Body Sites (body + site)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Body Sites

  • different body site
  • other body site

  • Selected Abstracts

    Androgens and hair growth

    Valerie Anne Randall
    ABSTRACT:, Hair's importance in human communication means that abnormalities like excess hair in hirsutism or hair loss in alopecia cause psychological distress. Androgens are the main regulator of human hair follicles, changing small vellus follicles producing tiny, virtually invisible hairs into larger intermediate and terminal follicles making bigger, pigmented hairs. The response to androgens varies with the body site as it is specific to the hair follicle itself. Normally around puberty, androgens stimulate axillary and pubic hair in both sexes, plus the beard, etc. in men, while later they may also inhibit scalp hair growth causing androgenetic alopecia. Androgens act within the follicle to alter the mesenchyme,epithelial cell interactions, changing the length of time the hair is growing, the dermal papilla size and dermal papilla cell, keratinocyte and melanocyte activity. Greater understanding of the mechanisms of androgen action in follicles should improve therapies for poorly controlled hair disorders like hirsutism and alopecia. [source]

    Treatment of cellulite with LPG endermologie

    A. Tülin Güleç MD
    Background, LPG endermologie is a FDA-approved massage system in use worldwide for cellulite treatment that lacks clinical study. Objective, To determine the efficacy and safety of LPG endermologie in treating cellulite. Methods, Thirty-three healthy women (cellulite grades, 1,3 based on the 4-stage Nurnberger,Muller scale) had LPG treatments twice weekly for a total of 15 sessions. Clinical evaluation was performed by digital photography for cellulite grade assessment, and perimetric measurements of eight body sites for the evaluation of body contours. Results, Significant differences were found regarding mean cellulite grades before and after treatment. However, improved cellulite appearance occurred in only 5 women (15%). All patients showed a significant circumference loss at every measured body site. Weight losers had significantly greater loss of total and average body circumference than weight gainers. Limitations, Relatively small sample size and lack of more-objective methods for assessing treatment success. Conclusion, LPG endermologie is a well-tolerated and effective method for reducing the diameter of body circumference, however, it is mildly effective in reducing the cellulite grade and so, improving its orange-peel appearance. [source]

    Tactile orientation constancy: Do proprioception and attention affect the tactile vertical?1

    Abstract:,Tactile vertical, defined as the edge orientation that participants perceive to be vertical, was examined in four experiments. In Experiment 1, we touched the participants' cheek, lips, or hand with an edge and asked them to judge its orientation with regard to gravitational vertical, both when the stimulated body part was upright (or, in the case of the lips, aligned), and when it was tilted (lips, distorted). We found that when the head or hand was tilted forward 30°, or when the lower lip was distorted approximately 38° to the left or right, the tactile vertical shifted in the same direction by only a fraction (8.7, 8.6, and 36.3% for the cheek, lips, and hand, respectively) of the change in orientation of the stimulated region. The results indicated considerable, but usually incomplete, orientation constancy. In Experiment 2, we measured tactile vertical on the hand for forward tilts from 0° to 45°. We found that as the hand was tilted, the tactile vertical increasingly shifted in the same direction as the hand (i.e., a tactile Aubert effect). In Experiment 3, the effect of attentional focus on tactile vertical was examined by comparing the tactile vertical of participants who attended to body-centered coordinates, and others who attended to gravitation-centered coordinates. We found that focusing on body-centered coordinates caused a decrease in orientation constancy. We sought to examine the role of attention further in Experiment 4, measuring tactile vertical on the cheek of persons with temporomandibular disorders. Compared with normal participants, these participants displayed significantly lower constancy. The results were accounted for by a narrowing of attention to painful signals, so that proprioceptive information was attended to less. In conclusion, the degree of tactile orientation constancy that participants demonstrate varies as a function of body site and attentional focus. [source]

    Primary cutaneous osteosarcoma of the scalp: a case report and review of the literature

    Daniela Massi
    The patient had been previously submitted to electrodessications of the scalp due to multiple solar keratoses. Histopathologically, the lesion showed features of a high-grade conventional osteoblastic osteosarcoma involving the dermis. Computed tomography showed no involvement of the underlying bone tissues. Clinical examination and extensive total body radiologic workup revealed absence of bone lesions in any body site, thus suggesting a final diagnosis of primary cutaneous extraskeletal osteosarcoma. The clinico-pathological features of the case are discussed in light of the rare cases previously described in the literature. [source]

    Identification and characterization of 20 immunocompetent patients with simultaneous varicella zoster and herpes simplex virus infection

    KA Giehl
    Abstract Background, It has been shown that varicella zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) can co-localize to the same sensory ganglion. However, only a few case reports on VZV/HSV co-infections exist. Objective,To identify and characterize patients with concurrent VZV and HSV infection at the same body site. Subjects/Methods, In 1718 patients, the presence of VZV and HSV in suspicious skin lesions was investigated by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Clinical characteristics of co-infected patients were compared with matched control patients infected with either VZV or HSV. The data are discussed in the context of an extensive review of the literature. Results, Twenty (1.2%) of 1718 patients were infected with both VZV and HSV at the same body site. The mean age was 54 years (range, 2,83). The clinical diagnosis was zoster in 65%, herpes simplex in 20%, varicella in 10% and erythema multiforme in 5% of cases. The trigeminus region was affected in 60% and the trunk in 25%. Involvement of the head was most commonly associated with a severe course of disease and with older age. Conclusion, Simultaneous VZV/HSV infection is rare but can occur in immunocompetent patients, which is often overlooked. The majority of cases is localized to the trigeminus region and affects elderly people. [source]

