admitted to the intensive-care unit for a mean of 4.5 days. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Body surfaces involved were the scrotum in five patients (10%), the penis and scrotum in 11 (22%), the scrotum and perineum in 30 (59%) and the abdominal wall in five (10%). There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution in those who survived or died (P = 0.131). The median age of 60 (17,81) years in the survivors was significantly lower than that of 73.5 (50,85) years in those who died (P = 0.02). There was no significant difference (P = 0.06) between the number of repeated debridements in the survivors (3.23) and those who died (5.25). The mean (range) FGSI score for survivors was 6.7 (0,14), vs 8.7 (6,13) for those who died (P = 0.12). The only laboratory variables associated with death were serum bicarbonate (P = 0.04) and serum sodium (P = 0.02) levels. CONCLUSIONS FG is an unpredictable disease process with wide variability in its presentation. In our experience, the FGSI gives no indication of the likelihood of survival, but the risk factors for predicting the severity of FG seem to be greater in older patients and those with high sodium and low bicarbonate levels. [source]


    Genital system anatomy and development of Ovatella myosotis by three-dimensional computer visualization

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2 2009
    Bernhard Ruthensteiner
    Abstract Adult anatomy as well as organogenesis of the genital system of the ellobiid pulmonate Ovatella myosotis is investigated in detail by means of serial sectioning and three-dimensional computer reconstruction and visualization. From the middle portion of the adult, which has four nidamental glands, a spermoviduct leads to a common genital aperture. From here two separate structures, the vas deferens and a groove on the body surface, lead anteriorly. The latter is termed the egg groove because it carries the egg ribbon anteriorly, a function that is recognized here for the first time in the Ellobiidae. The evolution of this structure is discussed. In development, the organ system arises from four separate anlagen: (1) the ovotestis anlage, (2) the pallial anlage giving rise to the hermaphrodite duct, fertilization pouch,spermatheca complex, nidamental glandular complex and spermoviduct, (3) the bursa copulatrix anlage and (4) the anlage of the copulatory organ, vas deferens and egg groove. This development mode strongly resembles that of the siphonariid Williamia radiata, supporting its interpretation as a plesiomorphy in Pulmonata. Similarities in development of primitive pulmonates and evolution in gastropods lead to the assumption that ontogenesis of this organ system reflects evolution to some degree. [source]


    Light and scanning microscopic studies of integument differentiation in the grass snake Natrix natrix L. (Lepidosauria, Serpentes) during embryogenesis

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    Elwira Swad
    Abstract We analysed the differentiation of body cover in the grass snake (Natrix natrix L.) over the full length of the embryo's body at each developmental stage. Based on investigations using both light and scanning electron microscopes, we divided the embryonic development of the grass snake integument into four phases. The shape of the epidermal cells changes first on the caudal and ventral parts of the embryo, then gradually towards the rostral and dorsal areas. In stage V on the ventral side of the embryo the gastrosteges are formed from single primordia, but on the dorsal side the epidermis forms the scale primordia in stage VII. This indicates that scalation begins on the ventral body surface, and spreads dorsally. The appearance of melanocytes between the cells of the stratum germinativum in stage VII coincides with changes in embryo colouration. The first dermal melanocytes were detected in stage XI so in this stage the definitive skin pattern is formed. In the same stage the epidermis forms the first embryonic shedding complex and the periderm layer begins to detach in small, individual flakes. This process coincides with rapid growth of the embryos. [source]


    On the morphology of Acanthostomum spiniceps (Looss, 1896) and A. absconditum (Looss, 1901) (Digenea: Cryptogonimidae: Acanthostominae) with particular reference to the juvenile stage

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 3 2006
    Mohammed Hasan Ibraheem
    Abstract The morphology of juvenile and adult stages of Acanthostomum spiniceps and A. absconditum, from bagrid fish of the river Nile in Egypt, was studied with both light and scanning electron microscopy. In early juveniles, circumoral spines are absent and the entire body surface is covered with tegumental spines. Late juveniles show gradual differentiation of the circumoral tegument into a collar of spines associated with a reduction in density of tegumental spines at the posterior extremity of the body. Genital primordia appear when juveniles are about 1.75 mm long. The distributions of tegumental spines on adult A. spiniceps and A. absconditum are similar. Spines are denser on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the anterior and middle parts of the body and less dense towards the posterior end. The tegumental fold surrounding the ventral sucker of A. absconditum has spines while the fold of A. spiniceps lacks them. The most important morphological features differentiating both species are the number of circumoral spines, body shape, ratio of body length to width, sucker sizes, and the presence or absence of spines on the ventral sucker. [source]


    Females of the European beewolf preserve their honeybee prey against competing fungi

    ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    Erhard Strohm
    Summary 1. Females of the European beewolf Philanthus triangulum (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae) provision brood cells with paralysed honeybees as larval food. Because brood cells are located in warm, humid locations there is a high risk of microbial decomposition of the provisions. Low incidence of fungus infestation (Aspergillus sp.) in nests in the field suggested the presence of an anti-fungal adaptation. 2. To test whether the paralysis caused the protection from fungus infestation, the timing of fungus growth on bees that were freeze-killed, paralysed but not provisioned, and provisioned regularly by beewolf females was determined. Fungus growth was first detected on freeze-killed bees, followed by paralysed but not provisioned bees. By contrast, fungus growth on provisioned bees was delayed greatly or even absent. Thus, paralysis alone is much less efficient in delaying fungus growth than is regular provisioning. 3. Observations of beewolves in their nests revealed that females lick the body surface of their prey very thoroughly during the period of excavation of the brood cell. 4. To separate the effect of a possible anti-fungal property of the brood cell and the licking of the bees, a second experiment was conducted. Timing of fungus growth on paralysed bees did not differ between artificial and original brood cells. By contrast, fungus growth on bees that had been provisioned by a female but were transferred to artificial brood cells was delayed significantly. Thus, the treatment of the bees by the female wasp but not the brood cell caused the delay in fungus growth. 5. Beewolf females most probably apply anti-fungal chemicals to the cuticle of their prey. This is the first demonstration of the mechanism involved in the preservation of provisions in a hunting wasp. Some kind of preservation of prey as a component of parental care is probably widespread among hunting wasps and might have been a prerequisite for the evolution of mass provisioning. [source]


    Topographical organization of pathways from somatosensory cortex through the pontine nuclei to tactile regions of the rat cerebellar hemispheres

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 10 2006
    Trygve B. Leergaard
    Abstract The granule cell layer of the cerebellar hemispheres contains a patchy and noncontinuous map of the body surface, consisting of a complex mosaic of multiple perioral tactile representations. Previous physiological studies have shown that cerebrocerebellar mossy fibre projections, conveyed through the pontine nuclei, are mapped in registration with peripheral tactile projections to the cerebellum. In contrast to the fractured cerebellar map, the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is somatotopically organized. To understand better the map transformation occurring in cerebrocerebellar pathways, we injected axonal tracers in electrophysiologically defined locations in Sprague,Dawley rat folium crus IIa, and mapped the distribution of retrogradely labelled neurons within the pontine nuclei using three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions. Tracer injections within the large central upper lip patch in crus IIa-labelled neurons located centrally in the pontine nuclei, primarily contralateral to the injected side. Larger injections (covering multiple crus IIa perioral representations) resulted in labelling extending only slightly beyond this region, with a higher density and more ipsilaterally labelled neurons. Combined axonal tracer injections in upper lip representations in SI and crus IIa, revealed a close spatial correspondence between the cerebropontine terminal fields and the crus IIa projecting neurons. Finally, comparisons with previously published three-dimensional distributions of pontine neurons labelled following tracer injections in face receiving regions in the paramedian lobule (downloaded from http://www.rbwb.org) revealed similar correspondence. The present data support the coherent topographical organization of cerebro-ponto-cerebellar networks previously suggested from physiological studies. We discuss the present findings in the context of transformations from cerebral somatotopic to cerebellar fractured tactile representations. [source]


    Heterologous expression of AtClo1, a plant oil body protein, induces lipid accumulation in yeast

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 3 2009
    Marine Froissard
    Abstract Proteomic approaches on lipid bodies have led to the identification of proteins associated with this compartment, showing that, rather than the inert fat depot, lipid droplets appear as complex dynamic organelles with roles in metabolism control and cell signaling. We focused our investigations on caleosin [Arabidopsis thaliana caleosin 1 (AtClo1)], a minor protein of the Arabidopsis thaliana seed lipid body. AtClo1 shares an original triblock structure, which confers to the protein the capacity to insert at the lipid body surface. In addition, AtClo1 possesses a calcium-binding domain. The study of plants deficient in caleosin revealed its involvement in storage lipid degradation during seed germination. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a heterologous expression system, we investigated the potential role of AtClo1 in lipid body biogenesis and filling. The green fluorescent protein-tagged protein was correctly targeted to lipid bodies. We observed an increase in the number and size of lipid bodies. Moreover, transformed yeasts accumulated more fatty acids (+46.6%). We confirmed that this excess of fatty acids was due to overaccumulation of lipid body neutral lipids, triacylglycerols and steryl esters. We showed that the original intrinsic properties of AtClo1 protein were sufficient to generate a functional lipid body membrane and to promote overaccumulation of storage lipids in yeast oil bodies. [source]


    A viscous vortex particle method for deforming bodies with application to biolocomotion

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS, Issue 12 2009
    Li Jeany Zhang
    Abstract Bio-inspired mechanics of locomotion generally consist of the interaction of flexible structures with the surrounding fluid to generate propulsive forces. In this work, we extend, for the first time, the viscous vortex particle method (VVPM) to continuously deforming two-dimensional bodies. The VVPM is a high-fidelity Navier,Stokes computational method that captures the fluid motion through evolution of vorticity-bearing computational particles. The kinematics of the deforming body surface are accounted for via a surface integral in the Biot,Savart velocity. The spurious slip velocity in each time step is removed by computing an equivalent vortex sheet and allowing it to flux to adjacent particles; hence, no-slip boundary conditions are enforced. Particles of both uniform and variable size are utilized, and their relative merits are considered. The placement of this method in the larger class of immersed boundary methods is explored. Validation of the method is carried out on the problem of a periodically deforming circular cylinder immersed in a stagnant fluid, for which an analytical solution exists when the deformations are small. We show that the computed vorticity and velocity of this motion are both in excellent agreement with the analytical solution. Finally, we explore the fluid dynamics of a simple fish-like shape undergoing undulatory motion when immersed in a uniform free stream, to demonstrate the application of the method to investigations of biomorphic locomotion. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    A hybrid immersed boundary and material point method for simulating 3D fluid,structure interaction problems

