Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Boys

  • adolescent boy
  • affected boy
  • american boy
  • chinese boy
  • control boy
  • cryptorchid boy
  • healthy boy
  • japanese boy
  • month-old boy
  • obese boy
  • old boy
  • one boy
  • prepubertal boy
  • school boy
  • white boy
  • year old boy
  • year-old boy
  • young boy
  • yr-old boy

  • Terms modified by Boys

  • boy experience
  • boy only

  • Selected Abstracts


    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Luca Massimi MD
    First page of article [source]


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Benedetta Ludovica Pettorini MD
    First page of article [source]


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    Azzam Ismail MD
    CASE OF THE MONTH: ABSTRACT January 2005. A boy aged 7 years was found to have a tumor arising from the roof of the fourth ventricle. Histopathologically, part of the tumor appeared as a PNET, while neuroglial tissue, striated and smooth muscle, cartilage and small glandular structures were present in other regions. Tumor cells in both primitive and mature elements showed a loss of chromosome 17p accompanied by a gain of 17q, a pattern consistent with the presence of an isochromosome 17q. This abnormality is not characteristic of intracranial germ cell tumors, but is present in over 30% of medulloblastomas. On the basis of the histologic and genetic abnormalities, we propose a diagnosis of PNET with multilineal differentiation. [source]


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    Inga Gudinaviciene
    February 2005. Case report of a 10-month-old boy with a large tumor located in the pineal gland, consisting of glia, ganglion cells, pigmented neuroepithelium and striated muscle, without immature components. The combination of neuroectodermal and mesenchymal constituents includes entities as pineal anlage tumor (melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, MNTI), ectomesenchymoma, medullomyoblastoma, and teratoma in the differential diagnosis. Lack of immature elements in this case, however, eliminates ectomesenchymoma and medullomyoblastoma from the differential diagnosis. Retinal anlage tumors, to be considered as MNTI at the site of the pineal gland, usually harbor immature components as well. Therefore, the present case does not match strict criteria of any of the categories mentioned and therefore we have designated it as a "pineal anlage tumor (without immature components)". [source]


    Eric A Storch Dr
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Huge Left Ventricular Aneurysm in a Minimally Symptomatic 11-Year-Old Boy

    Stéphane Moniotte MD
    ABSTRACT An 11-year-old boy presented with mild shortness of breath and tachycardia and was diagnosed with a huge left ventricular aneurysm ruptured in a secondary pseudoaneurysm. This report highlights the complementary use of echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the preoperative assessment of this anomaly. [source]

    Film: State of Cinema Address: 49th San Francisco International Film Festival, 29 April 2006

    CRITICAL QUARTERLY, Issue 3 2006
    Letter to a boy from his mother Boy, my darling, You asked me the other day, just as you were dropping off, what people's dreams were like before the cinema was invented. You who talk blabberish and chase rabbits in your sleep, hurrumphing like a dog . . . you who never watch television . . . I've been thinking of your question ever since. I have to talk to some people in America about cinema. I'm going there now on the plane and I can't think of anything but your question... [source]

    Paroxysmal Hemicrania With Visual Aura in a 17-Year-Old Boy

    HEADACHE, Issue 4 2009
    Stefan Seidel MD
    We report the case of a 17-year-old boy presenting with a history of recurrent episodes of isolated visual aura later followed infrequently by indomethacin-responsive headache attacks resembling paroxysmal hemicrania. [source]

    Death of a 10-Month-Old Boy After Exposure to Ethylmorphine

    Arne Helland M.D.
    Abstract:, Ethylmorphine, an opiate that is partially metabolized to morphine, is a common ingredient in antitussive preparations. We present a case where a 10-month-old boy was administered ethylmorphine in the evening and found dead in bed the following morning. Postmortem toxicological analyses of heart blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of ethylmorphine and morphine at concentrations of 0.17 ,M (0.054 mg/L) and 0.090 ,M (0.026 mg/L), respectively. CYP2D6 genotyping showed that the deceased had an extensive metabolizer genotype, signifying a "normal" capacity for metabolizing ethylmorphine to morphine. The autopsy report concluded that death was caused by a combination of opiate-induced sedation and weakening of respiratory drive, a respiratory infection, and a sleeping position that could have impeded breathing. This is the first case report where the death of an infant has been linked to ethylmorphine ingestion. [source]