    Cysticercosis of the oral cavity: report of seven cases

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 4 2000
    PEA de Souza
    Cysticercosis is a condition in which a human acts as the intermediate host of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. Although cysticercosis is a common disease in some regions of the world and can occur in any body site, oral lesions are rare. This paper reviews the natural history of the disease and reports on seven cases of oral cysticercosis. [source]

    Granular Cell Tumor of the Scrotum in a Child with Noonan Syndrome

    M.R.C.P., M.R.C.P.C.H., Rachel U. Sidwell D.A.
    Granular cell tumors most often arise on the tongue, but can occur at any body site, and therefore initial presentation to dermatologists is common. We report a granular cell tumor of the scrotum in a child with Noonan syndrome, known to have a mutation in the PTPN11 gene. No previous reports of granular cell tumor of the scrotum in a child are found. The tumor is usually benign; however, it can have a high local recurrence rate (variable between 2% and 50% dependent on whether initial excision is complete and on the occurrence of an infiltrative growth pattern) and therefore long-term follow-up is necessary. This case highlights the occurrence of granular cell tumor, a diagnosis not to be missed by the dermatologist. In addition, we postulate the possible role of PTPN11 mutations in the development of granular cell tumor. [source]

    Musculoskeletal problems of the neck, shoulder, and back and functional consequences in nurses

    Alison M. Trinkoff ScD
    Abstract Background Though musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are highly prevalent among registered nurses (RNs), little is known about functional consequences of MSDs in nurses. Methods Data on neck, shoulder, and back MSD problems were analyzed in 1,163 working nurses (response rate,=,74%). Cases had relevant symptoms lasting at least 1 week or occurring at least monthly in the past year, with at least moderate pain intensity, on average. MSD problems with a frequency, duration, or pain intensity below the level needed to meet the case definition were defined as MSD symptoms. Those who did not meet symptom or case criteria at any body site were defined as asymptomatic. Odds of consequences (e.g., saw a doctor/provider, missed work, reduced/modified work, non-work activities, or recreation, medication use, inadequate sleep) were estimated for cases versus those with symptoms. Results We found 45.8, 35.1, and 47.0% of nurses had neck, shoulder, or back MSD problems (either at the case or symptom level), respectively, within the past year. Cases were far more likely to have seen a provider versus those with symptoms (adjusted odds ratio, aOR Neck: 4.33, 95% CI: 2.85,6.56; aOR Shoulder: 4.83, 95% CI: 3.00,7.77; aOR Back: 3.69, 95% CI: 2.47,5.49). Cases also were more likely to experience all other functional consequences. Conclusions MSD consequences are substantial and suggest opportunities for intervention. Future research will examine the impact of work organization and physical demands on MSDs. Am. J. Ind. Med. 41:170,178, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Trends during a half century in relative squamous cell carcinoma distribution by body site in the Swedish population: Support for accumulated sun exposure as the main risk factor

    Henrik DAL
    ABSTRACT There is a strong relationship between squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and exposure to ultraviolet radiation in terms of accumulated exposure. In this study, data from the Swedish Cancer Registry are surveyed to discern a reflection of behavioral and societal changes in relative distribution of SCC by body site. Data for the time period 1960,2004, including a total of 66 221 cases (56 669 people) were analyzed by body site for age and gender cohorts. The age-standardized (European population) incidence per 100 000 of SCC in the year 2004 was 30.4 in males and 15.4 in females. In the year 1960, the corresponding incidences were 7.7 and 3.8; that is, SCC has become four times more frequent in Sweden for both sexes during this period. The standardized incidence of SCC increased on all body sites except eyelids (men and women) and ears (women). Head tumors dominated among patients aged 70 years or more and diagnosed 1960,1964. Among patients less than 70 years old at diagnosis in 2000,2004, tumors of the trunk and limbs dominated. A relative increase of tumors of the scalp and neck was observed in all age groups (men), and of tumors of the trunk and upper limbs in all age groups and both sexes except among patients aged more than 90 years of age. In contrast, a relative decrease of tumors on the face (including the ears) was seen in all age groups. The relative increase of SCC of the trunk and upper limbs is a plausible reflection of intentional tanning. [source]

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis-like syndrome in association with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Cara Holmes
    SUMMARY A 43 year-old immunosuppressed woman presented with a widespread macular scaly rash, clinically and histologically consistent with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. She had no family history of epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Human papillomavirus typing was performed on both biopsied skin from clinical lesions and on plucked body hairs. The lesional skin from the arm and knee showed predominantly human papillomavirus-20 and -47 respectively. Human papillomavirus genotyping from the hair follicles revealed that human papillomavirus-20 had the highest viral load, irrespective of body site. [source]

    Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of skin lesions

    C.F. Heal
    Summary Background, Skin cancer is an increasing problem in fair-skinned populations worldwide. It is important that doctors are able to diagnose skin lesions accurately. Objectives, To compare the clinical with the histological diagnosis of excised skin lesions from a set of epidemiological data. We analysed diagnostic accuracy stratified by histological subtype and body site and examined the histological nature of misclassified diagnosis. Methods, All excised and histologically confirmed skin cancers in Townsville/Thuringowa, Australia from December 1996 to October 1999 were recorded. Positive predictive values (PPVs) and sensitivities were calculated for the clinical diagnoses and stratified by histological subtype and body site. Results, Skin excisions in 8694 patients were examined. PPVs for the clinical diagnoses were: basal cell carcinoma (BCC) 72·7%; squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) 49·4%; cutaneous melanoma (CM) 33·3%. Sensitivities for the clinical diagnosis were: BCC 63·9%; SCC 41·1%; CM 33·8%. For BCC, PPVs and sensitivities were higher for the trunk, the shoulders and the face and lower for the extremities. The reverse pattern was seen for SCCs. Conclusions, Diagnostic accuracy was highest for BCC, the most prevalent lesion. Most excisions were correctly diagnosed or resulted in the removal of malignant lesions. With nonmelanocytic lesions, doctors tended to misclassify benign lesions as malignant, but were less likely to do the reverse. Although a small number of clinically diagnosed common naevi subsequently proved to be melanoma (6·3%), a higher proportion of all melanomas had been classified as common naevi (20·9%). Accuracy of diagnosis was dependent on body site. [source]

    Unexpected diminished innervation of epidermis and dermoepidermal junction in lichen amyloidosus

    B. Maddison
    Summary Background, Lichen amyloidosus is a localized, chronic, pruritic skin disease characterized by deposition of amyloid in the papillary dermis. The pathogenesis of the pruritus of lichen amyloidosus is largely unknown. Objectives, To determine any change in the nerve fibre density in lichen amyloidosus lesions as an explanation for itch. Methods, Using an antibody to protein gene product (PGP) 9.5, the immunohistochemical analysis of the skin biopsies of 30 Hispanic patients with clinicopathologically proven lichen amyloidosus and of 11 healthy Hispanic controls matched for age, sex and site was performed. Results, Unexpectedly, the mean amount of PGP9.5 stain, a measure for nerve fibre amount, for the healthy controls was higher than the lichen amyloidosus group both in the epidermis (P < 0·0019) and dermoepidermal junction (P < 0·0064). No change was observed in the papillary dermis. Furthermore, the proportion of area covered by PGP9.5 showed a significant decrease in the epidermis (P < 0·0024) and dermoepidermal junction (P < 0·0075) in lichen amyloidosus compared with healthy controls. Age, gender and body site were found not to be influencing factors in nerve fibre amounts in lichen amyloidosus samples. Conclusions, We speculate that the severe pruritus observed in lichen amyloidosus might be the result of the hypersensitivity of the remaining nerve fibres as a response to an unexplained neurodegeneration of the absent nerve fibres. [source]

    Is head and neck melanoma a distinct entity?

    A clinical registry-based comparative study in 5702 patients with melanoma
    Summary Background, The head and neck region is more heavily exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation than any other body site. Therefore, cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) of the head and neck area is proposed to have notable differences from melanoma at other body sites regarding clinicopathological features and survival of patients. Objectives, The present retrospective study based on clinical registry data aims to compare clinical features and prognostic factors of head and neck melanoma (HNM) vs. melanoma at other anatomical regions (MOR) in order to detect differences which may be associated to the mode of sun exposure. Methods, The clinical records and histopathological findings of 844 patients with clinical stage I and II invasive HNM were compared with the data of 4858 patients with MOR. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan,Meier estimate, and the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate independent prognostic factors. Results, Melanoma density was clearly higher for HNM than for MOR: this was particularly true for the face, where it was elevated by a factor of 2·6. There was a higher male/female ratio in patients with HNM and they were significantly older than patients with MOR (P < 0·0001). Breslow tumour thickness did not differ between HNM and MOR. However, CMMs at the scalp were significantly thicker and to a higher degree ulcerated. Concerning clinicopathological CMM subtypes, there was an increased proportion of lentigo maligna melanoma among HNM and of nodular melanoma in the scalp and neck regions. Excision margins were narrower and the rate of complete primary excision was lower in HNM than in MOR. Overall, there was no significant statistical difference in cumulative 10-year survival rates according to Kaplan,Meier estimates among patients with HNM (84·6%) and MOR (87·8%). Tumour thickness turned out to be the variable with the highest prognostic impact followed by ulceration in both HNM and MOR. Conclusions, In relation to the skin surface significantly more CMMs were found in the head and neck area than in other anatomical regions. This might indicate, but does not prove, that UV exposure promotes the development of CMM. Although HNM showed specific clinicopathological features, prognosis remained unaffected. Thus HNM seems not to be a distinct subtype of CMM. [source]

    Malignant melanoma in Chile: an unusual distribution of primary sites in men from low socioeconomic strata

