Boyden Chamber (boyden + chamber)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Boyden Chamber

  • modified boyden chamber

  • Selected Abstracts

    Zinc, copper and manganese enhanced keratinocyte migration through a functional modulation of keratinocyte integrins

    I. Tenaud
    Abstract: The migration of keratinocytes plays an important role in the re-epithelialization of cutaneous wounds. Zinc, copper and manganese are used in vivo for their healing properties and their mechanism of action is still only partially known. Thus, they have been shown both to promote keratinocyte proliferation and to modulate integrins expression. The aim of this study was to determine if trace elements induce an increase of the migration of keratinocytes and if this effect is related to the modulation of integrins. Two independent migration assays were used to study keratinocyte migration: the scratch assay using normal human keratinocytes and the modified Boyden chamber using HaCaT cells. Inhibition studies using function-blocking antibodies directed to ,3, ,6, ,V and ,1 subunits were performed to investigate the modulator effect of trace elements on integrin function. In this way, zinc and copper gluconates increased ,3, ,V and ,1 function whereas manganese gluconate seems mainly able to modulate the function of ,3 and ,1. The stimulating effect of these trace elements on keratinocyte migration does not appear related to ,6 subunit. Thus, zinc, copper and manganese enhanced keratinocyte migration and one of the mechanisms was going through a modulation of integrin functions. [source]

    Atypical protein kinase C activity is required for extracellular matrix degradation and invasion by Src-transformed cells

    Elena M. Rodriguez
    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms have been shown to mediate Src-dependent signaling in response to growth factor stimulation. To determine if aPKC activity contributes to the transformed phenotype of cells expressing oncogenic Src, we have examined the activity and function of aPKCs in 3T3 cells expressing viral Src (v-Src). aPKC activity and tyrosine phosphorylation were found to be elevated in some but not all clones of mouse fibroblasts expressing v-Src. aPKC activity was inhibited either by addition of a membrane-permeable pseudosubstrate, by expression of a dominant-negative aPKC, or by RNAi-mediated knockdown of specific aPKC isoforms. aPKC activity contributes to morphological transformation and stress fiber disruption, and is required for migration of Src-transformed cells and for their ability to polarize at the edge of a monolayer. The , isoform of aPKC is specifically required for invasion through extracellular matrix in Boyden chamber assays and for degradation of the extracellular matrix in in situ zymography assays. Tyrosine phosphorylation of aPKC, is required for its ability to promote cell invasion. The defect in invasion upon aPKC inhibition appears to result from a defect in the assembly and/or function of podosomes, invasive adhesions on the ventral surface of the cell that are sites of protease secretion. aPKC was also found to localize to podosomes of v-Src transformed cells, suggesting a direct role for aPKC in podosome assembly and/or function. We conclude that basal or elevated aPKC activity is required for the ability of Src-transformed cells to degrade and invade the extracellular matrix. J. Cell. Physiol. 221: 171,182, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc [source]

    Screening of gastric cancer cell sublines using the adhesion method

    Xiangrong Chen
    OBJECTIVE: To screen subpopulations of gastric cancer cell lines with different malignant phenotypes. METHODS: Two subpopulations from the human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 were separated by using the laminin adhesion method. One subpopulation was less invasive and non-metastatic, whereas the other was more invasive and metastatic. The relative invasiveness and migratory capacities of the two subgroups were observed by using the Boyden chamber and by inoculating the cells into nude mice. RESULTS: The two subgroups, the laminin-adherent cells (Lm+) and the laminin non-adherent cells (Lm,), were separated. During in vitro experiments, the Lm+ cells were more invasive and their migratory ability was greater relative to the Lm, cells. The rates of tumor formation after subcutaneous inoculation in nude mice and of lung tumor foci formation after tail vein inoculation were higher in Lm+ cells than those in Lm, cells. In vivo, Lm+ cells were found to have higher metastatic potential and to be more invasive. CONCLUSIONS: In vitro, the adhesion method is a simple and time-saving way to screen a particular phenotypic cell subpopulation with a high success rate. There are discrepancies in invasiveness and migratory ability between in vitro Lm+ and Lm, cells, which suggests that these properties of gastric cancer cells are closely related to their adhesiveness to the basement membrane and extracellular matrix. [source]

    Pleiotrophin, an angiogenic and mitogenic growth factor, is expressed in human gliomas