    Sickle Cell Trait Mimicking Multiple Inflicted Injuries in a 5-Year-Old Boy

    Charis Kepron M.D.
    Abstract:, Sickle cell disease (SCD) and sickle cell trait (SCT) can be associated with sudden unexpected death in the pediatric population, usually due to pulmonary complications occurring within the acute chest syndrome (ACS). Musculoskeletal complications can occur and are classically limited to bone infarcts. The occurrence of bone pathology centered upon the epiphyseal growth plate in SCD/SCT is extremely rare, and multiple such injuries in a single patient have not been previously reported. Herein, we describe a case of sudden unexpected death in a 5-year-old child with undiagnosed SCT due to the ACS, with widespread epiphyseal and periosteal bone lesions mimicking multiple inflicted injuries at autopsy. This case highlights the importance of clinicopathological correlation and is the first to describe SCT pathology as a mimic of nonaccidental injury. [source]

    Painless Hand Nodules in a 15-Year-Old Boy

    E. Eugene Bain III B.S.
    First page of article [source]

    A Scaly Macule on the Bridge of the Nose of a 15-Year-Old Boy

    Mahbub M. U. Chowdhury M.R.C.P.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Shrinking Lung Syndrome in a 14-Year-Old Boy with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Polly J. Ferguson MD
    Abstract Pulmonary complications occur frequently in people with systemic lupus erythematosus. We report on an adolescent with an acute onset of dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain with severe restrictive lung physiology on pulmonary function testing (forced vital capacity, 20% of predicted) who had no evidence of parenchymal lung or pleural disease. He was found to have restricted diaphragmatic movement as assessed by fluoroscopy, without evidence of generalized respiratory muscle weakness. His clinical presentation and results of diagnostic tests were typical for shrinking lung syndrome. Given the rarity of shrinking lung syndrome in the pediatric age range, many clinicians are not aware of it as a clinical entity. Shrinking lung syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea in both children and adults with systemic lupus erythematosus. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Coconut palm-related injuries in the pacific islands

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 1 2001
    J. S. Mulford
    Introduction: Coconut palms are an integral part of life in the Solomon Islands, given the widespread dependence of subsistence agriculture. Injuries related to the coconut palm are thus inevitable. Hospital records from the Central Referral Hospital were reviewed to identify (i) how commonly the coconut palm is implicated in injuries referred to the surgery department; (ii) which patients are being injured; and (iii) the type of injuries sustained. Methods: The present study reviews all patients referred to the Department of Surgery and Orthopaedics between January 1994 and December 1999 who had a coconut palm-related injury. This was possible due to the trauma epidemiology form, which records the patient details, cause of injury, fracture details and other injury information. Results: A total of 3.4% of all injuries presenting to the surgical department was related to the coconut palm. Eighty-five patients fell from the coconut palm, 16 patients had a coconut fruit fall on them, three patients had a coconut palm fall on them and one patient kicked a coconut palm. The majority of patients who were injured by falling from a coconut palm were young (aged 6,25 years). Eleven of the 16 patients struck by falling fruit were under 25 years of age. The majority of injuries sustained were fractures. Patients falling from coconut palms sustained mainly upper limb fractures (60.1% of all fractures) or spinal fractures (16.3%). Patients injured by falling fruit sustained skull or upper limb fractures. All skull fractures occurred in patients under the age of 10 years. Conclusion: This is the largest review of coconut palm-related injuries. It highlights some epidemiological facts that raise considerations for preventative health measures in the Solomon Islands. Parents and young children must be warned of the dangers of playing beneath coconut trees. Boy and girls should be warned of the dangers of collecting fruit. With an increasing amount of schooling becoming available the Solomon Islands is an ideal place to direct an education programme about the dangers of coconut palms as well as many other primary health issues. Because subsistence farming plays a crucial role in the life of most Solomon Islanders, injuries that result in loss of function are crippling both to the patient and the village. Any preventative measure to reduce the rates of injury will be important. [source]

    Risk factors related to traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian schoolchildren

    Evelyne Pessoa Soriano
    Abstract,,, The aim of this pilot study was to analyse whether overjet, lip coverage and obesity represented risk factors associated with the occurrence of dental trauma in the permanent anterior teeth of schoolchildren in Recife, Brazil. It included a random sample of 116 boys and girls aged 12 years, attending both public and private schools. Data was collected through clinical examinations and interviews. Dental trauma was classified according to Andreasen's criteria (1994). Overjet was considered as risk factor when it presented values higher than 5 mm. Lip coverage was classified as adequate or inadequate, while obesity was considered according to National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) procedures for the assessment of nutritional status. The prevalence of dental injuries was 23.3%. Boys experienced more injuries than girls, 30 and 16.1%, respectively (P > 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between traumatic dental injuries and overjet (P < 0.05) and between traumatic dental injuries and lip coverage (P = 0.000). No statistical significant differences were found when obesity and dental trauma were analysed (P < 0.05). It was concluded that boys from lower social strata attending public schools, presenting an overjet size greater than 5 mm and an inadequate lip coverage, were more likely to have traumatic dental injuries in Recife, Brazil. Obesity was not a risk factor for dental trauma in this sample. [source]