    V. Zemelman
    Summary Background., Mortality from malignant melanoma (MM) has increased in Chile in the past decade. The location of MM lesions on the body has been correlated with prognosis and survival. Aim. To review body site and gender relationships with histopathologically confirmed primary MM in Chile. Methods., Records of 575 cases presenting to 5 state hospitals from 1992 to 2001 were analysed. Results., There were 360 women and 215 men. Women showed a significantly higher number of MM on the legs, cheeks and arms, and in the genital area, whereas men showed a significantly higher number on the ears, backs of the hands, soles and feet. Men had a predilection for MM with a poor prognosis. Conclusion., The different body site distribution of primary MM in men and women may be explained by a different pattern of sun exposure. Ethnic and genetic factors may also be involved. The predominant location of MM in women in Chile is similar to white populations, whereas the location in men is similar to that observed in black and Asian populations. These observations may be relevant to the high mortality of MM in Chilean men. [source]

    The relationship between serum resistin, leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin levels and bone mineral density in middle-aged men

    Ki Won Oh
    Summary Objective Body weight is a significant predictor of bone mass. Hormonal factors such as sex hormones, insulin, leptin and adiponectin are thought to play a role in the mechanisms controlling the association of body weight and fat mass with bone mass. However, contradictory results have been reported for the association between serum adipocytokines and bone mineral density (BMD). We therefore examined whether the serum adipocytokine and ghrelin levels, markers of fat metabolism, are associated with BMD in male adults. Patients and measurements For 80 male adults (average age 54·5 ± 6·4 years; average body mass index (BMI) 24·4 ± 2·5 kg/m2), the correlations between serum resistin, leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin levels with BMD were investigated. Results Among the adipocytokines, serum resistin levels were negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD (r = ,0·237, P = 0·05). After adjustment was made for age and BMI, log-transformed serum leptin showed a significant negative correlation with lumbar spine BMD, which was not seen on bivariate analysis (r = ,0·237, P = 0·039). Femoral neck BMD was marginally associated only with serum adiponectin levels (r = ,0·226, P = 0·062). In multiple regression analyses, among the adipokines, only resistin was a significant determinant of lumbar spine BMD, although the variance was small (R2 = 0·256). Serum ghrelin levels were not correlated with the BMD of either body site. Conclusions Serum resistin level showed a significant negative correlation with lumbar spine BMD, although the variance was small. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of adipocytokines in bone metabolism. [source]

    Cytologic diagnosis of osseous lesions: A review with emphasis on the diagnosis of primary neoplasms of bone

    Lester J. Layfield M.D.
    Abstract Fine-needle aspiration has been utilized as the initial diagnostic technique at a large number of body sites for over three quarters of a century. As early as the 1930s, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was used to investigate lesions of the musculoskeletal system. In many early reports, FNA was most frequently and successfully used for the diagnosis of metastatic disease to bone. Less emphasis was placed on its utility for the investigation of primary neoplasms of bone and soft tissue. Current utilization of FNA continues to de-emphasize its application to the diagnosis of primary lesions of the musculoskeletal system. Recent advances in imaging techniques, immunohistochemistry, and molecular diagnostics along with an increasing familiarity among pathologists with the cytologic appearance of primary osseous tumors has led to reevaluation of the technique for investigation of these tumors. The diagnostic accuracy of FNA along with its relatively low cost and high degree of safety makes it a desirable technique for the investigation of primary lesions of the musculoskeletal system. This article reviews issues of diagnostic accuracy, optimal practice procedures, and benefits of the technique including cost reduction. The article will review criteria for selection of appropriate tissue targets for FNA to reduce the number of unsatisfactory specimens. Cytomorphologic features of the more common primary neoplasms of bone will be summarized along with recommendations for the utilization of immunohistochemistry and molecular diagnostics in the work-up of primary neoplasms of bone. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Screening of urocanic acid isomers in human basal and squamous cell carcinoma tumors compared with tumor periphery and healthy skin

    Juan Manuel Decara
    Abstract:,Trans -urocanic acid is a major chromophore for ultraviolet (UV) radiation in human epidermis. The UV induces photoisomerization of trans -urocanic acid (tUCA) form to cis -urocanic acid (cUCA) and has been reported as an important mediator in the immunosuppression induced by UV. This immunomodulation has been recognized as an important factor related to skin cancer development. This is the first time that UCA isomers have been measured in epidermis of skin biopsies from patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and compared with the tumor periphery and biopsies of healthy photoexposed and non-photoexposed skin as controls. The UCA isomers were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of UCA in healthy skin showed significant increase in total UCA content in non-photoexposed body sites compared with highly exposed skins. In contrast, the percentage of cUCA was higher in photoexposed body sites. Maximal levels of cUCA were found in cheek, forehead and forearm and lower levels in abdomen and thigh. No differences were found in total UCA concentration between the tumor samples and healthy photoexposed skin. However, differences were found in relation between isomers. Higher levels of cUCA were detected in SCC biopsies (44% of total UCA) compared with samples of BCC and that of healthy photoexposed skin (30%). These results suggest that the UV radiation exposure, a main factor in development of SCC can be mediated, apart from direct effect to cells (DNA damage), by immunosuppression pathways mediated by high production of cUCA. [source]

    Developmental phenotypes and reduced Wnt signaling in mice deficient for pygopus 2