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS, Issue 12 2008
    Anvar Gilmanov
    Abstract A numerical method is developed for solving the 3D, unsteady, incompressible Navier,Stokes equations in curvilinear coordinates containing immersed boundaries (IBs) of arbitrary geometrical complexity moving and deforming under forces acting on the body. Since simulations of flow in complex geometries with deformable surfaces require special treatment, the present approach combines a hybrid immersed boundary method (HIBM) for handling complex moving boundaries and a material point method (MPM) for resolving structural stresses and movement. This combined HIBM & MPM approach is presented as an effective approach for solving fluid,structure interaction (FSI) problems. In the HIBM, a curvilinear grid is defined and the variable values at grid points adjacent to a boundary are forced or interpolated to satisfy the boundary conditions. The MPM is used for solving the equations of solid structure and communicates with the fluid through appropriate interface-boundary conditions. The governing flow equations are discretized on a non-staggered grid layout using second-order accurate finite-difference formulas. The discrete equations are integrated in time via a second-order accurate dual time stepping, artificial compressibility scheme. Unstructured, triangular meshes are employed to discretize the complex surface of the IBs. The nodes of the surface mesh constitute a set of Lagrangian control points used for tracking the motion of the flexible body. The equations of the solid body are integrated in time via the MPM. At every instant in time, the influence of the body on the flow is accounted for by applying boundary conditions at stationary curvilinear grid nodes located in the exterior but in the immediate vicinity of the body by reconstructing the solution along the local normal to the body surface. The influence of the fluid on the body is defined through pressure and shear stresses acting on the surface of the body. The HIBM & MPM approach is validated for FSI problems by solving for a falling rigid and flexible sphere in a fluid-filled channel. The behavior of a capsule in a shear flow was also examined. Agreement with the published results is excellent. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    An explicit formulation for the evolution of nonlinear surface waves interacting with a submerged body

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS, Issue 11 2007
    Christopher P. Kent
    Abstract An explicit formulation to study nonlinear waves interacting with a submerged body in an ideal fluid of infinite depth is presented. The formulation allows one to decompose the nonlinear wave,body interaction problem into body and free-surface problems. After the decomposition, the body problem satisfies a modified body boundary condition in an unbounded fluid domain, while the free-surface problem satisfies modified nonlinear free-surface boundary conditions. It is then shown that the nonlinear free-surface problem can be further reduced to a closed system of two nonlinear evolution equations expanded in infinite series for the free-surface elevation and the velocity potential at the free surface. For numerical experiments, the body problem is solved using a distribution of singularities along the body surface and the system of evolution equations, truncated at third order in wave steepness, is then solved using a pseudo-spectral method based on the fast Fourier transform. A circular cylinder translating steadily near the free surface is considered and it is found that our numerical solutions show excellent agreement with the fully nonlinear solution using a boundary integral method. We further validate our solutions for a submerged circular cylinder oscillating vertically or fixed under incoming nonlinear waves with other analytical and numerical results. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    A numerical method to solve the m -terms of a submerged body with forward speed

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS, Issue 5 2002
    W.-Y. Duan
    Abstract To model mathematically the problem of a rigid body moving below the free surface, a control surface surrounding the body is introduced. The linear free surface condition of the steady waves created by the moving body is satisfied. To describe the fluid flow outside this surface a potential integral equation is constructed using the Kelvin wave Green function whereas inside the surface, a source integral equation is developed adopting a simple Green function. Source strengths are determined by matching the two integral equations through continuity conditions applied to velocity potential and its normal derivatives along the control surface. After solving for the induced fluid velocity on the body surface and the control surface, an integral equation is derived involving a mixed distribution of sources and dipoles using a simple Green function and one component of the fluid velocity. The normal derivatives of the fluid velocity on the body surface, namely the m -terms, are then solved by this matching integral equation method (MIEM). Numerical results are presented for two elliptical sections moving at a prescribed Froude number and submerged depth and a sensitivity analysis undertaken to assess the influence of these parameters. Furthermore, comparisons are performed to analyse the impact of different assumptions adopted in the derivation of the m -terms. It is found that the present method is easy to use in a panel method with satisfactory numerical precision. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    From basic research to the bedside: efficacy of topical treatment with pseudocatalase PC-KUS in 71 children with vitiligo

