Body Mass (body + mass)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Body Mass

  • adult body mass
  • increased body mass
  • initial body mass
  • kg body mass
  • large body mass
  • lean body mass
  • low body mass
  • lower body mass
  • mean body mass

  • Terms modified by Body Mass

  • body mass change
  • body mass index
  • body mass index standard deviation score
  • body mass index value

  • Selected Abstracts

    Functional Impact of Relative Versus Absolute Sarcopenia in Healthy Older Women

    Marcos Estrada MD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether adjustment of muscle mass for height2 or for body mass represents a more-relevant predictor of physical performance. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, using baseline data from a trial comparing upper- and lower-body training. SETTING: Women recruited from the community and gynecological practices in Connecticut. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred eighty-nine healthy older (aged 67.5 ± 4.8), active women receiving estrogen for osteoporosis over 2 years. MEASUREMENTS: Total and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) and fat mass (AFM) were determined using dual x-ray absorptiometry. Physical performance, muscle strength, and fitness measures were obtained at baseline. RESULTS: Adjusting ASM for height2 identifies lean women who are sarcopenic according to published standards yet fails to identify overweight and obese women whose ASM adjusted for body mass is low. ASM divided by body mass (ASM/body mass) is a stronger physical performance predictor, explaining 32.5%, 13.5%, 11.6%, 6.3%, and 6.8% of the variance in maximum time on treadmill, 6-minute walk, gait speed, 8-foot walk, and single leg stance, respectively, whereas ASM divided by height in m2 (ASM/height2) explained only 2.9%, 0.2%, 2.0%, 0.04%, and 0.1%. Multivariate modeling demonstrated considerable overlap in aspects of ASM/body mass and AFM/body mass associated with performance, with ASM/body mass dominant. In contrast, ASM/height2 is a much stronger predictor of leg press 1 repetition maximum and maximum power. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that relative sarcopenia with ASM adjusted for body mass is a better mobility predictor, with absolute sarcopenia a better indicator of isolated muscle group function in healthy postmenopausal women receiving estrogen replacement. [source]

    Statistical Issues in the Prediction of Body Mass for Pleistocene Canids

    LETHAIA, Issue 1 2002
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Circulating adipocytokines in non-diabetic and Type 1 diabetic children: relationship to insulin therapy, glycaemic control and pubertal development

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 6 2006
    F. Celi
    Abstract Aim To determine the influence of Type 1 diabetes mellitus on circulating adipocytokines in children. Methods The circulating concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, resistin and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-, were measured in 91 children, aged 11.1 ± 2.7 years, with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Ninety-one healthy children were selected as control subjects. Results Body mass index-adjusted leptin concentrations were higher in the pubertal diabetic children compared with the control children. There was a significant positive correlation between leptin and daily insulin dose in the diabetic group. Circulating adiponectin concentrations were higher in the prepubertal diabetic children and were positively associated with HbA1c. Resistin concentrations were lower in the prepubertal non-diabetic subjects compared with the pubertal non-diabetic children, whose values were higher than those of the diabetic children. TNF-, concentrations were similar in non-diabetic and diabetic children. Conclusions Circulating concentrations of adipocytokines are abnormal in Type 1 diabetic children, although the direction of change differs by cytokine. Pubertal development, in addition to insulin treatment and glycaemic control, also influences the concentrations. [source]

    Concentrations of selenium and mercury in eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) from Utah's great Salt Lake, USA

    Michael R. Conover
    Abstract We examined selenium and mercury concentrations in eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) that spent the fall of 2006 on the Great Salt Lake (UT, USA), where their diet consisted mainly of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana). Selenium concentrations in livers varied based on when the grebes were collected (lower in September [mean ± standard error, 9.4 ± 0.7 ,g/g dry wt] than in November [14.5 ± 1.4 ,g/g]), on where the birds were collected on the Great Salt Lake (Antelope Island, 8.6 ± 0.5 ,g/g; Stansbury Island, 15.2 ± 1.4 ,g/g), and on the grebe's age (juveniles, 8.5 ± 1.5 ,g/g; adults, 15.8 ± 1.3 ,g/g), but not by sex. Selenium concentrations in blood differed only by collection site (Antelope Island, 16.8 ± 2.3 ,g/g; Stansbury Island, 25.4 ± 3.0 ,g/g). Mercury concentration in the blood of grebes varied by when the grebes were collected (September, 5.6 ± 0.5 ,g/g; November, 8.4 ± 1.2 ,g/g), where the birds were collected (Antelope Island, 4.3 ± 0.5 ,g/g; Stansbury Island, 10.1 ± 2.6 ,g/g), and the grebe's age (juveniles, 5.5 ± 0.8 ,g/g; adults, 8.4 ± 1.0 ,g/g), but not by sex. Selenium concentrations in blood were correlated with selenium concentrations in the liver and with mercury concentrations in both blood and liver. Body mass of grebes increased dramatically from September (381 ± 14 g wet wt) to November (591 ± 11 g). Body, liver, and spleen mass either were not correlated with selenium or mercury concentrations or the relationship was positive. These results suggest that high mercury and selenium levels were not preventing grebes from increasing or maintaining mass. [source]