    Boan Li
    Abstract Canonical Wnt signaling involves complex intracellular events culminating in the stabilization of ,-catenin, which enters the nucleus and binds to LEF/TCF transcription factors to stimulate gene expression. Pygopus was identified as a genetic modifier of Wg (Wnt homolog) signaling in Drosophila, and encodes a PHD domain protein that associates with the ,-catenin/LEF/TCF complex. Two murine pygopus paralogs, mpygo1 and mpygo2, have been identified, but their roles in development and Wnt signaling remain elusive. In this study, we report that ablation of mpygo2 expression in mice causes defects in morphogenesis of both ectodermally and endodermally derived tissues, including brain, eyes, hair follicles, and lung. However, no gross abnormality was observed in embryonic intestine. Using a BAT-gal reporter, we found Wnt signaling at most body sites to be reduced in the absence of mpygo2. Taken together, our studies show for the first time that mpygo2 deletion affects embryonic development of some but not all Wnt-requiring tissues. genesis 45:318,325, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Strain persistence of invasive Candida albicans in chronic hyperplastic candidosis that underwent malignant change

    GERODONTOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    DW Williams
    Abstract Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess persistence and tissue invasion of Candida albicans strains isolated from a 65 year-old patient with chronic hyperplastic candidosis (CHC), that subsequently developed into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Materials and Methods: C. albicans (n=7) were recovered from the oral cavity of the patient over seven years. Confirmation of CHC and SCC in this patient was achieved by histopathological examination of incisional biopsy tissue. DNA fingerprinting was performed on the seven isolates from the CHC patient together with a further eight isolates from patients with normal oral mucosa (n=2), chronic atrophic candidosis (n=1), SCC (n=1) and CHC (n=4). Genotyping involved the use of inter-repeat PCR using the eukaryotic repeat primer 1251. Characterisation of the tissue invasive abilities of the isolates was achieved by infecting a commercially available reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHE; SkinEthic, Nice, France). After 24 h. C. albicans tissue invasion was assessed by histopathological examination. Results: DNA fingerprinting demonstrated strain persistence of C. albicans in the CHC patient over a seven year period despite provision of systemic antifungal therapy. The strain of C. albicans isolated from this patient was categorised as a high invader within the RHE compared to other isolates. Conclusions: Candidal strain persistence was evident in a patient with CHC over seven years. This persistence may be due to incomplete eradication from the oral cavity following antifungal therapy or subsequent recolonisation from other body sites or separate exogenous sources. The demonstration of enhanced in vitro tissue invasion by this particular strain may, in part, explain the progression to carcinoma. [source]

    Reduced barrier efficiency in axillary stratum corneum

    A. Watkinson
    Synopsis The skin of the axilla is cosmetically important with millions of consumers daily applying antiperspirant/deodorant products. Despite this, we know virtually nothing about axillary skin or how antiperspirant (AP) use impacts upon it. To characterize the axillary stratum corneum and determine whether this is a unique skin type, we have looked at stratum corneum composition and function, particularly its barrier properties, and compared it with other body sites. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneosurfametry (CSM) revealed a reduced barrier function in the axilla. HPTLC analysis of the stratum corneum lipids demonstrated statistically elevated levels of fatty acids, ceramides, and particularly cholesterol in the axilla. Both ceramide and cholesterol did not appear to change with depth, indicating that they were predominantly of stratum corneum origin. On the other hand, at least some of the fatty acid had a sebaceous origin. We hypothesized that the reduced barrier function might be owing to the changes in the crucial ceramide : cholesterol ratio. To address this, we used a combination of attenuated total reflectance,Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR,FTIR) with cyanoacrylate sampling. These results demonstrated more ordered lipid-lamellae phase behaviour in the axilla, suggesting that the elevated cholesterol might form crystal microdomains within the lipid lamellae, allowing an increase in water flux. Since an exaggerated application of antiperspirant had no effect upon the axilla barrier properties, it is concluded that this region of skin physiologically has a reduced barrier function. Résumé La peau des aisselles est importante du point de vue cosmétique, avec des millions de consommateurs appliquant quotidiennement des produits antitranspirants/déodorants. Malgré cela, nous ne connaissons pratiquement rien de la peau des aisselles ou de l'impact que l'utilization d'antitranspirants peut avoir sur celle-ci. Afin de caractériser la stratum corneum des aisselles et de déterminer si elle constitue un type de peau spécifique, nous avons examiné la composition et la fonction de la stratum corneum, en particulier ses propriétés de barrière, comparées à d'autres zones du corps. La perte d'eau trans -épidermique (trans -epidermal water loss TEWL) et la cornéosurfamétrie (CSM) ont révélé une fonction barrière réduite dans les aisselles. L'analyse HPTLC des lipides de la stratum corneum a démontré la présence de niveaux statistiquement plus élevés d'acides gras, de céramides et en particulier de cholestérol dans la peau axillaire. Ni les céramides ni le cholestérol n'ont semblé changer en fonction de la profondeur, indiquant qu'ils sont probablement originaires du stratum corneum. Cependant, au moins une partie des acides gras avaient une origine sébacée. Notre hypothèse est qu'une réduction de la fonction de barrière de la stratum corneum axillaire est peut-être due à des changements dans le rapport crucial céramides : cholestérol. Pour examiner cette hypothèse, nous avons utilisé la spectroscopie infrarouge par transformée de Fourier ATR[l'attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR,FTIR)] combinée à l'échantillonnage au cyanoacrylate. Ces résultats ont dévoilé un comportement de phase de lamelles lipidiques plus ordonnée dans les aisselles, suggérant que le cholestérol puisse former des microdomaines cristallins à l'intérieur des lamelles lipidiques, ce qui permettrait ainsi une augmentation du flux d'eau. Puisque l'application exagérée d'anti-transpirant n'a pas eu d'effet sur les propriétés de barrière des aisselles, nous concluons que cette région de la peau a une fonction de barrière physiologique réduite. [source]