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 7 2008
    Karin U. Schallreuter MD
    Background The epidermal accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been documented in vitiligo. Aim To assess the effect on disease cessation and repigmentation of the reduction/removal of H2O2 using low-dose, narrow-band, ultraviolet-B (UV-B)-activated pseudocatalase PC-KUS in 71 children with vitiligo. Methods This uncontrolled and retrospective study included 45 girls and 26 boys (mean age, 10.3 years) who applied topical PC-KUS twice daily to the entire body surface without narrow-band UV-B dose increments. The affected body areas were documented by special photography at the first visit and after 8,12 months. The response was evaluated by two independent physicians as > 75% vs. < 75% total repigmentation of the face/neck, trunk, extremities, and hands/feet. Generalized (n = 61) and segmental (n = 10) vitiligo were evaluated as different entities. The effect of total-body, low-dose, narrow-band UV-B (0.15 mJ/cm2) monotherapy once daily without any increments and without application of PC-KUS was tested over 6 months in 10 children with vitiligo vulgaris (mean age, 8.4 years). Results One hundred per cent cessation was observed in 70 of the 71 children. More than 75% repigmentation was achieved in 66 of 71 patients on the face/neck, 48 of 61 on the trunk, and 40 of 55 on the extremities; however, repigmentation on the hands/feet was disappointing (five of 53). The response was independent of skin color, age of onset, duration of disease, other demographic features, and previous treatments. The follow-up after narrow-band UV-B monotherapy showed no significant repigmentation in all areas. Seven of 10 patients showed progression of their vitiligo. Conclusion A reduction in epidermal H2O2 using low-dose, narrow-band UV-B-activated pseudocatalase PC-KUS is an effective treatment for childhood vitiligo which can be safely performed at home. [source]


    Xeroderma pigmentosum with limited involvement of the UV-exposed areas: a case report

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Mostafa Mirshams-Shahshahani MD
    A 21-year-old woman with skin type IV, who had developed photophobia and brown, spotty, hyperpigmented lesions on her face from early childhood, presented to our center for treatment of her facial lesions. Examination on admission revealed numerous, freckle-like, hyperpigmented macules and actinic keratoses over the central part of the face, with sparing of the forehead, chin, and peripheral area (Fig. 1). The area involved was approximated to be around 2% of the total body surface. The dorsal parts of the hands showed no lesions (Fig. 2), but guttate hypomelanotic lesions were apparent on both forearms. Figure 1. Limitation of xeroderma pigmentosum lesions to the center of the face Figure 2. Hands are devoid of any lesions Histologic examination of biopsies from four different facial lesions revealed them to be keratoacanthoma (1.5 × 2.5 cm ulcerative nodule on the right cheek), sclerosing basal cell epithelioma (nasal lesion), lentigo simplex, and hypertrophic actinic keratosis. Corneal clouding, conjunctival injection, loss of lashes, and atrophy of the lids were apparent on ophthalmologic examination. Other parts of the physical examination, including examination of the oral cavity, were nonsignificant. In addition, except for the presence of mild eczema in a sibling, the patient's family history regarding the presence of any similar problem and also any other important dermatologic or general disorder was negative. [source]


    Yersinia ruckeri infections in salmonid fish

    JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, Issue 5 2007
    E Tobback
    Abstract Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of yersiniosis or enteric redmouth disease leading to significant economic losses in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Infection may result in a septicaemic condition with haemorrhages on the body surface and in the internal organs. Despite the significance of the disease, very little information is available on the pathogenesis, hampering the development of preventive measures to efficiently combat this bacterial agent. This review discusses the agent and the disease it causes. The possibility of the presence of similar virulence markers and/or pathogenic mechanisms between the Yersinia species which elicit disease in humans and Y. ruckeri is also examined. [source]


    A reovirus disease in cultured mud crab, Scylla serrata, in southern China

    JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, Issue 3 2007
    S-P Weng
    Abstract A reovirus, designated mud crab reovirus (MCRV), associated with large economic losses was recently isolated from marine cultured mud crab, Scylla serrata, in southern China. The complete viral particle is 70 nm in diameter, icosahedral and non-enveloped. The virus infects connective tissue cells of the hepatopancreas, gills and intestine in mud crab and develops in the cytoplasm. Hundred per cent mortality was observed in mud crab experimentally infected by intramuscular injection, bath inoculation and oral inoculation, while cohabitation infection caused 80% mortality. The viral genome consists of 13 linear dsRNA segments, with an electrophoretic pattern 1/5/7. The results of this study suggest that the virus is highly pathogenic and can be transmitted enterically as well as via the body surface of mud crab. Although the genomic organization of this virus is different from that of the other crab reoviruses, CcRV-W2 and DpPV, all three of these reoviruses have similar electrophoresis patterns. Therefore, MCRV may be a new member of the DpPV and CcRV-W2 group. [source]


    The effect of temperature and salinity on the settlement and survival of copepodids of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) on Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, Issue 5 2000
    C S Tucker
    The effects of temperature and salinity on the settlement, subsequent survival and development of the copepodids of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on Atlantic salmon were investigated experimentally. There was a significantly greater settlement and survival of copepodids at 10 days post-infection (dpi) at 12 °C compared with at 7 °C at a constant salinity of 34,. Development of L. salmonis was also more rapid at 12 °C. Settlement was significantly greater at a salinity of 34, than at 24,. In one experiment, survival at 10 dpi was significantly greater at 34,; however, a second experiment found that there was no significant difference between the two saline levels. This may have been because of a rise in water temperature for 2 dpi, which appears to have overridden the effect of low salinity. Development of L. salmonis was more rapid at 34,. Copepodids settled on all of the external surfaces of the salmon, although the proportion on different surfaces varied between experiments. The gills, particularly at low temperatures, the body surface, and the pectoral and dorsal fins were especially favoured. [source]


    Acute Ethanol Exposure Combined With Burn Injury Enhances IL-6 Levels in the Murine Ileum