    The monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene, family function and maltreatment as predictors of destructive behaviour during male adolescent alcohol consumption

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2007
    Kent W. Nilsson
    ABSTRACT Aim To investigate possible interactions between a polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene promoter, family relations and maltreatment/sexual abuse on adolescent alcohol-related problem behaviour among male adolescents. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional study of a randomized sample of 66 male individuals from a total population of 16- and 19-year adolescents from a Swedish county. Boys, who volunteered to participate answering an alcohol-related problem/behaviour questionnaire, were investigated with regard to interactions between such problems, family function, maltreatment and MAO-A genotype. Measurements MAO-A genotype, family relations history, history of being maltreated or abused and alcohol-related problem behaviour. Findings Boys with the short (three-repeat) variant of the MAO-A gene, who had been maltreated/abused or came from families with poor relations, showed significantly higher scores of alcohol-related problems. We also found that maltreatment/abuse independently showed the strongest relation to alcohol-related problems among boys in our model. Conclusions The results suggest that both maltreatment and MAO-A genotype may be useful for the understanding of male adolescent alcohol-related problem behaviour. [source]

    Perceived peer smoking prevalence and its association with smoking behaviours and intentions in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2004
    Man Kin Lai
    ABSTRACT Background Among the many personal, social and environmental risk factors of adolescence smoking, normative beliefs stand out for their potential to be modified with factual information on smoking prevalence. Aims To study the perceived peer smoking prevalence and its association with smoking behaviours in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Design and setting Cross-sectional territorial-wide school-based survey conducted in 64 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong. Participants A total of 13 280 forms 1,3 students (equivalent to grades 7,9 in the United States) aged 12,16 years. Measurements Perceived peer smoking prevalence, smoking status, intention to smoke in future, other smoking-related factors and demographic information. Findings Overestimation of peer smoking prevalence was observed regardless of gender and smoking status, and was more common in girls (69.4%) than boys (61.0%), and in experimental (74.3%) and current smokers (85.4%) than in never smokers (60.7%). Boys who overestimated and grossly overestimated (over two times) peer smoking were more likely to be current smokers, with adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of 1.95 (1.24,3.07) and 3.52 (2.37,5.24) (P for trend <0.001). Similarly, boys who grossly overestimated peer smoking were 76% (95% CI: 41,120%) more likely to have ever smoked. Conclusion Overestimation of peer smoking prevalence was common in Hong Kong Chinese boys and girls, and was associated with current and ever smoking in boys. These findings have important implications on normative education in adolescence smoking prevention programmes. [source]

    Slinging Doughnuts for the Boys: An American Woman in World War II , By James H. Madison

    HISTORY, Issue 316 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    "A Better Crop of Boys and Girls": The School Gardening Movement, 1890,1920

    Sally Gregory Kohlstedt
    First page of article [source]

    The Effect of Excessive Crying on the Development of Emotion Regulation

    INFANCY, Issue 2 2002
    Cynthia A. Stifter
    The goal of this study was to examine the effect of excessive crying in early infancy on the development of emotion self-regulation. Cry diaries were used to categorize excessive criers and typical criers at 6 weeks of age. At 5 and 10 months of age, infants and mothers participated in procedures to elicit infant reactivity and regulation during a frustration task and maternal sensitivity and intrusiveness during a free-play session. Last, maternal ratings of temperament were obtained. Results revealed excessive criers to show higher levels of negative reactivity than typical criers. Excessive criers also demonstrated lower regulation, but this finding was only significant for male infants. Boys in the excessive criers group exhibited the lowest level of emotion self-regulation. Maternal behavior and ratings of temperament at 5 and 10 months failed to distinguish the 2 cry groups. The findings suggest that excessive crying may influence the developmental trajectory of the ability of boys to self-regulate emotion. The hypothesized processes involved in this outcome are discussed. [source]

    Changes in externalizing and internalizing behaviours over a school-year: differences between 6-year-old boys and girls