    Selenium and mercury concentrations in California gulls breeding on the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Michael R. Conover
    Abstract We examined selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in adult California gulls (Larus californicus) nesting on the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA, during 2006 and 2007. During 2006, the mean Se concentration (± standard error) was 18.1 ± 1.5 ,g/g in blood on a dry-weight basis and 8.1 ± 0.4 ,g/g in liver. During 2007, Se concentrations were 15.7 ± 1.5 ,g/g in blood and 8.3 ± 0.4 ,g/g in liver; Hg concentrations were 2.4 ± 0.3 ,g/g in blood and 4.1 ± 0.5 ,g/g in liver. Gulls collected from a freshwater colony located within the watershed of the Great Salt Lake had similar levels of Se in the blood and liver as gulls collected on the Great Salt Lake but lower Hg concentrations. Body mass of adult gulls was not correlated with Se or Hg concentrations in their blood or liver. Selenium concentration in California gull eggs collected during 2006 was 3.0 ± 0.10 ,g/g. Of 72 eggs randomly collected from Great Salt Lake colonies, only one was infertile, and none of the embryos exhibited signs of malposition or deformities. We examined 100 newly hatched California gull chicks from Great Salt Lake colonies for teratogenesis; all chicks appeared normal. Hence, the elevated Se and Hg concentrations in adult gulls nesting on the Great Salt Lake did not appear to impair gulls' health or reproductive ability. [source]

    Leptin is associated with craving in females with alcoholism

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3-4 2004
    T Kraus
    The appetite and weight regulating peptide leptin was associated recently with alcohol craving during withdrawal. Nevertheless, correlations were only significant with craving displayed on the visual analogue scale for maximum craving during the previous week (VAS), and not if assessed with the highly validated Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). The objective of the following study, therefore, is to elucidate further the associations between the leptin system and craving concepts during alcohol withdrawal. A sufficiently large sample size should allow multiple statistical subgroup and confounder analyses. We prospectively investigated 102 chronic alcoholic inpatients (23 females, 79 males) during withdrawal on days 0 (admission), 1, 2 and days 7,-,10. In addition to the statistical analysis of the total sample, females and males were to be analysed separately. For detecting associations between leptin levels and craving scores multiple regression analysis was performed. Plasma leptin levels were determined, and craving for ethanol was assessed by both the OCDS and the VAS. Leptin plasma levels significantly increased during alcohol withdrawal compared to day 0, while all craving scores decreased. Body mass corrected leptin plasma levels predicted craving on day 0 in the OCDS total score (R ,=,0.55, F ,=,7.91, df,=,1.19, p ,<,0.05) and in the OCDS obsessive subscore (R ,=,0.57, F <,=,8.48, df,=,1.19, p ,<,0.05) in females. Neither in males nor in the total population did multiple regression analysis reveal any significant results. Leptin levels seem to change during inpatient alcohol withdrawal. In a multivariate model, correlations between leptin levels and the highly validated craving scores of the OCDS can only be assumed in females. Hence, gender differences have to be taken into account when searching for neurobiological models of alcohol craving. [source]

    A new body mass estimation of Brachiosaurus brancai Janensch, 1914 mounted and exhibited at the Museum of Natural History (Berlin, Germany)

    Hanns-Christian Gunga
    Abstract Body mass and surface areas are important in several aspects for an organism living today. Therefore, mass and surface determinations for extinct dinosaurs could be important for paleo-biological aspects as well. Based on photogrammetrical measurement the body mass and body surface area of the Late Jurassic Brachiosaurus brancai Janensch, 1914 from Tendaguru (East Africa), a skeleton mounted and exhibited at the Museum of Natural History in Berlin (Germany), has been re-evaluated. We determined for a slim type of 3D reconstruction of Brachiosaurus brancai a total volume of 47.9 m3 which represents, assuming a mean tissue density of 0.8 kg per 1,000 cm3, a total body mass of 38,000 kg. The volume distributions from the head to the tail were as follows: 0.2 m3 for the head, neck 7.3 m3, fore limbs 2.9 m3, hind limbs 2.6 m3, thoracic-abdominal cavity 32.4 m3, tail 2.2 m3. The total body surface area was calculated to be 119.1 m2, specifically 1.5 m2 for the head, 26 m2 neck, fore limbs 18.8 m2, hind limbs 16.4 m2, 44.2 m2 thoracic-abdominal cavity, and finally the tail 12.2 m2. Finally, allometric equations were used to estimate presumable organ sizes of this extinct dinosaur and to test whether their dimensions really fit into the thoracic and abdominal cavity of Brachiosaurus brancai if a slim body shape of this sauropod is assumed. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Measuring natural abundance of 13C in respired CO2: variability and implications for non-invasive dietary analysis