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2007
    Michael T. Scalfani
    Background:, Recent studies suggest that ethanol use imposes a greater risk of trauma-associated intestinal injury than trauma alone. The initiating and regulatory factors for multiple organ dysfunction syndromes are not well defined, yet evidence points to the gut as a possible trigger of the systemic inflammatory cascade as well as a potential source of cytokines. In the current study, we hypothesized that ethanol administration would alter cytokine levels and intestinal infiltration by neutrophils within the ileum of mice exposed to burn injury (15% total body surface of dorsal skin). Methods:, Ileal samples were collected for histological assessment, myeloperoxidase quantitation and the protein presence of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF,), interleukin (IL-) 6, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2; CXCL2) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Additional ileal tissue samples were examined for localization of the IL-6 immunoreactivity. Results:, We did not detect statistically significant cytokine/chemokine differences (MIP-2 and IL-10) between sham control and treatment conditions at either 2 or 24 hours. However, there was a significant decrease in TNF, at 24 hours in both burn injury alone and in combination with ethanol treatment conditions (p < 0.05). In addition, there was an increase in IL-6 levels at 24 hours in intestinal tissue obtained from mice subjected to a combination of acute ethanol and burn injury, compared to the mice receiving burn or sham injury (p < 0.001). Ileal homogenate increases in IL-6 at 24 hours were concurrent with decreased villus height in the ileum, but no discernable changes in neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity levels) at either 2 or 24 hours. Additional immunocytochemical localization studies of ileal tissue revealed that there was a substantial increase of IL-6 in intestinal enterocytes subjected to both burn injury alone, or in combination with acute ethanol exposure. Conclusions:, The present study suggests that acute ethanol exposure combined with burn injury enhances levels of IL-6 protein in the ileum. The enhanced levels of ileal IL-6 are likely due to enterocyte production of the cytokine. [source]


    39Ar- 40Ar ages of eucrites and thermal history of asteroid 4 Vesta

    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, Issue 5 2003
    Donald D. Bogard
    Past studies have shown that after most eucrites formed, they underwent metamorphism in temperatures up to ,800°C. Much later, many were brecciated and heated by large impacts into the parent body surface. The less common basaltic, unbrecciated eucrites also formed near the surface but, presumably, escaped later brecciation, while the cumulate eucrites formed at depths where metamorphism may have persisted for a considerable period. To further understand the complex HED parent body thermal history, we determined new 39Ar- 40Ar ages for 9 eucrites classified as basaltic but unbrecciated, 6 eucrites classified as cumulate, and several basaltic-brecciated eucrites. Precise Ar-Ar ages of 2 cumulate eucrites (Moama and EET 87520) and 4 unbrecciated eucrites give a tight cluster at 4.48 ± 0.02 Gyr (not including any uncertainties in the flux monitor age). Ar-Ar ages of 6 additional unbrecciated eucrites are consistent with this age within their relatively larger age uncertainties. By contrast, available literature data on Pb-Pb isochron ages of 4 cumulate eucrites and 1 unbrecciated eucrite vary over 4.4,4.515 Gyr, and 147Sm- 143Nd isochron ages of 4 cumulate and 3 unbrecciated eucrites vary over 4.41,4.55 Gyr. Similar Ar-Ar ages for cumulate and unbrecciated eucrites imply that cumulate eucrites do not have a younger formation age than basaltic eucrites, as was previously proposed. We suggest that these cumulate and unbrecciated eucrites resided at a depth where parent body temperatures were sufficiently high to cause the K-Ar and some other chronometers to remain as open diffusion systems. From the strong clustering of Ar-Ar ages at ,4.48 Gyr, we propose that these meteorites were excavated from depth in a single large impact event ,4.48 Gyr ago, which quickly cooled the samples and started the K-Ar chronometer. A large (,460 km) crater postulated to exist on Vesta may be the source of these eucrites and of many smaller asteroids thought to be spectrally or physically associated with Vesta. Some Pb-Pb and Sm-Nd ages of cumulate and unbrecciated eucrites are consistent with the Ar-Ar age of 4.48 Gyr, and the few older Pb-Pb and Sm-Nd ages may reflect an isotopic closure before the large cratering event. One cumulate eucrite gives an Ar-Ar age of 4.25 Gyr; 3 additional cumulate eucrites give Ar-Ar ages of 3.4,3.7 Gyr; and 2 unbrecciated eucrites give Ar-Ar ages of ,3.55 Gyr. We attribute these younger ages to a later impact heating. Furthermore, the Ar-Ar impact-reset ages of several brecciated eucrites and eucritic clasts in howardites fall within the range of 3.5,4.1 Gyr. Among these, Piplia Kalan, the first eucrite to show evidence for extinct 26Al, was strongly impact heated ,3.5 Gyr ago. When these data are combined with eucrite Ar-Ar ages in the literature, they confirm that several large impact heating events occurred on Vesta between ,4.1,3.4 Gyr ago. The onset of major impact heating may have occurred at similar times for both Vesta and the moon, but impact heating appears to have persisted for a somewhat later time on Vesta. [source]


    Differences among forced-air warming systems with upper body blankets are small.

    ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 9 2003
    A randomized trial for heat transfer in volunteers
    Background:, Forced-air warming is known as an effective procedure in prevention and treatment of perioperative hypothermia. Significant differences have been described between forced-air warming systems in combination with full body blankets. We investigated four forced-air warming systems in combination with upper body blankets for existing differences in heat transfer. Methods:, After approval of the local Ethics Committee and written informed consent, four forced-air warming systems combined with upper body blankets were investigated in a randomized cross-over trial on six healthy volunteers: (1) BairHuggerÔ 505 and Upper Body Blanket 520, Augustine Medical; (2) ThermaCareÔ TC 3003, GaymarÔ and OptisanÔ Upper Body Blanket, Brinkhaus; (3) WarmAirÔ 134 and FilteredFlowÔ Upper Body Blanket, CSZ; and (4) WarmTouchÔ 5800 and CareDrapeÔ Upper Body Blanket, Mallinckrodt. Heat transfer from the blanket to the body surface was measured with 11 calibrated heat flux transducers (HFTs) with integrated thermistors on the upper body. Additionally, the blanket temperature was measured 1 cm above the HFT. After a preparation time of 60 min measurements were started for 20 min. Mean values were calculated over 20 min. The t -test for matched pairs with Bonferroni-Holm-correcture for multiple testing was used for statistical evaluation at a P -level of 0.05. The values are presented as mean±SD. Results:, The WarmTouchÔ blower with the CareDrapeÔ blanket obtained the best heat flux (17.0±3.5 W). The BairHuggerÔ system gave the lowest heat transfer (8.1±1.1 W). The heat transfer of the ThermaCareÔ system and WarmAirÔ systems were intermediate with 14.3±2.1 W and 11.3±1.0 W. Conclusions:, Based on an estimated heat loss from the covered area of 38 W the heat balance is changed by 46.1 W to 55 W by forced-air warming systems with upper body blankets. Although the differences in heat transfer are significant, the clinical relevance of this difference is small. [source]


    Recurrent Syncope in a Patient After Myocardial Infarction

    PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 4p1 2003
    SUSANNE C. CREDNER
    CREDNER, S.C., et al.: Recurrent Syncope in a Patient After Myocardial Infarction. A patient with ischemic cardiomyopathy presented with burning pain of his body surface with consecutive orthostatic intolerance and recurrent syncopes. A diagnosis of acute autonomic dysfunction was made and the patient was treated with midodrine, resulting in restoration of orthostatic tolerance after 6 weeks of therapy. (PACE 2003; 26[Pt. I]:920,921) [source]


    Dispersion of QT Intervals: A Measure of Dispersion of Repolarization or Simply a Projection Effect?

    PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 9 2000
    DIEGO DI BERNARDO
    QT interval dispersion may provide little information about repolarization dispersion. Some clinical measurements demonstrate an association between high QT interval dispersion and high morbidity and mortality, but what is being measured is not clear. This study was designed to help resolve this dilemma. We compared the association between different clinical measures of QT interval dispersion and the ECG lead amplitudes derived from a heart vector model of repolarization with no repolarization dispersion whatsoever. We compared our clinical QT interval dispersion data obtained from 25 subjects without cardiac disease with similar data from published studies, and correlated these QT dispersion results with the distribution of lead amplitudes derived from the projection of the heart vector onto the body surface during repolarization. Published results were available for mean relative QT intervals and mean differences from the maximum QT interval. The leads were derived from Uijen and Dower lead vector data. Using the Uijen lead vector data, the correlation between measurements of dispersion and derived lead amplitudes ranged from 0.78 to 0.99 for limb leads, and using the Dower values ranged from 0.81 to 0.94 for the precordial leads. These results show a clear association between the measured QT interval dispersion and the variation in ECG lead amplitudes derived from a simple heart vector model of repolarization with no regional information. Therefore, measured QT dispersion is related mostly to a projection effect and is not a true measure of repolarization dispersion. Our existing interpretation of QT dispersion must be reexamined, and other measurements that provide true repolarization dispersion data investigated. [source]


    Dobutamine stress surface mapping of myocardial ischemia in Kawasaki disease

    PEDIATRICS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2001
    Nobuyuki Takechi
    Abstract Background: To detect and localize myocardial ischemia, a method that does not require physical exertion is sometimes needed in children with Kawasaki disease. Methods: Dobutamine stress body surface mapping was performed in 115 children with a history of Kawasaki disease (58 without coronary artery lesions, 40 who had coronary lesions without myocardial ischemia and 17 with myocardial ischemia). The maximum infusion rate of dobutamine was 30 ,g/kg per min. Myocardial ischemia was diagnosed by the presence of an area of hypoperfusion on scintigraphy at rest and/or an increase in hypoperfusion during a dobutamine stress test compared with resting scintigraphy. We studied the number of leads that showed significant ST depression on the isopotential map (nST), the number of the row containing the lead with the smallest negative value on the isointegral map (Imin), and the localization of myocardial ischemia on the isointegral map. Based on findings in patients without coronary artery lesions, we defined the criteria for detecting myocardial ischemia as nST , 1 and Imin, 4. Results: The sensitivity of detecting myocardial ischemia was 94.1% using nST and 41.7% using Imin, while the specificity of these methods was 98.9 and 96.9%, respectively. The localization of myocardial ischemia on stress body surface mapping was 100% concordant with that determined by stress myocardial scintigraphy. Conclusions: Dobutamine stress body surface mapping for the detection of myocardial ischemia is a non-invasive, more convenient and repeatable test compared with exercise myocardial scintigraphy and it is a more objective test compared with exercise echocardiography. Dobutamine stress body surface mapping is useful for the identification and localization of silent myocardial ischemia in pediatric patients with Kawasaki disease, especially those who cannot perform tests involving physical exercise. [source]