    Treatment of cellulite with LPG endermologie

    A. Tülin Güleç MD
    Background, LPG endermologie is a FDA-approved massage system in use worldwide for cellulite treatment that lacks clinical study. Objective, To determine the efficacy and safety of LPG endermologie in treating cellulite. Methods, Thirty-three healthy women (cellulite grades, 1,3 based on the 4-stage Nurnberger,Muller scale) had LPG treatments twice weekly for a total of 15 sessions. Clinical evaluation was performed by digital photography for cellulite grade assessment, and perimetric measurements of eight body sites for the evaluation of body contours. Results, Significant differences were found regarding mean cellulite grades before and after treatment. However, improved cellulite appearance occurred in only 5 women (15%). All patients showed a significant circumference loss at every measured body site. Weight losers had significantly greater loss of total and average body circumference than weight gainers. Limitations, Relatively small sample size and lack of more-objective methods for assessing treatment success. Conclusion, LPG endermologie is a well-tolerated and effective method for reducing the diameter of body circumference, however, it is mildly effective in reducing the cellulite grade and so, improving its orange-peel appearance. [source]

    Sunscreen application at the beach

    J Lademann
    Summary Background, The sun protection factor (SPF) of sunscreens is determined after application of a standard amount. The European Cosmetic Toiletry and Perfumery Association (COLIPA) standard amount is 2 mg/cm2. Real-life application of sunscreen is probably less than this. Aim, To determine the amount of sunscreen present on the skin of people at the beach. Methods, Volunteers at the beach were selected randomly and were not aware of being tested for the adequacy of their sunscreen application. All volunteers had applied sunscreen. Application had been more than 30 min before testing (sometimes up to 4 h earlier). The amounts of sunscreen applied to different body sites were determined quantitatively by tape stripping. Actual amounts of sunscreen applied were compared with the COLIPA standard. Also, sunscreen containing a fluorescent dye was applied to the skin of volunteers in a laboratory setting. The distribution of sunscreen application was visualized by UVA photography in a darkened room. Results, Sixty volunteers, 33 males and 27 females, aged 17,68 years (median 32 years), were recruited at the beach. Sunscreen coverage was inadequate at all body sites. Coverage at various body sites differed greatly. Most volunteers had applied 10% or less of the COLIPA standard amount to all body sites assessed. The best protected areas were the upper arm and décolleté but, even in these areas, most volunteers had only applied 10% of the COLIPA standard amount. The worst protected areas were the ears and top of the feet. The back was typically badly protected if treated by the volunteers themselves. The back was better protected if another person had applied the sunscreen. In the laboratory, the fluorescent dye-containing sunscreen showed the same pattern of sunscreen application as at the beach. Conclusions, In real life, at the beach, very little sunscreen remains present on the skin. [source]

    Melanocytic nevi of the breast: a histologic case-control study

    F. Rongioletti
    Background:, Melanocytic nevi in the genital, acral, and flexural sites often display clinical and histologic features that may simulate melanoma. We verified whether this is the case also for nevi of the breast. Methods:, Eleven dermatopathologists, from nine Italian Institutions, collected the specimens of melanocytic lesions from the breast and other body sites, excluding the acral, genital, and flexural areas, as controls. Cases and controls were matched for sex and age. All nevi were observed ,blindly' and simultaneously by all participants. For each lesion, 10 histological parameters were analyzed: asymmetry, absence of lateral demarcation of melanocytes, lentiginous proliferation, nested and dyshesive pattern, intraepidermal melanocytes above the basal layer, involvement of the hair follicle, absence of maturation of dermal melanocytes, melanocytic atypia, fibroplasia of the papillary dermis, and lymphocytic dermal infiltrate. Each parameter was scored 2 when present and 1 when absent or not valuable. A total score was calculated for each lesion. Results were statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and the Mann,Whitney U -test. Results:, One hundred and one nevi came from the breast area and 97 from elsewhere. Breast nevi exhibited significantly more atypical features than nevi from other sites. In particular, breast nevi with intraepidermal melanocytes, melanocytic atypia, and dermal fibroplasia were significantly more numerous. We did not find any sexual difference. Conclusions:, To avoid undue concerns, dermatopathologists should be aware that melanocytic nevi of the breast may show a high degree of atypical features. [source]