    Rolf Mentlein
    Abstract Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a mitogenic/angiogenic, 15.3 kDa heparin-binding peptide that is found in embryonic or early postnatal, but rarely in adult, tissues. Since developmentally regulated factors often re-appear in malignant cells, we examined PTN expression in human glioma cell lines, cell cultures derived from solid gliomas and glioma sections. PTN mRNA or protein was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, western blot or enzyme-linked immunoassay in all WHO III and IV grade gliomas and cells analyzed in vitro or in situ. One WHO II grade glioma investigated was PTN negative. In vitro, PTN was synthesized in perinuclear regions of glioma cells, secreted into the cultivation medium, but its production varied considerably between glioma cells cultivated from different solid gliomas or glioma cell lines. In situ, PTN expression was restricted to distinct parts/cells of the tumour. PTN did not influence the proliferation of glioma cells themselves, but stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA of microglial cells. Furthermore, in Boyden chamber assays, PTN showed a strong chemotactic effect on murine BV-2 microglial cells. PTN is supposed to be a paracrine growth/angiogenic factor that is produced by gliomas and contributes to their malignancy by targeting endothelial and microglial cells. [source]

    The effect of skeletal maturity on the regenerative function of intrinsic ACL cells

    Ashley N. Mastrangelo
    Abstract Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are an important clinical problem, particularly for adolescent patients. The effect of skeletal maturity on the potential for ACL healing is as yet unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that fibroblastic cells from the ACLs of skeletally immature animals would proliferate and migrate more quickly than cells from adolescent and adult animals. ACL tissue from skeletally immature, adolescent, and adult pigs and sheep were obtained and cells obtained using explant culture. Cell proliferation within a collagen,platelet scaffold was measured at days 2, 7, and 14 of culture using AM MTT assay. Cellular migration was measured at 4 and 24 h using a modified Boyden chamber assay, and cell outgrowth from the explants also measured at 1 week. ACL cells from skeletally immature animals had higher proliferation between 7 and 14 days (p,<,0.01 for all comparisons) and higher migration potential at all time points in both species (p,<,0.01 for all comparisons). ACL cells from skeletally immature animals have greater cellular proliferation and migration potential than cells from adolescent or adult animals. These experiments suggest that skeletal maturity may influence the biologic repair capacity of intrinsic ACL cells. 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 28:644,651, 2010 [source]

    The angiopoietin pathway is modulated by PAR-1 activation on human endothelial progenitor cells

    D. M. SMADJA
    Summary.,Objectives:,The importance of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) in blood vessel development has been shown in knock-out mice. As endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) express functional PAR-1, we examined whether PAR-1 stimulation by the peptide SFLLRN interfered with the angiopoietin pathway, that is EPC commitment, proliferation and migration. Methods and results:,Given the strong PAR-1 expression on CD34+ cells, we tested the effect of SFLLRN 75 ,mol L,1 on the emergence of EPCs from cord blood. PAR-1 activation did not modify the number of colonies or the day of emergence, in keeping with the lack of induction of angiopoietin 1 gene expression. Conversely, SFLLRN treatment of EPCs induced angiopoietin 2 gene expression and protein synthesis. Experiments with polyclonal blocking antibodies showed that angiopoietin 2 was involved in the proliferative effect of PAR-1 activation. PAR-1 activation also enhanced migration toward angiopoietin 1 in a Boyden chamber assay. Conclusions:,Our study demonstrates that PAR-1-induced proliferation of EPCs involves angiopoietin 2. PAR-1 also enhances EPC migration toward angiopoietin 1. These findings might explain the role of thrombin in neovascularization via the angiopoietin pathway. [source]

    Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B augments granulocyte migration and survival via airway epithelial cell activation