    Polychromatic Light Similar to the Terrestrial Solar Spectrum Without its UV Component Stimulates DNA Synthesis in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes In Vivo and In Vitro

    PHOTOCHEMISTRY & PHOTOBIOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
    Natalya A. Zhevago
    ABSTRACT Immunosuppressive effects of the minor component of the terrestrial solar spectrum, UV radiation, have been substantiated over the past several years. This raises the question of what influence the dominant part of the solar spectrum,visible and IR light,would have on the human immune system. In the present randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study a small area of the body surface of volunteers was irradiated with polychromatic light (480,3400 nm), simulating the significant part of the terrestial sunlight irradiance spectrum and its power density. An average 2.5-fold to three-fold increase in spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin-induced DNA synthesis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (Lym) was revealed at 0.5,24 h after irradiation at a therapeutic dose (12 J/cm2) in subjects with low preirradiation levels of both processes. The in vivo findings were echoed in parallel in vitro experiments, when blood drawn from the same subjects was directly irradiated (2.4 J/cm2), or when the irradiated blood was mixed 1:10 with nonirradiated autolo-gous blood to model events in the circulation following transcutaneous blood photomodification. Our data suggest that exposure of the human body to polychromatic visible + IR light may photomodify blood in the dermal vasculature of the irradiated area to lead to an immediate transfer of the light-induced effects to Lym of the entire circulating blood, which can result in modulation of Lym functional state at the systemic level. [source]


    Organization of rat vibrissa motor cortex and adjacent areas according to cytoarchitectonics, microstimulation, and intracellular stimulation of identified cells

    THE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY, Issue 4 2004
    Michael Brecht
    Abstract The relationship between motor maps and cytoarchitectonic subdivisions in rat frontal cortex is not well understood. We use cytoarchitectonic analysis of microstimulation sites and intracellular stimulation of identified cells to develop a cell-based partitioning scheme of rat vibrissa motor cortex and adjacent areas. The results suggest that rat primary motor cortex (M1) is composed of three cytoarchitectonic areas, the agranular medial field (AGm), the agranular lateral field (AGl), and the cingulate area 1 (Cg1), each of which represents movements of different body parts. Vibrissa motor cortex corresponds entirely and for the most part exclusively to AGm. In area AGl body/head movements can be evoked. In posterior area Cg1 periocular/eye movements and in anterior area Cg1 nose movements can be evoked. In all of these areas stimulation thresholds are very low, and together they form a complete representation of the rat's body surface. A strong myelinization and an expanded layer 5 characterize area AGm. We suggest that both the strong myelinization and the expanded layer 5 of area AGm may represent cytoarchitectonic specializations related to control of high-speed whisking behavior. J. Comp. Neurol. 479:360,373, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Features and prognoses of infantile patients with atopic dermatitis hospitalized for severe complications

    THE JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 12 2006
    Norito KATOH
    ABSTRACT Although atopic dermatitis (AD) itself is regarded as a non-life threatening disease, childhood AD may be rarely accompanied by some serious complications. Six infantile AD patients who were hospitalized because of severe systemic complications, in addition to severe dermatitis on almost the entire body surface, are described. They were complicated by hypoproteinemia, hypovolemia, thrombocytosis, reduced serum immunoglobulin G, elevated serum liver enzymes and growth retardation. They had not been treated with topical corticosteroid before hospitalization. They were treated with topical corticosteroid and their eruption remarkably improved within 20 days (median) of hospitalization. Most of the abnormal clinical data including platelet numbers, serum levels of total protein, and liver enzymes had become normal at the day of discharge. After 30 ± 4 months of follow up, their skin condition was fair with daily application of moisturizer and occasional use of topical corticosteroid, without any systemic problems. Although severe infantile AD may be accompanied by potentially life-threatening systemic complications, their prognoses concerning AD are favorable if they are treated adequately from the beginning of their infancy. [source]


    A New Entodiniomorphid Ciliate, Troglocorys cava n. g., n. sp., from the Wild Eastern Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) from Uganda

    THE JOURNAL OF EUKARYOTIC MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    TOSHIHIRO TOKIWA
    ABSTRACT. Troglocorys cava n. g., n. sp. is described from the feces of wild eastern chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, in Uganda. This new species has a spherical body with a frontal lobe, a long vestibulum, a cytoproct located at the posterior dorsal side of the body, an ovoid macronucleus, a contractile vacuole near the cytoproct, and a large concavity on the left surface of the body. Buccal ciliature is non-retractable and consists of three ciliary zones: an adoral zone surrounding the vestibular opening, a dorso-adoral zone extending transversely at the basis of the frontal lobe, and a vestibular zone longitudinally extending in a gently spiral curve to line the surface of the vestibulum. Two non-retractable somatic ciliary zones comprise arches over the body surface: a short dorsal ciliary arch extending transversely at the basis of the frontal lobe and a wide C-shaped left ciliary arch in the left concavity. Because of the presence of three ciliary zones in the non-retractable buccal ciliature, the present genus might be a member of the family Blepharocorythidae, but the large left concavity and the C-shaped left ciliary arch are unique, such structures have never been described from other blepharocorythids. [source]


