Body Pathology (body + pathology)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Body Pathology

  • lewy body pathology

  • Selected Abstracts

    Diagnostic criteria for psychosis in Parkinson's disease: Report of an NINDS, NIMH work group

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 8 2007
    Bernard Ravina MD, MSCE
    Abstract There are no standardized diagnostic criteria for psychosis associated with Parkinson's disease (PDPsy). As part of an NIH sponsored workshop, we reviewed the existing literature on PDPsy to provide criteria that distinguish PDPsy from other causes of psychosis. Based on these data, we propose provisional criteria for PDPsy in the style of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV-TR. PDPsy has a well-characterized temporal and clinical profile of hallucinations and delusions, which is different than the pattern seen in other psychotic disorders such as substance induced psychosis or schizophrenia. PDPsy is associated with a poor prognosis of chronic psychosis, nursing home placement, and death. Medications used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) contribute to PDPsy but may not be sufficient or necessary contributors to PDPsy. PDPsy is associated with Lewy bodies pathology, imbalances of monoaminergic neurotransmitters, and visuospatial processing deficits. These findings suggest that PDPsy may result from progression of the disease process underlying PD, rather than a comorbid psychiatric disorder or drug intoxication. PDPsy is not adequately described by existing criteria for psychotic disorders. We established provisional diagnostic criteria that define a constellation of clinical features not shared by other psychotic syndromes. The criteria are inclusive and contain descriptions of the full range of characteristic symptoms, chronology of onset, duration of symptoms, exclusionary diagnoses, and associated features such as dementia. These criteria require validation and may be refined, but form a starting point for studies of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of PDPsy, and are a potential indication for therapy development. © 2007 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Essential tremor , Neurodegenerative or nondegenerative disease towards a working definition of ET,

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 14 2009
    GŁnther Deuschl MD
    Abstract Essential tremor (ET) is a syndrome of tremor in posture and movement, but recent studies have revealed additional cerebellar motor disturbances, cognitive disturbances, personality changes, hearing loss, and olfactory deficits. Even dementia and shortened life expectancy were found in one cohort. Recent postmortem studies have found limited Lewy body pathology in some patients and Purkinje cell loss with torpedoes and Bergmann gliosis in others. These findings have led to the hypothesis that ET is a syndrome produced by at least two neurodegenerative diseases with more widespread clinical consequences than previously appreciated. We review the evidence for and against this hypothesis and conclude that studies purporting to support this hypothesis have failed to control for age-associated comorbidities, depression, medications, and other confounding factors. We propose the alternative hypothesis that abnormal neuronal oscillation is the fundamental abnormality in ET, and the well-documented cerebellar signs and symptoms, the controversial non-motor signs, and even the cerebellar pathology of ET could be caused by this oscillation. A major problem for many studies is the lack of a diagnostic gold standard. Lacking such a standard, we propose a subclassification of ET into three categories: hereditary ET, sporadic ET, and senile ET, which we believe will help researchers resolve many of the controversies in this field. © 2009 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Neural control of the gastrointestinal tract: Implications for Parkinson disease

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 8 2008
    Maria G. Cersosimo MD
    Abstract Disorders of swallowing and gastrointestinal motility are prominent nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson disease (PD). Motility of the gut is controlled both by extrinsic inputs from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and paravertebral sympathetic ganglia and by local reflexes mediated by intrinsic neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Both the ENS and the DMV are affected by Lewy body pathology at early stages of PD. This early involvement provides insights into the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal dysmotility in this disorder and may constitute an important step in the etiopathogenesis of Lewy body disease. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society. [source]

    Stanley Fahn Lecture 2005: The staging procedure for the inclusion body pathology associated with sporadic Parkinson's disease reconsidered

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 12 2006
    Heiko Braak MD
    Abstract The synucleinopathy known as sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem disorder that severely damages predisposed nerve cell types in circumscribed regions of the human nervous system. A recent staging procedure for the inclusion body pathology associated with PD proposes that, in the brain, the pathological process (formation of proteinaceous intraneuronal Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites) begins at two sites and continues in a topographically predictable sequence in six stages, during which components of the olfactory, autonomic, limbic, and somatomotor systems become progressively involved. In stages 1 to 2, the Lewy body pathology is confined to the medulla oblongata/pontine tegmentum and anterior olfactory structures. In stages 3 to 4, the substantia nigra and other nuclei of the basal mid- and forebrain become the focus of initially subtle and, then, severe changes. During this phase, the illness probably becomes clinically manifest. In the final stages 5 to 6, the lesions appear in the neocortex. This cross-sectional study originally was performed on 168 autopsy cases using material from 69 incidental cases and 41 clinically diagnosed PD patients as well as 58 age- and gender-matched controls. Here, the staging hypothesis is critically reconsidered and discussed. © 2006 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Diagnostic considerations in juvenile parkinsonism

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 2 2004
    Dominic C. Paviour MRCP
    Abstract Juvenile parkinsonism (JP) describes patients in whom the clinical features of parkinsonism manifest before 21 years of age. Many reported cases that had a good response to levodopa have proved to have autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP) due to mutations in the parkin gene. With the exception of parkin mutations and dopa-responsive dystonia, most causes are associated with the presence of additional neurological signs, resulting from additional lesions outside of the basal ganglia. Lewy body pathology has only been reported in one case, suggesting that a juvenile form of idiopathic Parkinson's disease may be extremely rare. © 2003 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Review: Familial Parkinson's disease , genetics, clinical phenotype and neuropathology in relation to the common sporadic form of the disease

    Carola Schiesling
    The identification of the first gene in familial Parkinson's disease (PD) only 10 years ago was a major step in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms in neurodegeneration. Alpha-synuclein aggregation was not only recognized as a key event in neurodegeneration in patients carrying mutations in this gene, but it turned out to be the most consistent marker to define Lewy body pathology also in non-heritable idiopathic PD (IPD). Subsequent comprehensive pathoanatomical studies of IPD brains led to a novel concept of an ascending pathological process in variable stages that are reflected by alpha-synuclein aggregation at specific predilection sites. To date, more than seven genes are known to cause familial PD. The fact that these genetic forms of Parkinsonism present with clinical features indistinguishable from IPD, but may display neuropathological features that are not consistent with IPD, underscores the need of a more differentiated approach to familial and sporadic forms of Parkinsonism. Indeed, in distinct populations, mutations in one single gene were found to cause the disease in up to 40% of patients formerly described as ,idiopathic' cases. These findings indicate that IPD, as defined by a late-onset disorder with no (apparent) genetic contribution, is part of a clinical syndrome that becomes more and more heterogeneous in terms of aetiology, with overlapping clinical and pathoanatomical features. Thus in the present review, we discuss clues from familial PD to our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of neurodegeneration with special consideration of the variable clinical and neuropathological aspects. [source]