    Granular cell tumor of the oral cavity: updated immunohistochemical profile

    Marilena Vered
    Background:, Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a benign lesion that occurs at different body sites with preponderance to the oral cavity. It is generally believed to be of schwann cell/neural cell origin. We used a large panel of both traditional and recently developed antibodies in an attempt to trace the origin of GCTs on the basis of their immunoprofile. Methods:, The patients' demographic data and the cytological and architectural features of the lesions were analyzed in a large series of oral GCTs (n = 68). Forty-two lesions were also submitted to a panel of immunohistochemical stains with antibodies against S-100, CD-68 (KP-1 and PG-M1), vimentin, calretinin, NKI/C3, PGP9.5, p75/NGFR and inhibin-,. Results:, The tongue was the most common location of oral GCTs (81%). The granular cells demonstrated a wide array of cytological features in terms of cell shape and position of the nucleus. In addition, the lesions showed different architectural patterns, including ,infiltration' with satellite nodules. Interestingly, no recurrences were reported, even in lesions that were not completely excised. Granular cells were usually found to be strongly and diffusely positive for p75, vimentin, calretinin and NKI/C3, inhibin-,, PGP9.5, and S-100. Conclusions:, Immunoreactivity of the granular cells to a broad panel of antibodies that characterize different tissues does not confirm any particular cell type for the histogenetic origin of GCTs. Furthermore, GCTs could be regarded as lesions that reflect a local metabolic or reactive change rather than a true neoplasm. [source]

    The efficacy of excimer laser (308 nm) for vitiligo at different body sites

    A Hofer
    Abstract Background, The treatment with XeCl-excimer laser generated 308-nm UVB radiation has shown promising results in patients with vitiligo. Objective, In this controlled, prospective trial we studied the primary efficacy (start and grade of repigmentation) and patient's satisfaction of XeCl-excimer laser for treatment of vitiligo patches at different body sites and re-evaluated the achieved repigmentation 12 months after the end of therapy. Methods, Twenty-five patients with generalized or localized vitiligo with a total of 85 lesions at different body sites were enrolled in this study. Vitiligo patches were treated with 308-nm XeCl-excimer laser 3 times a week for 6 to 10 weeks. The overall repigmentation grade of each treated lesion was evaluated once a week on a 5 point scale rating from 0 (no repigmentation), 1 (1,5%), 2 (6,25%), 3 (26,50%), 4 (51,75%), to 5 (76,100%). Results, Twenty-four patients completed the study. Within 6 to 10 weeks of treatment 67% of the patients (16/24) developed follicular repigmentation of at least one of their vitiligo lesions. Lesion repigmentation started after a mean of 13 treatments in lesions located on the face, trunk, arm, and/or leg (high-responder location), and after a mean of 22 treatments in lesions located on the elbow, wrist, dorsum of the hand, knee, and/or dorsum of the foot (low-responder location). Untreated control lesions and lesions located on the fingers did not achieve any repigmentation. After 10 weeks of treatment repigmentation of more than 75% was found in 25% (7/28) of lesions of the high-responder location group versus 2% (1/43) of lesions of the low-responder location group. In most cases, laser-induced repigmentation was persistent, as determined 12 months after the end of treatment. Conclusions, 308-nm excimer laser is an effective modality for the treatment of vitiligo. However, similar to other non-surgical treatment modalities, the therapeutic effect is mainly dependent on the location of vitiligo lesions. [source]

    Improvement in arm and post-partum abdominal and flank subcutaneous fat deposits and skin laxity using a bipolar radiofrequency, infrared, vacuum and mechanical massage device

    Lori Brightman MD
    Abstract Background and Objectives Skin laxity of the body is a growing cosmetic concern. Laxity can result from chronological or photoaging and changes in body dimensions during pregnancy or weight loss. The end result is loose, sagging skin, and localized fat deposits. Liposuction and abdominoplasty or brachioplasty are established approaches to these issues. Patient desire for alternatives to surgical correction has spawned the development of non-invasive body contouring devices. The combination of infrared light (IR), bipolar radiofrequency (RF), vacuum and mechanical massage (Velashape, Syneron Medical Ltd, Israel) has demonstrated efficacy in improving skin appearance and circumference of the thighs [Goldberg et al., Derm Surg 2008; 34:204,209; Fisher et al., Derm Surg 2005; 31:1237,1241; Arnoczky and Aksan, J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2000; 8:305,313; Alster and Tanzi, J Cosmetic Laser Therapy 2005; 7:81,85; Wanitphakdeedecha and Manuskiatti, J Cosmet Dermatol 2006; 5:284,288; Nootheti et al., Lasers Surg Med 2006; 38: 908,912], but only anecdotal evidence has supported its use on other anatomic locations. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Velashape on additional body sites and more rigorously examine the technology's impact on upper arm as well as abdominal and flank circumference. Study Design and Methods Subjects were 28,70 years old, skin types I,V. Nineteen subjects underwent 5 weekly treatments of the upper arms, and 10 subjects underwent 4 weekly treatments of the abdomen and flanks. Treatments were performed using Velashape. Circumference measurements, photographs, and subject weights were performed prior to treatment and at 1- and 3-month follow-ups. Subjects were asked to record their treatment satisfaction level. Results Change in arm circumference, at the 5th treatment was statistically significant with a mean loss of 0.625,cm. At 1- and 3-month follow-ups, mean loss was 0.71 and 0.597,cm respectively. Reduction of abdominal circumference at 3rd treatment was statistically significant with a 1.25,cm mean loss. At 1- and 3-month follow-ups, average loss was 1.43 and 1.82,cm respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrates with statistical significance, sustainable reduction in circumference and improvement in appearance of arms and abdomen following treatment with Velashape. Lasers Surg. Med. 41:791,798, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Seasonal dynamics of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, on a confined dog population in Italy