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2001
    Summary 1,Three experiments were performed, using laboratory mice (Mus musculus) as a model species, to evaluate the potential of using measurements of carbon isotope ratios in expired CO2 for tracing diets. 2,Breath 13C signatures of mice fed a constant diet (,21·4, ± 0·35) reflected their diet, but were depleted by on average ,5·7,. Body mass, sex and age were independent and significant factors correlated with the variability of 13C enrichment in respired CO2. 3,Breath 13C signatures from starved mice (7 h) were lower than unstarved mice by 2·0,. Subsequently when starved mice were fed a small meal of a new diet, breath 13C signatures approached those of the new diets within 15 min, returning to preingestion levels after 105 min. 4,After a permanent diet switch 13C values of breath were not asymptotic within 6 days, possibly because of use of fat reserves during the daytime carrying an isotopic memory of the previous diet. Hence, individual breath 13C signatures may vary according to nutritive state and previous dietary history. 5,Interindividual variability was measured at 3·3,. The implications are that large samples of individuals will be required to distinguish between diets of different populations where the isotopic difference between their diets was small , for example, that expected between herbivorous and carnivorous diets. However, breath would be suitable for distinguishing between dietary intakes of individuals for food types that are isotopically more distinct , such as between C3 and C4 plants. [source]

    Effects of body mass, climate, geography, and census area on population density of terrestrial mammals

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2001
    Marina Silva
    Abstract Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of climate, geography, census area and the distribution of body mass on the mass : density relationship in terrestrial mammal populations. Location The areas covered include most major terrestrial biomes including the tropics, savannas, and temperate forests. Method Data on population density and body mass from 827 populations belonging to 330 different terrestrial mammal species were derived from a review of the literature. Results LOWESS and polynomial regression analysis indicated that the overall mass : density relationship on log-log scales was not linear and that the slope of this relationship behaves differently across the range of body mass. Body mass explained between 37 and 67% of the variability in population density depending upon the dietary category or the biome group. We also developed two multivariate models that can explain up to 65% of the variability in population density in terrestrial mammals. We also tested for a confounding effect of census area on the mass : density relationship on log-log scales in terrestrial mammals. Conclusions Our findings support previous studies suggesting that body mass is a major predictor of the variance in population density in terrestrial mammals. We suggest that the non-linearity of the mass : density relationship may result from the fact that the overall distribution of body mass is a mixture of distributions across dietary groups and biomes. In contrast to body mass, our results indicate that climatic and geographical factors have a minor effect on population density. Although census area was closely correlated with body mass, body mass was generally a better predictor of population density than was census area. [source]

    Effects of food abundance and predictability on body condition and health parameters: experimental tests with the Hooded Crow

    IBIS, Issue 4 2002
    Camilla Acquarone
    It has been shown that small passerines can counteract variability of food resources by actively regulating their body reserves through an increase of mass. However, the effects of food predictability on body mass regulation and other body parameters, such as immune functions, in larger species have been little studied. To analyse the response of the Hooded Crow Corvus corone to food abundance and predictability, we performed three experiments with controlled food provisioning under laboratory conditions. Body mass, TOBEC (total body electrical conductivity) lean mass index, blood parameters and immune organ masses were measured at the beginning and end of a 15-day period. In the first experiment, the food release was predictable (same amount each day) but the quantity of food delivered to five groups of birds varied (37, 75, 100, 150 or 300 g/day). Low food levels induced a greater decrease in mass accompanied by an increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In the second experiment, the same average quantity of food (100 g) was supplied according to either predictable or unpredictable (random) schedules. In this case, the crows lost more mass, and their erythrocyte sedimentation rate increased when food was unpredictable. In the third experiment, the same average quantity of food (150 g) was supplied according to either a predictable schedule or two schedules with different levels of variability. The group with a low level of variability did not differ from the control, while the group with a highly variable feeding schedule lost more mass. In this group, the higher mass loss was associated with greater variation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and a reduced Phytohaemagglutinin index of immunocompetence and haematocrit value. The results of experiments 2 and 3 contrast with findings in other passerines, which increase their mass when food availability is unpredictable. It appears that a body mass decrease in the Hooded Crow can be induced by a reduction of either food abundance (exp. 1) or food predictability (exp. 2, 3), and it is accompanied by a worsening of health state. [source]

    Body protein does not vary despite seasonal changes in fat in the White Stork Ciconia ciconia

    IBIS, Issue 1 2002
    Delphine Michard-Picamelot
    To understand how a large soaring bird, the White Stork Ciconia ciconia, copes with energy constraints, we compared changes in body mass in 14 captive adult storks with the body composition of 12 free-ranging adult storks found dead from accidents. The captive storks, already in an enclosure for several years, were fed ad libitum. They were weighed daily for 1.5,3.5 years using an automatic device. The bodies of the accidentally killed storks were analysed to determine total water, lipid, protein and ash contents, and to assess the biochemical composition of certain organs. Females were on average 20% lighter and 24% smaller than males, but the body mass of the sexes varied in parallel throughout the year. Body mass peaked in December and January (25,30% above minimal body mass), due essentially to large fat stores in subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissues. Body mass and body lipid rapidly decreased from February to June, whether the storks reared chicks successfully or not, and remained minimal for a few days into July. In contrast to birds using flapping flight, no variation in body protein or pectoral muscle protein was observed while breeding, even though the moult occurred then, nor in August, before the time when wild storks migrate. An endogenous regulation of body fuels is discussed. [source]

