Body Shape Changes (body + shape_change)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Morphological changes during postembryonic development in two species of neotropical harvestmen (Opiliones, Laniatores, Cranaidae)

Victor R. Townsend Jr.
Abstract Morphological changes during postembryonic development in the Cranaidae are described on the basis of the examination of an incomplete series of larvae, nymphs, and adults of Phareicranaus calcariferus and Santinezia serratotibialis. The life histories of these species are hypothesized to consist of six nymphal stages, featuring the appearance of secondary male sexual characteristics in the antepenultimate nymph (N5). Color and body shape change dramatically during development. Growth rates for nymphs based upon leg measurements were similar for both species. In S. serratotibialis, the greatest increase in leg size occurred from larva to 1st nymph. The tarsomeres of legs I,IV varied by 1,2 segments per leg for each nymph stage, with the number of tarsal segments increased by 1,2 segments at each stage. Adults had nearly twice as many tarsomeres on leg II than other legs. Ontogenetic changes were observed in the armature of the proximal cheliceral segment, ocularium, pedipalp, opisthosoma, distitarsus III and IV, and leg IV. Morphological changes in postembryonic development in cranaid harvestmen are similar to those reported for other Laniatores. J. Morphol., 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Experiences of pregnancy-related body shape changes and of breast-feeding in women with a history of eating disorders

Gunilla Larsson
Abstract In spite of the growing problems of eating disorders in society, no publications have reported the cumulative prevalence of eating disorders among childbearing women. The condition may constitute a risk during pregnancy and the childbirth period. This study examined the frequency of self-reported eating disorder histories in women who had been delivered 3,7 months earlier as well as their experiences of body shape changes and breast feeding and the length of the breast-feeding periods. Five hundred and sixteen women were invited to participate, of whom 454 responded to a questionnaire (88 per cent). A history of an eating disorder was reported by 11.5 per cent of the respondents, with a predominance of younger women. Significantly fewer women among those reporting an eating disorder breast-fed their 3-month-old baby. However, no difference was seen regarding feelings related to the transformed body shape. Almost all women described such feelings as positive. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

The prevalence of lipodystrophy in an ambulant HIV-infected population: it all depends on the definition

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 3 2001
VM Carter
Objectives This study's objective was to determine the prevalence of body shape changes and metabolic abnormalities in an ambulant population with HIV infection. Three different definitions of lipodystrophy were used to assess these changes. Patients' anthropometric measures and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were compared in order to estimate fat distribution in this population. We sought to evaluate potential predictors for lipodystrophy according to each of the three definitions. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in the outpatient clinic of a tertiary referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia. We enrolled a total of 167 HIV-infected ambulatory patients over 3 months in mid-1998. Data on 159 males, 149 of whom were receiving triple combination antiretroviral therapy, were evaluated. Anthropometric measures, clinical examination, self-report of body shape changes, biochemical measures and DEXA scan were used to assess lipodystrophy and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Patients described body shape changes in the face, trunk, arms and legs. Laboratory parameters measured included fasting triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL), glucose, insulin, CD4 cell count and plasma HIV RNA. Current and past antiretroviral therapies were ascertained. Results According to one proposed Australian national definition of lipodystrophy (LDNC), the prevalence of lipodystrophy in this population was 65%. This definition included an objective assessment with major and minor criteria. Patient-defined lipodystrophy (LDP), which involved a subjective assessment of thinning arms and legs and central adiposity, occurred in 19%. Patient-defined lipoatrophy (LAP), which involved a subjective assessment of thinning arms and legs without central adiposity, occurred in 21.3%. No change in body habitus was noted by 37% of the cohort. Hypercholesterolaemia was recorded in 44%, hypertriglyceridaemia in 52% and elevated insulin levels in 23%. Anthropometry was predictive of the per cent total body fat recorded by DEXA scan, but produced consistently lower values. In multivariate analysis, LDP and LAP were significantly associated with stavudine (d4T) use, while LAP was also associated with zidovudine (ZDV) treatment. There were no treatment associations with LDNC. Protease inhibitor (PI) exposure was associated with metabolic changes but not patient perceived body shape changes, while d4T and ZDV exposure was associated with increased triglycerides and reduced peripheral fat stores. Conclusions The prevalence of body shape changes in a single population varied depending on the definition applied. The LDNC definition overestimated body shape abnormalities in comparison with patient perception. LAP was associated with significantly lower fat stores measured by anthropometry and DEXA scan than those identified under the LDNC definition. In contrast to LDNC, LAP was associated with d4T exposure, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and ZDV duration of use, but not PI use. Until a consensus definition for lipodystrophy is developed, including agreement on objective measurement and thresholds for abnormality, careful description of the individual components of the syndrome is required to enable cohort comparisons so that predictors of the syndrome can be assessed more accurately and outcome studies made feasible. [source]

Effects of steroid hormones on five functional parameters of Tetrahymena: evolutionary conclusions

László K, hidai
Abstract The unicellular Tetrahymena pyriformis was studied for chemotaxis, chemotactic selection, phagocytosis, growth and body shape changes in the presence of water soluble (,-cyclodextrin-coupled) steroid hormones (testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, hydrocortisone and dexamethasone). Testosterone was chemoattractant over a wide range of concentrations, while progesterone and dexamethasone were active only at one concentration (10,5 and 10,6,mg,ml,1 respectively) and were either neutral or repellent at other concentrations. Hydrocortisone and estradiol were unambiguously chemorepellent. Chemotactic selection enhanced the effect of testosterone and estradiol, while in the case of hydrocortisone the action was reversed. The other parameters were mildly influenced by the steroid hormones. The results call attention to the fine molecular recognition capacity of Tetrahymena and to the possible rapid effects of steroid hormones at membrane receptors at a very low evolutionary eukaryotic level. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]