    This study evaluated the seasonal dynamics of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Acari: Ixodidae) on naturally infested dogs in a private shelter in southern Italy. From March to May 2008, 39 autochthonous mixed-breed young dogs and 10 beagles were enrolled in the study. From March 2008 until March 2009, every 21 ± 2 days, 11 body sites of each dog were checked for ticks. At each follow-up, the number of ticks, their developmental stage, sex and location on the dog's body were recorded. Adult ticks were found throughout the year, but immatures were absent in January and February. The adult tick population increased from July to August, whereas the load of immatures increased in early July and peaked in September, which suggests that R. sanguineus develops one generation per year in this area. The mean number of immature ticks per infested dog was higher than that of adults from March to October 2008. Ears, interdigital areas and armpits were the most frequent attachment sites of adult ticks. At the last follow-up, a total of 2266 ticks were collected and identified as R. sanguineus. The results suggest that R. sanguineus develops one generation per year in the study area, but that it infests dogs in all seasons. This information should be taken into account when planning control programmes against this tick species and the pathogens it transmits. [source]

    Traumatic myiasis in dogs caused by Wohlfahrtia magnifica and its importance in the epidemiology of wohlfahrtiosis of livestock

    Abstract In the province of Al Hoceima, northern Morocco, and on two farms in Hungary, dogs were inspected for the presence of traumatic myiasis. Nine and four infested dogs were found in Morocco and Hungary, respectively. All the larvae and adults reared from them in the laboratory were identified as Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). To our knowledge, these are the first cases of wohlfahrtiosis in dogs to be reported in these countries. All infested animals lived close to livestock, where wohlfahrtiosis was endemic. Infested body sites included limbs (six cases), external genitalia (two), ears (three), nose (one) and neck (one). Developing larvae caused severe welfare problems and tissue destruction in most cases. Although the number of cases reported here is small, wohlfahrtiosis in dogs may be very important from an epidemiological perspective because farm and stray dogs can act as both reservoirs and carriers of this parasitic fly species. Therefore, education of dog owners concerning the risk factors in endemic regions is recommended in order to reduce the prevalence of wohlfahrtiosis in dogs and thereby in livestock. Both owners and veterinarians should pay regular attention to any wounds and to the natural orifices of dogs, especially during the fly seasons. [source]

    Karyotyping of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata from patients with Candida sepsis

    MYCOSES, Issue 5-6 2000
    The aim of this study was to determine the relatedness of Candida strains from patients suffering from Candida septicaemia by typing of Candida isolates from blood cultures and different body sites by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using a contour-clamped homogenous electric field, CHEF). We studied 17 isolates of Candida albicans and 10 isolates of Candida glabrata from six patients. Four patients suffered from a C. albicans septicaemia, one patient from a C. glabrata septicaemia, and one patient had a mixed septicaemia with C. albicans and C. glabrata. Eight isolates from blood cultures were compared with 19 isolates of other sites (stool six, urine four, genital swab four, tip of central venous catheter three, tracheal secretion one, sputum one). PFGE typing resulted in 10 different patterns, four with C. albicans and six with C. glabrata. Five of the six patients had strains of identical PFGE patterns in the blood and at other sites. Seven isolates of a 58-year-old female with a C. glabrata septicaemia fell into five different PFGE patterns. However, they showed minor differences only, which may be due to chromosomal rearrangements within a single strain. Thus it appears, that the colonizing Candida strains were identical to the circulating strains in the bloodstream in at least five of six patients. [source]

    Association between psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal symptoms among Iranian nurses

    Ramin Mehrdad MD
    Abstract Background While psychosocial factors have been associated with musculoskeletal symptoms among nurses in some countries, previous studies of Iranian nurses show little association using a demand and control questionnaire. The aim of this study is to assess and evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and to assess their relationships with psychosocial factors among nurses in Iran. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 347 hospital nurses completed a self-reported questionnaire containing the Standardized Nordic questionnaire for musculoskeletal symptoms and the General Nordic questionnaire for Psychological and Social factors at work (QPS Nordic 34+ Questionnaire). Results Prevalence of low back pain, knee pain, shoulder pain, and neck pain were 73.2%, 68.7%, 48.6%, and 46.3%, respectively. Middle and high stress groups had higher crude and adjusted odds than the low stress group for all body sites. The association for neck, wrist/hand, and upper back and ankle/foot reports (adjusted odds ratio for high stress ranging from 2.4 to 3.0) were statistically significant. Conclusions We observed a high prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms at a number of body sites, which were associated with psychosocial factors and specifically stress as defined by the QPS Nordic 34+ Questionnaire. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:1032,1039, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]