    Effect of experimentally altered food abundance on fat reserves of wintering birds

    Christopher M. Rogers
    Summary 1Current models of adaptive fat regulation make opposing predictions concerning the effect of increased winter food supply on size of the avian winter fat reserve. To distinguish between models, food supply was varied experimentally in nature and two measures of size of the fat reserve were taken at food-supplemented sites and non-supplemented sites. 2In two winters, most of the seven species sampled showed slightly higher visible subcutaneous fat class at supplemented than at non-supplemented sites; treatment and species factors were statistically significant. Body mass corrected for wing length showed a similar if non-significant trend. 3A parallel dispersal study of birds colour-banded at non-supplemented sites showed that these birds did not move 0·8 or 1·5 km to use supplemental food at private feeding stations in the study areas. In addition, accipiter hawk attack rate did not differ between supplemented and non-supplemented sites. 4These results are consistent with a model of adaptive fat regulation (based on between-day environmental variability caused by severe weather events) that predicts an increase in the winter fat reserve at increased food supply. Other published studies, all from the north temperate zone, showed the same pattern. 5The present results are inconsistent with a second model (based on within-day foraging interruption) which predicts a decrease in the fat reserve under increased food supply. However, a set of published studies, all from tropical regions or regions with mild maritime climate, showed the decrease at higher food predicted by the second but not the first model. 6Models of adaptive fat regulation in small birds are therefore limited in their predictive power, perhaps because they are developed for environments that differ in the time scale of environmental stochasticity. New studies are needed that explore further the complexities of environment-specific adaptive fat models, e.g. a winter feeding experiment in a tropical bird species. [source]

    Habitat utilisation during staging affects body condition in a long distance migrant, Branta bernicla hrota: potential impacts on fitness?

    R. Inger
    There is considerable evidence to suggest that an animal's ability to access the appropriate resources at one time of year may profoundly restrict its performance at another. For migrants, wintering and breeding periods are often connected by refuelling or staging periods, critical (particularly for females) in attaining the body reserves required to ensure successful breeding. However in many instances there are differences in the extent to which different individuals gain access to the highest quality resources. Here we demonstrate how body condition in brent geese Branta bernicla hrota, during spring staging is related to differences in marine and terrestrial habitat utilisation (inferred from stable isotope analysis). Female birds with high fat scores feed to a greater extent on marine resources. Body mass and condition are also higher in individuals utilising more marine resources. Given that body mass at spring staging is correlated with reproductive success, the extent of marine habitat maybe critical to this population. Combining this with data from previous studies of dark-bellied brent geese Branta bernicla bernicla, we predict the potential impacts of spring staging resource utilisation on future breeding success. Although staging is of short duration compared to the other components of annual cycles of migratory species, our results suggest that the quality of staging grounds may be vitally important to population processes. [source]

    Developmental plasticity in a passerine bird: an experiment with collared flycatchers Ficedula albicollis

    Gergely Hegyi
    Young birds often face poor food supply, which reduces their growth and development. However, if the shortage of resources is only temporary, there is a possibility to adjust the growth trajectory of morphological traits after the end of the short-term limitation period. The two main ways of compensatory growth are delayed development (parallel growth) and growth acceleration (catch-up growth). Parallel growth has been widely demonstrated in birds, but the presence of catch-up growth in altricial species has been questioned. However, most experiments have been conducted in laboratory conditions. We manipulated the food supply of nestling collared flycatchers Ficedula albicollis in the wild by removing the male parent for three days at 4,7 days of chick age. We performed early partial swapping to control for origin effects on growth, and total swapping after the period of food limitation to ensure similar late growth environment for deprived and control chicks. Both body mass and tarsus length of deprived chicks was negatively affected by the food scarcity. Body mass showed efficient catch-up growth, but this compensation was absent in skeletal size. Body mass is an important determinant of postfledging survival in this long-distance migrant. Further studies are needed in a variety of species to examine developmental plasticity in relation to age at food scarcity and the allocation hierarchy of various morphological traits. [source]

    Morphological specializations of baleen whales associated with hydrodynamic performance and ecological niche

    JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY, Issue 11 2006
    Becky L. Woodward
    Abstract Feeding behavior, prey type, and habitat appear to be associated with the morphological design of body, fluke, and flippers in baleen whales. Morphometric data from whaling records and recent stranding events were compiled, and morphometric parameters describing the body length, and fluke and flipper dimensions for an "average" blue whale Balaenoptera musculus, humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae, gray whale Eschrichtius robustus, and right whale Eubalaena glacialis were determined. Body mass, body volume, body surface area, and fluke and flipper surface areas were estimated. The resultant morphological configurations lent themselves to the following classifications based on hydrodynamic principles: fast cruiser, slow cruiser, fast maneuverer, and slow maneuverer. Blue whales have highly streamlined bodies with small, high aspect ratio flippers and flukes for fast efficient cruising in the open ocean. On the other hand, the rotund right whale has large, high aspect ratio flukes for efficient slow speed cruising that is optimal for their continuous filter feeding technique. Humpbacks have large, high aspect ratio flippers and a large, low aspect ratio tail for quick acceleration and high-speed maneuvering which would help them catch their elusive prey, while gray whales have large, low aspect ratio flippers and flukes for enhanced low-speed maneuvering in complex coastal water habitats. J. Morphol., 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Spinal degenerative disk disease (DDD) in female macaque monkeys: epidemiology and comparison with women

    Patricia Ann Kramer
    Spinal degenerative disk disease (DDD) in a radiographic, cross-sectional sample of 192 female macaque monkeys, approximately 5,30 years old, is described. The presence and extent of disk space narrowing (DSN) and anterior osteophytosis were assessed with reference to age, average lifetime body mass, and distribution within the thoracolumbar spine. Age was a strong correlate of disk narrowing and osteophytosis, with early signs appearing at equivalent ages in both species and increasing in prevalence thereafter. Macaques showed a far greater prevalence of DDD, especially in the oldest age group, than has been reported in the human data. Body mass was associated with disk narrowing in the macaque, but not with osteophytosis. The two species differed little in the pattern of distribution of DDD along the spine. Our results suggest that bipedality is not the singular, or even the most important, biomechanical factor in the development of human DDD. Rather, others shared postural regimes, e.g., sitting, may be responsible for the onset and progression of DDD in both species. The macaque model could substantially add to the under-standing and, potentially, treatment of this oftentimes debilitating condition. © 2002 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

    Reproductive seasonality in the Tete veld rat (Aethomys ineptus) (Rodentia: Muridae) from southern Africa

    JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    S. P. Muteka
    Abstract Very little is known about the reproductive biology of the recently recognized Tete veld rat Aethomys ineptus. In the present study, we investigated the seasonality of reproduction in this newly recognized rodent using a number of histological and endocrinological parameters. Body mass, reproductive tract morphometrics, gonadal histology, and plasma testosterone concentrations in males and plasma oestradiol-17, and progesterone concentrations in females were assessed from a population in the north-central part of South Africa over a 12-month period in order to ascertain the pattern of reproduction in the species. Seminiferous tubule diameters in 59 males were significantly larger between September and February relative to between March and August. Although spermatogenesis was prevalent in the southern hemisphere winter (June,August), the number of spermatozoa in the epididymides decreased in the southern hemisphere spring (September,November), summer (December,February) and autumn (March,May). Testicular mass relative to body mass and testicular volume regressed between May and September but exhibited recrudescence between September and April, whereas plasma testosterone concentrations increased significantly between September and February relative to between March and August. Ovarian histology of 67 females showed corpora lutea to be present throughout the year, but decreased in number during winter, whereas mean plasma progesterone concentration increased significantly between August and November and again between February and April. This bimodal pattern of progesterone concentration suggests that up to two litters per breeding season may be raised by the Tete veld rat. Gravid females were found between October and April, whereas gravid or lactating females were conspicuously absent between May and September. Collation of all these data suggests that the Tete veld rat is a seasonal breeder with reproduction confined predominantly to summer and autumn months of the southern hemisphere. However, the presence of follicular development in females and the presence of corpora lutea outside the breeding season imply that the Tete veld rat may undergo spontaneous ovulation. [source]

    Global warming, Bergmann's rule and body mass , are they related?

    JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
    The chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) case
    Abstract Using museum specimens collected in Israel during the second half of the 20th century, no support was found for the hypothesis that body mass and tarsus length of chukar partridges Alectoris chukar has changed as a result of global warming. Body mass showed fluctuations during the year, reaching a maximum in late winter and spring and a minimum in summer. Bergmann's rule predicts that in warm-blooded animals, races from warm regions will be smaller than races from colder regions, and a wider explanation states that body size is positively related to latitude. Because of its topography and varied climate, Israel provides a unique opportunity to separate partly the effect of latitude from that of ambient temperature, thus testing if Bergmann's rule is related to latitude or to climatic variables. We found that body mass (and marginally also tarsus length) declined significantly with decreasing latitude in accordance with the wider explanation of Bergmann's rule, but ambient temperature explained a much smaller fraction of the variation in body mass than latitude. These results weaken the traditional explanation to Bergmann's rule that a heat conservation mechanism causes the latitudinal size variation. [source]

    Fertility, body size, and shape: An empirical test of the covert maternal depletion hypothesis,