    ALLERGY, Issue 8 2010
    W. Huvenne
    To cite this article: Huvenne W, Callebaut I, Reekmans K, Hens G, Bobic S, Jorissen M, Bullens DMA, Ceuppens JL, Bachert C, Hellings PW. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B augments granulocyte migration and survival via airway epithelial cell activation. Allergy 2010; 65: 1013,1020. Abstract Background:,Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) has recently been postulated to be involved in the pathology of granulocyte-dominated disease. Studying the immunologic interaction between SEB and airway epithelial cells in immortalized cell lines or long-term epithelial cell cultures has obvious disadvantages. Methods:, We used a novel technique of freshly isolated and purified human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC) from healthy, nonallergic individuals, which were incubated for 24 h without/with SEB at different concentrations. Chemokine production was evaluated in the supernatant using Cytometric Bead Array. The chemotactic activity of the supernatant was studied in vitro using a Boyden chamber. Survival was evaluated with flow cytometry, using propidium iodide to identify dead cells. Results:,Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B showed a dose-dependent induction of interferon-inducible protein-10, monokine induced by interferon-,, regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor production by epithelial cells in vitro. The supernatant of epithelial cells had chemotactic activity for granulocytes in vitro, which was enhanced in the supernatant of SEB-stimulated epithelial cells. Reduced number of propidium iodide positive granulocytes was found in the conditions where supernatant of SEB-stimulated epithelial cells was applied. Conclusion:,Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B exerts a direct pro-inflammatory effect on HNEC, with induction of chemokine and growth factor release, resulting in the migration and prolonged survival of granulocytes in vitro. [source]

    Thioredoxin reduces C-C chemokine-induced chemotaxis of human eosinophils

    ALLERGY, Issue 8 2009
    N. Kobayashi
    Background:, Human thioredoxin (TRX) is one of redox-active proteins that regulate reactive oxidative metabolisms. In recent study, we found that serum levels of TRX were elevated in asthmatic patients with exacerbation; however, few details are known about the physiological role of TRX in allergic inflammation, involving eosinophil infiltration. Objective:, In the present study, we examined whether TRX modulated C-C chemokine-induced chemotaxis of human eosinophils. Methods:, Eosinophils were isolated from subjects with mild eosinophilia by modified CD16 negative selection. After incubation with or without recombinant TRX, chemotaxis of human eosinophils was measured using Boyden chamber. Results:, Preincubation with TRX suppressed eotaxin- and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)-induced chemotaxis of eosinophils. Although, TRX had no effect on the expression of C-C chemokine receptor 3, which is a receptor of eotaxin and RANTES, we demonstrated that the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, which play an important role in eosinophil migration, was attenuated by the treatment with TRX. Conclusion:, Our results suggest that the elicited TRX is beneficial to reduce allergic inflammation through negative regulation of eosinophil functions and has potential in the treatment of allergic diseases, such as asthma. [source]

    Inflammatory and Hemodynamic Changes in the Cerebral Microcirculation of Aged Rats after Global Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion

    MICROCIRCULATION, Issue 4 2008
    Leslie Ritter
    ABSTRACT Effects of aging on inflammation and blood flow in the brain are unclear. Young (three to six months) and aged (19,22 months) male Brown Norway Fisher rats were used to compare (i) leukocyte function in nonischemic conditions and (ii) leukocyte function and hemodynamic changes after ischemia-reperfusion (I-R). In nonischemic studies, polymorphonuclear (PMN) CD11b expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were measured with flow cytometry and PMN chemotaxis was measured with a Boyden chamber (+/-fMLP). In I-R studies, ischemia was induced by bilateral carotid artery occlusion and hypotension (20 minutes). During early reperfusion (30 minutes), leukocyte adhesion and rolling and blood-shear rates were measured using fluorescence microscopy. During late reperfusion (48 hours), mortality, neurological function, and leukocyte infiltration were measured. Stimulated PMN chemotaxis was increased in nonischemic aged rats (p < 0.05). In early reperfusion, there was a significant increase in leukocyte rolling and adhesion in the cerebral microcirculation and a significant decrease in shear rate in aged rats, compared to the young (p < 0.05). During late reperfusion, neurologic function was worse in aged vs. young rats (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that increased intravascular PMN adhesion and vascular dysfunction may contribute to poor neurologic outcome after cerebral I-R in the aged brain. [source]

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces motility and upregulates MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in bovine trophoblast cells