    Fetal heart rate monitoring from maternal body surface potentials using independent component analysis

    ANIMAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2004
    Wenxi CHEN
    ABSTRACT The fetal heart rate is indispensable for monitoring the health of unborn cattle fetuses. To monitor the fetal heart rate, a method employing independent component analysis (ICA) to extract the fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) from potentials measured on the maternal body surface and composed of a mixture of the maternal ECG (mECG), fECG, baseline drift and noise is described. A mixing of the raw data was simplified using a linear time-invariant model. To separate the fECG from the mECG, baseline drift, and noise, an ICA strategy was applied, using a hyperbolic tangent as the contrast function and treating mutual information with the minimization principle to find the optimum demixing matrix to derive the fECG from the measured signals. After the feasibility of this method was shown on simulated signals obtained by randomly mixing pure fECG, pure mECG, low frequency sinusoidal drift and noise, real signals from three cloned pregnant Holstein cows with 157, 177 and 224-day gestation periods were used to verify the separation method. The results show that the fECG, mECG, low-frequency sinusoidal drift and noise can be clearly segregated in simulations, and that the fECG, mECG, baseline drift and noise can be successfully derived from real signals. The ICA approach has great potential in effectively detecting the fECG from maternal body surface potentials. [source]


    Challenges Facing Validation of Noninvasive Electrical Imaging of the Heart

    ANNALS OF NONINVASIVE ELECTROCARDIOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    Martyn P. Nash Ph.D.
    Noninvasive imaging of regional cardiac electrophysiology remains an elusive target. Such imaging is still in its infancy, particularly in comparison to structural imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), x-ray computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound. We present an overview of noninvasive ECG imaging, and the challenges and successes of the various techniques across a range of applications. Unlike MRI and CT, reconstructing cardiac electrophysiology from remote body surface measurements is a highly ill-posed problem. We therefore first review the theoretical considerations and associated algorithms that are used to address this issue. We then focus on the important issue of validation, and review and contrast recent advances in this area. Efforts to validate ECG inverse procedures using a modeling-based approach are addressed first. We then discuss various experimental studies that have been conducted to provide appropriate data for robust validations. We present new data that are simultaneously recorded from dense arrays of electrodes on the epicardium and body surface of anesthetized pigs during sinus rhythm, ventricular pacing, and regional ischemia. These data have been obtained specifically to help validate inverse ECG procedures, and form a useful supplement to recent clinical validation studies. Finally, clinical applications and outstanding issues regarding noninvasive imaging of regional cardiac electrophysiology are addressed. [source]


    Evaluation of cryoprobe deployment precision with body surface and in situ templates

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 12 2008
    Keegan L. Maxwell
    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the precision of cryoprobe targeting with a surface template, an in situ template (on the target organ), or a combined approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fourteen participants placed five 17 G cryoprobes into porcine kidneys in a laparoscopic trainer using a surface template (group 1), an in situ template (group 2) or a combination of the two templates (group 3). The distance from the ideal probe placement was measured both on the anterior and posterior aspect of the kidney. The sequence of attempts was randomized. The distances were compared across the three groups using anova with the adjustment for multiple comparisons. RESULTS The mean distance from the ideal probe placement was 1.58 cm (anterior) and 1.81 cm (posterior) in group 1, 0.05 cm and 0.39 cm in group 2, and 0.07 cm and 0.22 cm in group 3, respectively. The placement of the probes was significantly more accurate in groups 2 (P < 0.001 anteriorly and P < 0.002 posteriorly) and 3 (P = 0.001 anteriorly and P < 0.001 posteriorly) compared with group 1. There was no significant difference between groups 2 and 3. CONCLUSION In this in vitro model, the use of internal or combined internal and external templates allows for significantly more precise deployment of 17-G cryoprobes than a standard external template alone. [source]


    n-3 Fatty acid supplementation in burned paediatric patients

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 12 2009
    MC Marín
    Abstract Aim:, To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids (FA) in paediatric burned patients who had less than 20% of total body surface affected. Methods:, Burned patients were randomly assigned into two groups, one of them received a supplement of n-3 FA during 5 weeks; the other group was considered as not n-3 supplemented burned group. A third group of no burned patients was selected as control. Blood samples were collected at admission and in burned groups at the final of the study. Plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid FA composition and some biochemical parameters related to the clinical evolution: total plasma proteins and C3 and C4 complement proteins were determined. Results:, In the early post-burn patients, there is an increase in saturated and monounsaturated FAs in plasma phospholipids, and a decrease in polyunsaturated FAs compared with control. These alterations are in favour of proinflammatory response to burn injury. In n-3 FA supplemented group, these changes were further reverted, and a favourable response in the amount of total plasma proteins and in C3 and C4 proteins of the complement system was demonstrated. Conclusion:, Dietary n-3 FA supplementation might be beneficial for patients suffering thermal injury. [source]