Body Iron Stores (body + iron_store)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Clinical haemophilia: Remission of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with iron reduction in haemophilia A

HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 5 2010
Summary., Two male first cousins with mild haemophilia A had baseline factor VIII levels of 12,15% and experienced bleeding requiring coagulation factor infusion therapy with trauma and surgical procedures. Both the patients with haemophilia A also had electrocardiographically documented symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) for several years that had become resistant to pharmacological suppression. Radiofrequency ablation was considered in both the cases but deferred considering refusal of consent by the patients to undergo the procedure. Remission of arrhythmias has been reported in patients with iron-overload syndromes. Body iron stores assessed by serum ferritin levels were elevated in both men but neither had the C282Y or H63D genes for haemochromatosis. Calibrated reduction of iron stores by serial phlebotomy, avoiding iron deficiency, was followed by remission of symptomatic PAF in both cases. Iron reduction may be an effective treatment for arrhythmias apart from the classic iron-overload syndromes and deserves further study particularly in patients with bleeding disorders who might be at risk for arrhythmias and other diseases of ageing. [source]

Iron status in Danish men 1984,94: a cohort comparison of changes in iron stores and the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron overload

Nils Milman
Abstract:,Background and objectives : From 1954 to 1987, flour in Denmark was fortified with 30 mg carbonyl iron per kg. This mandatory fortification was abolished in 1987. The aim of this study was to compare iron status in Danish men before and after abolition of iron fortification. Methods : Iron status (serum ferritin, haemoglobin), was assessed in population surveys in Copenhagen County during 1983,84 comprising 1324 Caucasian men (1024 non-blood-donors, 300 blood donors) and in 1993,94 comprising 1288 Caucasian men (1103 non-blood-donors, 185 donors), equally distributed in age cohorts of 40, 50, 60 and 70 yr. Results : In the 1984 survey median serum ferritin values in the four age cohorts in non-blood-donors were 136, 141, 133 and 111 g/L, and in the 1994 survey 177, 173, 186 and 148 g L ,1 , respectively. The difference was significant in all age groups ( P <0.001). There was no significant difference between the two surveys concerning the prevalence of small iron stores (ferritin 16,32 g L ,1 ), depleted iron stores (ferritin <16 g L ,1 ) or iron-deficiency anaemia (ferritin <13 g L ,1 and Hb <5th percentile for iron-replete men). However, from 1984 to 1994, the prevalence of iron overload (ferritin >300 g L ,1 ) increased from 11.3% to 18.9% ( P <0.0001). During the study period there was an increase in body mass index ( P <0.0001), alcohol consumption ( P <0.03) and use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) ( P <0.0001), and a decrease in the use of vitamin,mineral supplements ( P <0.04) and in the prevalence of tobacco smoking ( P <0.0001). In contrast, median ferritin in blood donors showed a significant fall from 1984 to 1994 (103 vs. 74 g L ,1 , P <0.02). Conclusion : Abolition of iron fortification reduced the iron content of the Danish diet by an average of 0.24 mg MJ ,1 , and the median dietary iron intake in men from 17 to 12 mg d ,1 . From 1984 to 1994, body iron stores and the prevalence of iron overload in Danish men increased significantly, despite the abolition of food iron fortification. The reason appears to be changes in dietary habits, with a lower consumption of dairy products and eggs, which inhibit iron absorption, and a higher consumption of alcohol, meat, and poultry, containing haem iron and enhancing iron absorption. The high prevalence of iron overload in men may constitute a health risk. [source]

Helicobacter pylori Infection and Iron Stores: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

HELICOBACTER, Issue 5 2008
Khitam Muhsen
Abstract Background and Aims:, We carried out a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the existing evidence on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and iron stores. Methods:, Twelve case reports and case series, 19 observational epidemiologic studies and six intervention trials were included in the review. Results:, Although only few studies controlled for multiple potential confounders, most studies reported a positive association, linking between H. pylori and decreased body iron stores in symptomatic and asymptomatic H. pylori -infected subjects. H. pylori infection may be regarded as a risk factor for reduction in body iron stores and also for iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia, especially in high-risk groups. The results of the meta-analysis of thoroughly designed and analyzed studies revealed an increased risk for iron deficiency anemia; pooled odds ratio (OR) 2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9, 4.2) and also for iron deficiency; pooled OR 1.38 (95%CI 1.16,1.65) among H. pylori -infected subjects. The biologic mechanism by which H. pylori induces the alteration in the iron stores is not fully understood, but it seems to involve several pathways, including gastrointestinal blood loss, decrease in the absorption of dietary iron, and enhanced uptake of the iron by the bacterium. Conclusions:,H. pylori is associated with reduced iron stores. Future research is needed to determine whether this relationship is a causal association and to better understand its biologic mechanism. The impact of anti- H. pylori therapy on improvement of iron stores needs to be further evaluated in large and well-controlled trials. [source]