    M. Dilly
    Differentiation and restricted invasion/migration of trophoblast cells are crucial for feto-maternal communication in the synepitheliochorial placenta of cattle. EGF is expressed in the bovine placenta and likely regulates these cell properties. As cell migration and motility rely on the degradation of extracellular matrix we hypothesize that EGF is involved in the regulation of the MMP-9/TIMP-1 balance and thus could influence trophoblast migration, tissue remodeling, and the release of the fetal membranes after parturition. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine EGF-mediated effects on cell motility, proliferation, and MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression in cultured bovine trophoblast cells. We used a trophoblast cell line (F3) derived from bovine placentomes to examine the influence of EGF on MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression by semiquantitative RT-PCR and MMP activity by zymography. Migration assays were performed using a Boyden chamber and cell motility was measured by time-lapse analyses. To identify the involved signaling cascades, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 42/44 and Akt was detected by Western blot. EGF treatment increased both the abundance of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 mRNAs and the proteolytic activity of MMP-9. Furthermore, EGF stimulated proliferation and migration of F3 cells. Addition of specific inhibitors of MAPK (PD98059) and/or PI3K (LY294002) activation abolished or reduced EGF-induced effects in all experiments. In conclusion, EGF-mediated effects stimulate migration and proliferation of bovine trophoblast cells and may be involved in bovine placental tissue remodeling and postpartum release of fetal membranes. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 77: 622,629, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Induction of CCL13 expression in synovial fibroblasts highlights a significant role of oncostatin M in rheumatoid arthritis

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 7 2009
    Christoph Hintzen
    Objective To investigate the molecular mechanisms of CCL13/monocyte chemoattractant protein 4 (MCP-4) chemokine expression through proinflammatory cytokines in different primary human fibroblasts and the contribution of CCL13 to monocyte migration. Methods Using RNase protection assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we quantified the expression of CCL13 compared with that of CCL2/MCP-1 in primary human fibroblasts. Boyden chamber assays were performed to determine the importance of CCL13 for migration of primary monocytes. Pharmacologic inhibitors as well as small interfering RNA knockdown approaches were used to investigate the signaling pathways regulating CCL13 expression. Results The interleukin-6 (IL-6),type cytokine oncostatin M (OSM) was a powerful inducer of CCL13 expression in primary synovial fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as those from healthy control subjects but not in other types of fibroblasts. Neither IL-6 nor tumor necrosis factor , could stimulate the expression of CCL13 in synovial fibroblasts; IL-1, was a very weak inducer. Synovial fibroblasts from patients with RA constitutively produced low amounts of CCL13, which was partially dependent on constitutive production of OSM. By investigating the underlying molecular mechanism, we identified STAT-5, ERK-1/2, and p38 as critical factors involved in OSM-dependent transcription and messenger RNA stabilization of CCL13. Conclusion In contrast to other prominent cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of RA, OSM can strongly up-regulate the expression of CCL13, a chemokine recently identified in the synovial fluid of patients with RA. Despite potent OSM-induced signal transduction in all types of fibroblasts analyzed, only synovial fibroblasts secreted CCL13, which might be indicative of tissue-specific imprinting of different fibroblasts during development. [source]

    Promigratory Activity of Oxytocin on Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 6 2010
    Yong Sook Kim
    Abstract Recent studies show that oxytocin has various effects on cellular behaviors. Oxytocin is reported to stimulate cardiomyogenesis of embryonic stem cells and endothelial cell proliferation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used for cardiac repair, and we elucidated the effect of oxytocin on umbilical cord derived-MSCs (UCB-MSCs). UCB-MSCs were pretreated with oxytocin (100 nM) and washed with saline prior to experiments. To evaluate their angiogenic potential and migration activity, tube formation assay and Boyden chamber assay were performed. For in vivo study, ischemia-reperfusion was induced in rats, and UCB-MSCs with or without oxytocin pretreatment were injected into the infarcted myocardium to evaluate the engraftment of injected cells. Histological and hemodynamic studies were performed. Oxytocin-treated UCB-MSCs showed a decrease in tube formation but a drastic increase in transwell migration activity. The transcription level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 was increased in oxytocin-treated UCB-MSCs. Knock-down of MMP-2 by use of siRNA restored the tube formation, while reducing transmigration activity. In rats injected with oxytocin-treated UCB-MSCs, cardiac fibrosis and CD68 infiltration in the peri-infarct zone were reduced, whereas cell engraftment and connexin43 expression were greater than in rats injected with untreated UCB-MSCs. By contrast, angiogenesis did not differ significantly between the two groups. Cardiac contractility was higher in the group injected with oxytocin-treated UCB-MSCs than in the group injected with phosphate-buffered saline alone. Collectively, oxytocin is an effective priming reagent for stem cells for application to damaged heart tissue. [source]

    In vitro model for penetration of sensory nerve fibres on a Matrigel basement membrane: implications for possible application to intractable pruritus