    Ilona Nenko
    In populations with limited resources, high-reproductive effort may lead to poor nutritional status of the mother (the maternal depletion syndrome), whereas in well-nourished populations woman's body weight tends to increase after each pregnancy. However, in affluent populations, women's body shape may change due to mobilization of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from the lower parts of their bodies to meet the needs of the developing child (the "covert maternal depletion"). We studied relationships between reproductive history traits and body size and shape for 296 rural, parous women in good nutritional status (mean body mass index, BMI = 27.9, SD = 5.94), aged 22,85 (mean 47.8, SD = 16.34) from southern Poland. Body mass adjusted for age, age of menarche, body height, and similarly adjusted BMI were each positively related to the number of children born by a woman (R = 0.13, P = 0.02 and R = 0.13, P = 0.02, respectively). Waist and hip circumferences, adjusted for confounders, did not show statistically significant relationships with the number of children. Moreover, groups with low and high parity did not significantly differ in hip/BMI and waist/BMI ratios, which were proposed to be indicators of covert form of maternal depletion (after controlling for overall body fatness and age). In conclusion, parity caused a slightly higher body mass and BMI later in life. However, parity did not lead to covert maternal depletion, perhaps because women in this population have relatively high-dietary intake of PUFAs. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Body size and joint posture in primates

    John D. Polk
    Abstract Body mass has been shown in experimental and comparative morphological studies to have a significant effect on joint posture in major limb joints. The generalizability of experimental studies is limited by their use of small sample sizes and limited size ranges. In contrast, while comparative morphological studies often have increased sample sizes, the connection between joint posture and morphological variables is often indirect. The current study infers joint postures for a large sample of primates using an experimentally validated method, and tests whether larger primates use more extended joint postures than smaller species. Postures are inferred through the analysis of patterns of subchondral bone apparent density on the medial femoral condyle. Femora from 94 adult wild-shot individuals of 28 species were included. Apparent density measurements were obtained from CT scans using AMIRA software, and the angular position of the anterior-most extent of the region of maximum apparent density on the medial femoral condyle was recorded. In general, the hypothesis that larger-bodied primates use more extended knee posture was supported, but it should be noted that considerable variation exists, particularly at small body sizes. This indicates that smaller species are less constrained by their body size, and their patterns of apparent density are consistent with a wide range of knee postures. The size-related increase in inferred joint posture was observed in most major groups of primates, and this observation attests to the generalizability of Biewener's model that relates body size and joint posture. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Correlates of body mass evolution in primates

    Christophe Soligo
    Abstract Body mass is undoubtedly central to the overall adaptive profile of any organism. Despite this, very little is known of what forces drive evolutionary changes in body mass and, consequently, shape patterns of body mass distribution exhibited by animal radiations. The search for factors that may influence evolutionary processes in general frequently focuses on environmental parameters such as climate change or interspecific competition. With respect to body mass, there is also the suggestion that evolutionary lineages may follow an inherent trend toward increased body mass, known as Cope's rule. The present paper investigates whether overall directional trends of body mass change, or correlations between patterns of body mass evolution and environmental factors have influenced the evolution of body mass in plesiadapiforms and primates. Analyses of the global fossil record of plesiadapiforms and primates suggest that the former did indeed follow an overall trend toward increased body mass compatible with the predictions of Cope's rule. In contrast, neither primates as a whole, nor a number of individual primate radiations (Adapiformes, Omomyiformes, and Anthropoidea), show any indication of overall directional patterns of body mass change. No correlations of primate body mass change with either the latitudinal distribution of fossil species, or with estimates of global temperature trends, were found. There is evidence, however, that direct competition between omomyiforms and adapiforms (the two main primate radiations known from the Paleogene) influenced processes of body mass evolution in omomyiforms. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Body mass in cercopithecidae (Primates, Mammalia): Estimation and scaling in extinct and extant taxa

    Brenda R. Benefit
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Body mass and extinction risk in Australian marsupials: The ,Critical Weight Range' revisited

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Abstract Australian mammals have suffered an exceptionally high rate of decline and extinction over the last two hundred years. Body mass is linked to extinction risk in Australian mammals, but the nature of this association is controversial. A widely held view is that species of intermediate body mass (between 35 and 5500 g, the ,critical weight range', CWR) have declined most severely. However, the existence of the CWR has been disputed. In this paper we clarify the relationship of decline status and body mass in Australian marsupials. We show that the form of this relationship differs for ground-living versus arboreal species, and for species from low versus high rainfall areas. Among ground-living species and those from low-rainfall areas, declines were strongly size-selective and concentrated on species within the CWR. For the remaining species, decline was only weakly related to body mass with no evidence of heightened risk for species of intermediate size. We conclude that for terrestrial species in low rainfall areas, species within the CWR are most at risk of decline and extinction. [source]

    Metabolic rate and endurance capacity in Australian varanid lizards (Squamata: Varanidae: Varanus)

    In ecomorphological and ecophysiological studies, locomotor performance is often considered to be an intermediate step between the form of an organism and its environment. We examined this premise by measuring morphology, physiology and circular track endurance in the closely related group of Australian varanid lizards. Body size, body mass and relative body proportions were poor indicators of endurance. Body mass was not correlated with endurance and size-free lower forelimb length had only a weak relationship with endurance. Instead, maximal metabolic rate was positively correlated with endurance capacity in varanids. A comparison of varanids with other groups of lizards supported this result as varanids showed both elevated maximal metabolic rate and elevated endurance scores when compared with similar sized non-varanid lizards. There was support for a strong association between endurance with foraging mode and climate. Varanid species with higher endurance tended to be widely foraging and from xeric climates, while sit-and-wait and mesic species showed reduced endurance. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 97, 664,676. [source]

    Cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index values in 9-year-old rural Norwegian children

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 4 2009
    GK Resaland
    Abstract Aim: To describe cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) values in a representative population of 9-year-old Norwegian children in two rural communities and compare present values with previous findings. Methods: Two hundred and fifty-nine 9-year-old children were invited, and 256 participated in this study. Maximal oxygen uptake was directly measured during a continuous progressive treadmill protocol. Body mass and height were also measured. Results: The mean ± SD relative maximal oxygen uptake was 52.8 ± 6.5 for boys and 46.9 ± 7.2 mL/kg/min for girls. Eight percent of the boys and 16.8% of the girls were classified as overweight, and 1.6% of the boys and 6.9% of the girls as obese. Mean age, body mass, height and Ponderal index were not significantly different between sexes. Girls had a higher BMI than boys (p = 0.05). Conclusion: Compared to earlier Norwegian studies, children's BMI values seem to have increased substantially. This increase is most pronounced in girls. When assessing these differences using the PI, this increase is less marked. Comparing maximal oxygen uptake data with that in earlier Nordic studies, there is no evidence that fitness has declined among 9-year olds. However, the limitations of the few earlier studies make reliable comparisons difficult. [source]

    REVIEW: Role of adipokines in obesity-associated hypertension

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2010
    M. Vlasova
    Abstract It has been well documented that obesity is a major risk factor for the development of the hypertensive state. The correlation between body mass index and blood pressure level is well established. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms which contribute to obesity-related hypertension remain poorly understood. In the last years, we have realized that the white adipose tissue is not just an inert organ for nutrient storage and isolation but rather depending on the body mass index the biggest endocrinological organ. Thus, the possible contribution of adipokines to the blood pressure elevation becomes an attractive hypothesis to explain the hypertensive state that often occurs in obesity. In this review, we consider direct and indirect effects of main adipokines on structural and functional changes in the cardiovascular system. [source]

    Effects of aerobic fitness on hypohydration-induced physiological strain and exercise impairment

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2010
    T. L. Merry
    Abstract Aim:, Hypohydration exacerbates cardiovascular and thermal strain and can impair exercise capacity in temperate and warm conditions. Yet, athletes often dehydrate in exercise, are hypervolaemic and have less cardiovascular sensitivity to acute hypervolaemia. We tested the hypothesis that trained individuals have less cardiovascular, thermoregulatory and performance affect of hypohydration during exercise. Methods:, After familiarization, six trained [O2 peak = 64 (SD 8) mL kg,1 min,1] and six untrained [O2 peak = 45 (4) mL kg,1 min,1] males cycled 40 min at 70%O2 peak while euhydrated or hypohydrated by 1.5,2.0% body mass (crossover design), before a 40-min work trial with euhydration or ad libitum drinking (in Hypohydration trial), in temperate conditions (24.3,°C, RH 50%, va = 4.5 m s,1). Baseline hydration was by complete or partial rehydration from exercise+heat stress the previous evening. Results:, During constant workload, heart rate and its drift were increased in Hypohydration compared with Euhydration for Untrained [drift: 33 (11) vs. 24 beats min,1 h,1 (10), 95% CI 5,11] but not Trained [14 (3) vs. 13 beats min,1 h,1 (3), CI ,2 to 3; P = 0.01 vs. Untrained]. Similarly, rectal temperature drift was faster in Hypohydration for Untrained only [by 0.57,°C h,1 (0.25); P = 0.03 vs. Trained], concomitant with their reduced sweat rate (P = 0.05) and its relation to plasma osmolality (P = 0.03). Performance power tended to be reduced for Untrained (,13%, CI ,35 to 2) and Trained (,7%, CI: ,16 to 1), without an effect of fitness (P = 0.38). Conclusion:, Mild hypohydration exacerbated cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain and tended to impair endurance performance, but aerobic fitness attenuated the physiological effects. [source]