Comparison of manual and automated ELISA methods for serum ferritin analysis

Fabian Rohner
Abstract Serum ferritin concentration is a sensitive measure of body iron stores. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of two commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs) for serum ferritin: a widely used manual assay kit (Spectro Ferritin MT), and a new fully automated assay (Immulite). We analyzed serum samples from Moroccan school-aged children (n=51) from a rural area with a high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Four replicates of each sample were analyzed using both assays. For the manual method, the interassay repeatability was 24%, 22%, and 11%, and intraassay precision was 18.3%, 9.2%, and 9.1% at increasing serum ferritin concentrations. Using the automated assay, the interassay repeatability was 7%, 6%, and 6%, and intraassay precision was 1.5%, 5.4%, and 5.5% at increasing serum ferritin concentrations. The two assays were well correlated (y=1.16x+1.83; r=0.98). However, the limits of agreement (LOAs) were wide, particularly at low concentrations. A comparison of the assay results with recommended cutoffs for serum ferritin generated sharply different estimates of the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) in the sample. We conclude that the automated assay has several potential advantages compared to the manual method, including better precision, less operator dependence, and faster sample through-put. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 19:196,198, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Genetic testing for HFE hemochromatosis in Australia: The value of testing relatives of simple heterozygotes

AbstractBackground : It is unclear whether screening of relatives of C282Y and H63D heterozygotes (other than compound heterozygotes) for hemochromatosis will detect sufficient numbers of cases to justify introduction of this screening strategy. Methods : Conditional probabilities were determined using published Australian allele frequencies and penetrance data to determine the detection rate of hemochromatosis by testing the siblings and offspring of heterozygotes (subjects with only one HFE mutation). Results : The number of individuals who are at risk of developing increased body iron stores because of HFE mutations is substantially higher (1 in 80) than previously estimated. In addition, 33% of the Australian population are heterozygous for either C282Y or H63D. Based on population estimates, the relative risk to the offspring of C282Y and H63D heterozygotes of developing increased iron stores is 4.1 and 1.5, respectively, while the relative risk to each sibling is 2.3 and 1, respectively. The risk of developing clinical features of hemochromatosis or hepatic fibrosis is likely to be substantially lower. Conclusions : Although the detection rate from testing the families of unaffected heterozygotes is low, this can be justified as a clinically useful screening strategy. At the present time this strategy should be restricted to first-degree relatives of heterozygotes. Further studies are recommended to determine if cascade genetic screening is a cost-effective alternative to general population screening. 2002 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd [source]

Ferroportin q248h, Dietary Iron, and Serum Ferritin in Community African-Americans With Low to High Alcohol Consumption

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 11 2008
Victor R. Gordeuk
Background:, Alcohol consumption is associated with increased iron stores. In sub-Saharan Africa, high dietary ionic iron and the ferroportin Q248H allele have also been implicated in iron accumulation. We examined the associations of ferroportin Q248H, alcohol and dietary iron with serum ferritin, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) concentrations in African-Americans. Methods:, Inner-city African-Americans (103 men, 40 women) were recruited from the community according to reported ingestion of >4 alcoholic drinks/d or <2/wk. Typical daily heme iron, nonheme iron and alcohol were estimated using University of Hawaii's multiethnic dietary questionnaire. Based on dietary questionnaire estimates we established categories of < versus ,56 g alcohol/d, equivalent to 4 alcoholic drinks/d assuming 14 g alcohol per drink. Results:, Among 143 participants, 77% drank <56 g alcohol/d and 23%,56 g/d as estimated by the questionnaire. The prevalence of ferroportin Q248H was 23.3% with alcohol >56 g/d versus 7.5% with lower amounts (p = 0.014). Among subjects with no history of HIV disease, serum ferritin concentration had positive relationships with male gender (p = 0.041), alcohol consumption (p = 0.021) and ALT concentration (p = 0.0001) but not with dietary iron intake or ferroportin Q248H. Serum AST and ALT concentrations had significant positive associations with male gender and hepatitis C seropositivity but not with alcohol or dietary iron intake or ferroportin Q248H. Conclusions:, Our findings suggest a higher prevalence of ferroportin Q248H with greater alcohol consumption, and this higher prevalence raises the possibility that the allele might ameliorate the toxicity of alcohol. Our results suggest that alcohol but not dietary iron contributes to higher body iron stores in African-Americans. Studies with larger numbers of participants are needed to further clarify the relationship of ferroportin Q248H with the toxicity of alcohol consumption. [source]

Raised serum ferritin predicts non-response to interferon and ribavirin treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection

S Distante
Abstract: Background/Aim: Previous studies have indicated that response to interferon therapy is inversely proportional to the amount of body iron stores. We have studied the relationship between serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, liver iron, presence of HFE-C282Y gene mutation and response to treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Methods: Two hundred and fifty-six naive, HCV-RNA positive patients (60% males, median age 38 years, range 21,70) were treated with interferon and ribavirin for 6 months. Iron indices and the presence of the C282Y mutation were measured. In 242 (94%) patients iron deposition were determined by Perls staining method. Patients with negative HCV-RNA at 6 months after the end of treatment were defined as sustained viral responders. Results: Non-responders (n = 127) had significantly higher median s-ferritin values compared with sustained viral responders (130 g/L vs. 75 g/L P < 0.001). There was no difference in transferrin saturation among the two response groups. Only 23% (4/7) of patients with Perls grade 1 in liver biopsies responded to treatment vs. 54% (122/225) patients without iron deposition (P = 0.02), however, 10/13-non-responders had HCV genotype one. Two patients (0.8%) were homozygous for the C282Y mutation, 36 patients were heterozygous (14%). Among mutation carriers 26/38 achieved sustained response compared with 102/216 non-carriers (68% vs. 48%, P = 0.02). In a multivariate analysis s-ferritin (P = 0.030) and C282Y carrier status (P = 0.012) remained independent predict of sustained response. Conclusions: Raised s-ferritin values predicate non-response to interferon-ribavirin therapy in hepatitis C patients. Response rate in C282Y mutation carriers seems greater than in non-carriers. [source]

Iron and Colorectal Cancer Risk: Human Studies

F.A.C.S., Richard L. Nelson M.D
Some reports have associated iron with cancer risk, particularly of the colorectum. This review will focus on the human studies that have investigated this association. Comparative studies were sought in which people with and without colorectal neoplastic lesions, either cancers or adenomatous polyps, were assessed for iron exposure. Iron exposure variables included dietary iron intake, iron vitamin supplementation, body iron stores as measured by ferritin or transferrin saturation, and gene status for hereditary hemochromatosis. Medline was searched for published reports using the key words iron, cancer, colon, rectum, ferritin, transferrin, and hemochromatosis. In addition, the Cochrane Library was searched for relevant studies and several authors were contacted to investigate their awareness of unpublished studies. Studies were categorized by study design and ranked for quality of innovation in design, sample size, and thoroughness of iron status ascertainment. Thirty-three studies were reviewed in 26 publications. Of the larger studies, approximately three-quarters supported the association of iron, in all three strata of exposure, with colorectal neoplasia risk. Because iron is broadly supplemented in the American diet, the benefits of iron supplementation need to be measured against the long-term risks of increased iron exposure, one of which may be increased risk of colorectal cancer. [source]

Regulatory mechanisms of intestinal iron absorption,Uncovering of a fast-response mechanism based on DMT1 and ferroportin endocytosis

BIOFACTORS, Issue 2 2010
Marco T. Nez
Abstract Knowledge on the intestinal iron transport process and the regulation of body iron stores has greatly increased during the last decade. The liver, through the sensing of circulating iron, is now recognized as the central organ in this regulation. High iron levels induce the synthesis of hepcidin, which in turn decreases circulating iron by inhibiting its recycling from macrophages and its absorption at the intestine. Another mechanism for the control of iron absorption by the enterocyte is an active Iron Responsive Element (IRE)/Iron Regulatory Protein (IRP) system. The IRE/IRP system regulates the expression of iron uptake and storage proteins thus regulating iron absorption. Similarly, increasing evidence points to the transcriptional regulation of both divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin expression. A new mechanism of regulation related to a phenomenon called the mucosal block is starting to be unveiled. The mucosal block describes the ability of an initial dose of ingested iron to block absorption of a second dose given 2,4 h later. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in the expression of DMT1 and ferroportin, and present recent evidence on the molecular components and cellular processes involved in the mucosal block response. Our studies indicate that mucosal block is a fast-response endocytic mechanism destined to decrease intestinal iron absorption during a high ingest of iron. [source]

Role of iron in carcinogenesis: Cancer as a ferrotoxic disease

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 1 2009
Shinya Toyokuni
Iron is abundant universally. During the evolutionary processes, humans have selected iron as a carrier of oxygen inside the body. However, iron works as a double-edged sword, and its excess is a risk for cancer, presumably via generation of reactive oxygen species. Thus far, pathological conditions such as hemochromatosis, chronic viral hepatitis B and C, exposure to asbestos fibers, as well as endometriosis have been recognized as iron overload-associated risks for human cancer. Indeed, iron is carcinogenic in animal experiments. These reports unexpectedly revealed that there are target genes in iron-induced carcinogenesis and that iron-catalyzed oxidative DNA damage is not random in vivo. Several iron transporters and hepcidin, a peptide hormone regulating iron metabolism, were discovered in the past decade. Furthermore, a recent epidemiological study reported that iron reduction by phlebotomy decreased cancer risk in the apparently normal population. These results warrant reconsideration of the role of iron in carcinogenesis and suggest that fine control of body iron stores would be a wise strategy for cancer prevention. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 9,16) [source]