    M. Tominaga
    Summary Background, Epidermal hyperinnervation occurs in dermatoses with intractable pruritus, such as atopic dermatitis, suggesting that the hyperinnervation is partly responsible for abnormal itch perception. Objectives, To investigate the mechanisms of penetration of sensory nerve fibres into the basement membrane of the skin. Methods, A rat dorsal root ganglion neurone culture system consisting of Matrigel and a Boyden chamber containing a nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration gradient was used. In some experiments, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) blockers and semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) were added to the culture system. Matrigel-coated membranes were stained with anti-Tau antibody, and the number of nerve fibres that crossed the membrane was counted. Expression of MMPs in the cultured neurones was examined at mRNA and protein levels by quantitative reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The activity was also examined by zymography. Results, Nerve fibres penetrated into Matrigel in the presence of an NGF concentration gradient, which was dose-dependently inhibited by GM6001, a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor. Transcripts for MMP2, but not MMP9, were increased in the cultured neurones, and the penetration was dose-dependently inhibited by MMP-2 blockers. MMP-2 and its activity were partially localized on the NGF-responsive growth cones. NGF also upregulated pro-MMP-2 activation molecules in the cultured neurones. Sema3A stimulation showed the opposite effects on these NGF-dependent events. Interestingly, MMP2 expression was modulated by extracellular matrix (ECM) substrates for this enzyme. Conclusions, Membrane-associated MMP-2 contributes to penetration of nerve fibres into Matrigel through modulation by axonal guidance molecules and/or ECM. These findings provide insight for understanding the development of intractable pruritus involving epidermal nerve density. [source]

    Sphingosine kinase 1 is critically involved in nitric oxide-mediated human endothelial cell migration and tube formation

    Stephanie Schwalm
    Background and purpose:, Sphingosine kinases (SKs) convert sphingosine to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which is a bioactive lipid that regulates a variety of cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation and migration. Experimental approach:, We used the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 to investigate the effect of nitric oxide (NO) donors on SK-1 expression, and on cell migration and tube formation. Key results:, We showed that exposure of EA.hy926 cells to Deta-NO (125,1000 M) resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent up-regulation of SK-1 mRNA and protein expression, and activity with a first significant effect at 250 M of Deta-NO. The increased SK-1 mRNA expression resulted from an enhanced SK-1 promoter activity. A similar effect was also seen with various other NO donors. In mechanistic terms, the NO-triggered effect occurred independently of cGMP, but involved the classical mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade because the MEK inhibitor U0126 abolished the NO-induced SK-1 expression. The effect of NO was also markedly reduced by the thiol-reducing agent N -acetylcysteine, suggesting a redox-dependent mechanism. Functionally, Deta-NO triggered an increase in the migration of endothelial cells in an adapted Boyden chamber assay, and also increased endothelial tube formation in a Matrigel assay. These responses were both abolished in cells depleted of SK-1. Conclusions and implications:, These data show that NO donors up-regulate specifically SK-1 expression and activity in human endothelial cells, and SK-1 in turn critically contributes to the migratory capability and tube formation of endothelial cells. Thus, SK-1 may be considered an attractive novel target to interfere with pathological processes involving angiogenesis. [source]

    Identification and Characterisation of a Platelet GPIb/V/IX-like Complex on Human Breast Cancers: Implications for the Metastatic Process

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 10 2001
    Catherine M. Suter
    The glycoprotein (GP) Ib/V/IX receptor complex is an important adhesion molecule, originally thought to be unique to the megakaryocytic lineage. Recent evidence now indicates that GPIb/V/IX may be more widely expressed. In this study we report the presence of all subunits of the complex on four breast cancer cell lines, and 51/80 primary breast tumours. The surface expression of GPIb/V/IX was confirmed by flow cytometry, and by immunoprecipitation of biotin surface-labelled tumour cells. Western blotting of cell lysates under reducing conditions revealed that tumour cell-GPIba had a relative molecular weight of 95 kDa as compared to 135 kDa on platelets. Despite the discrepant protein size, molecular analyses on the tumour cell-GPIba subunit using RT-PCR and DNA sequencing revealed 100% sequence homology to platelet GPIba. Tumour cell-GPIb/V/IX was capable of binding human von Willebrand factor (vWf), and this binding caused aggregation of tumour cells in suspension. Tumour cells bound to immobilised vWf in the presence of EDTA and demonstrated prominent filapodial extensions indicative of cytoskeletal reorganisation. Furthermore, in a modified Boyden chamber assay, prior exposure to vWf or a GPIba monoclonal antibody, AK2, enhanced cell migration. The presence of a functional GPIb/V/IX-like complex in tumour cells suggests that this complex may participate in the process of haematogenous breast cancer metastasis [source]