    Orthopaedic issues in the musculoskeletal care of adults with cerebral palsy

    Aims, Orthopaedic care of adults with cerebral palsy (CP) has not been well documented in orthopaedic literature. This paper focuses on some of the common problems which present themselves when adults with CP seek orthopaedic intervention. In particular, we review the most common orthopaedic issues which present to the Penn Neuro-Orthopaedics Program. Method, A formal review of consecutive surgeries performed by the senior author on adults with CP was previously conducted. This paper focuses on the health delivery care for the adult with orthopaedic problems related to cerebral palsy. Ninety-two percent of these patients required lower extremity surgery. Forty percent had procedures performed on the upper extremities. Results, The majority of problems seen in the Penn Neuro-Orthopaedics Program are associated with the residuals of childhood issues, particularly deformities associated with contractures. Patients are also referred for treatment of acquired musculoskeletal problems such as degenerative arthritis of the hip or knee. A combination of problems contribute most frequently to foot deformities and pain with weight-bearing, shoewear or both, most often due to equinovarus. The surgical correction of this is most often facilitated through a split anterior tibial tendon transfer. Posterior tibial transfers are rarely indicated. Residual equinus deformities contribute to a pes planus deformity. The split anterior tibial tendon transfer is usually combined with gastrocnemius-soleus recession and plantar release. Transfer of the flexor digitorum longus to the os calcis is done to augment the plantar flexor power. Rigid pes planus deformity is treated with a triple arthrodesis. Resolution of deformity allows for a good base for standing, improved ability to tolerate shoewear, and/or braces. Other recurrent or unresolved issues involve hip and knee contractures. Issues of lever arm dysfunction create problems with mechanical inefficiency. Upper extremity intervention is principally to correct contractures. Internal rotation and adductor tightness at the shoulder makes for difficult underarm hygiene and predispose a patient to a spiral fracture of the humerus. A tight flexor, pronation pattern is frequently noted through the elbow and forearm with further flexion contractures through the wrist and fingers. Lengthenings are more frequently performed than tendon transfers in the upper extremity. Arthrodesis of the wrist or on rare occasions of the metacarpal-phalangeal joints supplement the lengthenings when needed. Conclusions, The Penn Neuro-Orthopaedics Program has successfully treated adults with both residual and acquired musculoskeletal deformities. These deformities become more critical when combined with degenerative changes, a relative increase in body mass, fatigue, and weakness associated with the aging process. [source]

    Predictors of insulin sensitivity in Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2002
    E. Bonora
    Abstract Aims To identify the independent predictors of insulin sensitivity in Type 2 diabetes, and to establish whether isolated Type 2 diabetes (i.e. diabetes without overweight, dyslipidaemia and hypertension) is a condition of insulin resistance. Methods We examined 45 patients with non-insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes undergoing a 4-h euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp (20 mU/m2 per min) combined with 3H-3-D-glucose and 14C-U-glucose infusions and indirect calorimetry. We also examined 1366 patients with non-insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes randomly selected among those attending the Diabetes Clinic and in whom insulin resistance was estimated by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR). Results In the 45 patients undergoing glucose clamp studies, insulin-mediated total glucose disposal (TGD) was independently and negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (standardized , coefficient = ,0.407, P = 0.003), plasma triglycerides (,= ,0.355, P = 0.007), and HbA1c (,= ,0.350, P = 0.008). The overall variability of TGD explained by these variables was 53%. Overweight diabetic subjects with central fat distribution, hypertension, hypertriglyceridaemia and poor glycometabolic control had insulin-mediated TGD values markedly lower than their lean counterparts without hypertension, with normal triglycerides, and with good glycometabolic control (16 ± 5 vs. 31 ± 10 µmol/min per kg lean body mass, P < 0.01). Nevertheless, the latter still were markedly insulin-resistant when compared with sex- and age-matched non-diabetic control subjects (31 ± 10 vs. 54 ± 13 µmol/min per kg lean body mass, P < 0.01). In the 1366 Type 2 diabetic patients of the epidemiological study, HOMA-IR value was independently associated with HbA1c (, = 0.283, P < 0.0001), plasma triglycerides (, = 0.246, P < 0.0001), body mass index (, = 0.139, P < 0.001), waist girth (, = 0.124, P < 0.001) and hypertension (, = 0.066, P = 0.006). Conclusion Overweight, central fat distribution, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and poor glycometabolic control are strong independent predictors of insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes. However, reduced insulin sensitivity can be found even when Type 2 diabetes is isolated and well controlled. Diabet. Med. 19, 535,542 (2002) [source]

    A shortening of the manus precedes the attenuation of other wing-bone elements in the evolution of flightlessness in birds

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 1 2010
    R. L. Nudds
    Abstract Nudds, R. L. and Slove Davidson, J. 2010. A shortening of the manus precedes the attenuation of other wing-bone elements in the evolution of flightlessness in birds. ,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 115,122 This is the first study to present evidence for a general pattern of wing-bone attenuation during the early stages of the evolution of flightlessness. A comparative analysis using phylogenetic independent contrasts showed that in families that contain both flighted (volant) and flightless species, the volant species have shorter wings and total-arm (humerus + ulna + manus) lengths relative to their body masses than the species within their wholly volant sister families. A shortening of the manus may typify the early stages of the evolution of flightlessness, with the humerus and ulna attenuating later, perhaps because of their role in maintaining the position of the aerodynamically important alula. A shorter wing relative to body mass was not the result of the inverse (i.e. heavier body mass relative to wing length) because mean body masses of volant members of flightless families were similar to or lower than those of their wholly volant sister families. Despite finding a common trend in the wing morphologies of volant members of flightless families, it seems unlikely that a general model of selection pressures driving the evolution of flightlessness exists. At the very least, a dichotomy between those birds that have lost the ability to fly in order to gain the ability to swim and terrestrial forms, may persist. [source]