Body Segments (body + segment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Capturing human motion using body-fixed sensors: outdoor measurement and clinical applications

Kamiar Aminian
Abstract Motion capture is mainly based on standard systems using optic, magnetic or sonic technologies. In this paper, the possibility to detect useful human motion based on new techniques using different types of body-fixed sensors is shown. In particular, a combination of accelerometers and angular rate sensors (gyroscopes) showed a promising design for a hybrid kinematic sensor measuring the 2D kinematics of a body segment. These sensors together with a portable datalogger, and using simple biomechanical models, allow capture of outdoor and long-term movements and overcome some limitations of the standard motion capture systems. Significant parameters of body motion, such as nature of motion (postural transitions, trunk rotation, sitting, standing, lying, walking, jumping) and its spatio-temporal features (velocity, displacement, angular rotation, cadence and duration) have been evaluated and compared to the camera-based system. Based on these parameters, the paper outlines the possibility to monitor physical activity and to perform gait analysis in the daily environment, and reviews several clinical investigations related to fall risk in the elderly, quality of life, orthopaedic outcome and sport performance. Taking advantage of all the potential of these body-fixed sensors should be promising for motion capture and particularly in environments not suitable for standard technology such as in any field activity. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The circulatory system in Chilopoda: functional morphology and phylogenetic aspects

ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 3 2002
Christian S. Wirkner
Abstract The circulatory organs of nine representative species of all five chilopod orders were examined by light microscopy and by in vivo observations of haemolymph flow. In Scutigera coleoptrata, the heart ultrastructure was studied. The circulatory system in Craterostigmomorpha is described for the first time. Further focus is placed on the Geophilomorpha since previous descriptions in this group have been only superficial. In all investigated species, the circulatory system consists of two longitudinal central vessels which are connected in the first body segment by the maxilliped arch. The posterior part of these vessels is contractile and thus haemolymph is pumped anteriorly in the heart, while it is pumped posteriorly in the supraneural vessel. From these central vessels numerous peripheral vessels branch off. Differences among the chilopod orders lie mainly in the distribution of the peripheral vessels. The circulatory system in Scutigeromorpha shows some striking morphological adaptations with regard to the functional coupling of circulatory and respiratory tasks. The most peculiar structures are the aortic diverticles which act as accessory pumps in the head. Phylogenetic analysis of the circulatory organ traits within Chilopoda supports the Pleurostigmophora hypothesis. Synapomorphies supporting the Myriapoda hypothesis or the Tracheata concept were not found. [source]

Hemodynamic and Volume Changes during Hemodialysis

Robert M. Lindsay
Background:,Volume overload is a factor in the hypertension of hemodialysis (HD) patients. Fluid removal is therefore integral to the hemodialysis treatment. Fluid removal by hemodialysis ultrafiltration (UF) may cause intradialytic hypotension and leg cramps. Understanding blood pressure (BP) and volume changes during UF may eliminate intradialytic hypotension and cramps. Studies (S1, S2, and S3) were carried out to determine the amount and direction of changes in body fluid compartments following UF and to determine the relationships between BP, changes in blood volume (,BV), central blood volume (CBV), cardiac output (CO), peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) plus total body water (TBW), and intra- and extracellular fluid volumes (ICF, ECF) in both the whole body and body segments (arms, legs, trunk). Methods:,Indicator dilution technology (Transonic) was used for CBV, CO, and PVR; hematocrit monitoring (Crit-Line) was used for ,BV segmental bioimpedance (Xitron) for TBW, ICF, and ECF. Results:,S1 (n = 21) showed UF sufficient to cause ,BV of ,7% and lead to minor changes (same direction) in CBV and CO, and with cessation of UF, vascular refilling was preferential to CBV. S2 (n = 20) showed that predialysis HD patients are ECF-expanded (ECF/ICF ratio = 0.96, controls = 0.74 [P < 0.0001]) and BP correlates with ECF (r = 0.47, P = 0.35). UF to cause ,BV of ,7% was associated with a decrease in ECF (P < 0.0001) and BP directly (r = 0.46, P = 0.04) plus ,BV indirectly (r = ,0.5, P = 0.024) correlated with PVR, while CBV and CO were maintained. S3 (n = 11) showed that following UF, total-body ECF changes were correlated with leg ECF (r = 0.94) and arm ECF (r = 0.72) but not trunk ECF. Absolute ECF reduction was greatest from the legs. Conclusions:,Predialysis ECF influences BP and UF reduces ,BV and ECF, but CBV and BP are conserved by increasing PVR. ECF reduction is mainly from the legs, hence may cause cramps. Intradialytic hypotension is caused by failure of PVR response. [source]

Human reach envelope and zone differentiation for ergonomic design

Jingzhou (James) Yang
In human-centric design, the human reach envelope is one of the most important components to help layout design for workstations, vehicles, and aircrafts. It also can help people to study the range of motion of different body segments. Various methods have been developed to determine human reach envelopes. This article presents different methods and common challenges. Human reach envelopes only give feedback concerning whether a point is reachable. This is not enough for the designers. The more important information the designers need to know is the zones with different discomfort levels. This capability is a powerful tool for ergonomic designers. In addition, a methodology for workspace solid zone differentiation or surface zone differentiation in the three-dimensional space is presented. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Complete mutation analysis panel of the 39 human HOX genes

Kenjiro Kosaki
Background The HOX gene family consists of highly conserved transcription factors that specify the identity of the body segments along the anteroposterior axis of the embryo. Because the phenotypes of mice with targeted disruptions of Hox genes resemble some patterns of human malformations, mutations in HOX genes have been expected to be associated with a significant number of human malformations. Thus far, however, mutations have been documented in only three of the 39 human HOX genes (HOXD13, HOXA13, and HOXA11) partly because current knowledge on the complete coding sequence and genome structure is limited to only 20 of the 39 human HOX genes. Methods Taking advantage of the human and mouse draft genome sequences, we attempted to characterize the remaining 19 human HOX genes by bioinformatic analysis including phylogenetic footprinting, the probabilistic prediction method, and comparison of genomic sequences with the complete set of the human anonymous cDNA sequences. Results We were able to determine the full coding sequences of 19 HOX genes and their genome structure and successfully designed a complete set of PCR primers to amplify the entire coding region of each of the 39 HOX genes from genomic DNA. Conclusions Our results indicate the usefulness of bioinformatic analysis of the draft genome sequences for clinically oriented research projects. It is hoped that the mutation panel provided here will serve as a launchpad for a new discourse on the genetic basis of human malformations. Teratology 65:50,62, 2002. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]