    3- O -Methylfunicone, a metabolite produced by Penicillium pinophilum, modulates ERK1/2 activity, affecting cell motility of human mesothelioma cells

    CELL PROLIFERATION, Issue 2 2010
    E. Buommino
    Objectives:, 3- O -methylfunicone (OMF), a secondary metabolite produced by Penicillium pinophilum, affects cell proliferation and motility in a variety of human solid tumours. The aim of this study was to demonstrate whether OMF has the ability to arrest cell division and motility, in a human mesothelioma cell line. Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer that does not respond to standard therapies the cells of which are considered to be highly resistant to apoptosis. Material and methods:, Cell motility and invasion were measured using a modified Boyden chamber. Gene expression was examined by RT-PCR, while ERK1/2 was investigated by Western blot analysis. All experiments were also performed on primary cultures of mesothelial cells. Results:, The present study shows that OMF inhibited motility of the NCI mesothelioma cell line by modulating ERK signalling activity, and affected ,V,5 integrin and MMP-2 expression, inducing marked downregulation at both mRNA and protein levels. Substantial downregulation of VEGF gene expression was also demonstrated. These effects were not observed in normal mesothelial cell cultures. Conclusion:, OMF may have potential as a naturally derived anti-tumour drug for treatment of mesothelioma. [source]

    Identifying the Relative Contributions of Rac1 and Rac2 to Osteoclastogenesis,,

    Yongqiang Wang
    Abstract Rac small GTPases may play an important regulatory role in osteoclastogenesis. Our in vitro and in vivo results show that both Rac1 and Rac2 are required for optimal osteoclast differentiation, but Rac1 is more critical. Rac1 is the key Rac isoform responsible for regulating ROS generation and the actin cytoskeleton during the multiple stages of osteoclast differentiation. Introduction: Recent evidence suggests that the Rac small GTPases may play an important regulatory role in osteoclastogenesis. This finding is important because bisphosphonates may regulate their antiresorptive/antiosteoclast effects through the modification of Rho family of small GTPases. Materials and Methods: To elucidate the specific roles of the Rac1 and Rac2 isoforms during osteoclastogenesis, we used mice deficient in Rac1, Rac2, or both Rac1 and Rac2 in monocyte/osteoclast precursors. Macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), and RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in vitro was studied by using bone marrow-derived mononucleated preosteoclast precursors (MOPs). The expression of osteoclast-specific markers was examined using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Free actin barbed ends in bone marrow MOPs after M-CSF stimulation was determined. The ability of MOPs to migrate toward M-CSF was assayed using Boyden chambers. Margin spreading on heparin sulfate-coated glass and RANKL-induced reactive oxygen species generation were also performed. Functional assays of in vitro-generated osteoclasts were ascertained using dentine sections from narwal tusks. Osteoclast levels in vivo were counted in TRACP and immunohistochemically stained distal tibial sections. In vivo microarchitexture of lumbar vertebrate was examined using ,CT 3D imaging and analysis. Results: We show here that, although both Rac isoforms are required for normal osteoclast differentiation, Rac1 deletion results in a more profound reduction in osteoclast formation in vitro because of its regulatory role in pre-osteoclast M-CSF-mediated chemotaxis and actin assembly and RANKL-mediated reactive oxygen species generation. This Rac1 cellular defect also manifests at the tissue level with increased trabecular bone volume and trabeculae number compared with wildtype and Rac2-null mice. This unique mouse model has shown for the first time that Rac1 and Rac2 play different and nonoverlapping roles during osteoclastogenesis and will be useful for identifying the key roles played by these two proteins during the multiple stages of osteoclast differentiation. Conclusions: Rac1 and Rac2 play different and nonoverlapping roles during osteoclastogenesis. This model showed that Rac1 is the key Rac isoform responsible for regulating ROS generation and the actin cytoskeleton during the multiple stages of osteoclast differentiation. [source]