    Annie Hammarberg
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in externalizing and internalizing problem behaviours in 6-year-olds with a focus on sex differences. Teachers rated problem behaviours at the beginning and at the end of the school year, 8 months apart, in 370 children (197 boys and 173 girls) attending 22 school preparatory classrooms. Although the majority of the children were quite stable, considerable negative and positive changes for both boys and girls in problem behaviours were found. The results showed that girls were more likely to change their externalizing behaviours in a positive direction than boys, whereas a tendency to the opposite pattern was found for internalizing behaviours. Boys were also found to be more prone to a negative change in problem behaviours of both types than girls were. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Mediational behaviours of preschoolers teaching their younger siblings

    Pnina S. Klein
    There is very little research on the process of teaching in sibling interaction. The current study was designed to explore teaching behaviours of preschoolers and their effects on their toddler siblings. Participants were 40 dyads of 5-yr-olds and their 3-yr-old siblings from a middle class urban community in Israel. The children were divided into four equal groups based on gender and age of the siblings in each dyad. The children were visited at home and invited to play with two puzzles and two Lego games. Their play interaction with their siblings was videotaped. The observations were analysed using the observing mediational interaction (OMI) scale, assessing the frequency and style of the following behaviours: Focussing, Affecting, Encouraging, Expanding, and Regulating Behaviour. The younger siblings' success in playing the games was evaluated using a 5-point scale. The frequency of teaching behaviours in sibling interaction was found to be related to the younger siblings' success on the games. Affecting and Encouraging were significantly related to the younger siblings' level of success on the games. The teaching behaviours of older siblings were characterized by relatively high frequencies of Regulation of Behavior and Encouraging, moderate frequencies of Affecting and low frequencies of Expanding. Boys were found to receive more teaching behaviours than girls. Older brothers and sisters showed higher frequencies of teaching behaviour in interactions with their younger brothers than with their younger sisters. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Boys' and girls' perceptions of parental discipline in transgression situations

    Emma Sorbring
    Abstract Children's perceptions of parental discipline methods and their perceptions of child gender differences in their parents' choices of discipline methods were assessed. One hundred and seventy 8-year-old children (78 boys, 92 girls) in two-parent families were asked about disciplinary behaviour in five transgression situations. The results pointed to gender differences when the children were talking about themselves. Boys believed that they would receive more physical punishment, milder requests and less induction than girls. Children also indicated that their parents would choose a different response if they (themselves) were of the other sex. Both boys and girls reported that their parents would treat boys more severely than they would girls. The results showed that the responses of those children with a sibling of the other sex did not reveal any gender-differentiated experience of their parents' discipline strategies. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale , parent form

    Susan Shur-Fen Gau
    Abstract This study aimed to establish the psychometric properties of parent ratings on the Chinese version of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham IV scale (SNAP-IV) in a school-based sample of 3534 students in grades 1 to 8 from two cities and two suburbs in Taiwan and 189 children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (aged 6 to 15) consecutively recruited from a medical center in Taipei. Parents completed the Chinese versions of the SNAP-IV, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and Child Behavior Checklist. The Chinese SNAP-IV demonstrated similar three factor structure (Inattention, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, and Oppositional) as its English version, and satisfactory test,retest reliability (intraclass correlation = 0.59,0.72), internal consistency (alpha = 0.88,0.90), concurrent validity (Pearson correlations = 0.56,0.72), and discriminant validity. Boys scored higher than girls across the eight school grade levels. The SNAP-IV clearly distinguished children with ADHD from school-based participants. Comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder predicted higher SNAP-IV scores among children with ADHD. Our findings suggest that the Chinese SNAP-IV is a reliable and valid instrument for rating ADHD-related symptoms in both clinical and community settings in Taiwan. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Risk factors for injuries to maxillary permanent incisors and upper lip among schoolchildren in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Background.,, Dental trauma is common among children, and the maxillary permanent central incisors are the most often affected teeth. Aim.,, This study aimed to investigate the risk factors for injury to maxillary permanent incisors and the upper lip among Tanzanian schoolchildren aged 8,14 years. Design.,, A cross-sectional study involving 1119 children. The risk variables investigated included age, gender, lip competence, and overjet. The corresponding proportions of injuries and the relative risk (with 95% confidence interval) were calculated and tested by Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression was applied to ascertain the strength and direction of the association of the risk variables to injuries, and backward selection was used to test significant risk factors. Results.,, About 24% of the children had trauma to maxillary incisors, 45% had incompetent lip whereas 31% had increased overjet. Age, gender, overjet, and lip competence showed significant association with injuries to upper lip and maxillary incisors. Boys had sustained more injuries than girls, with a higher relative risk for luxation injuries. Enamel fracture was associated with overjet combined with lip competence, whereas enamel dentine fracture without pulp involvement was related to gender. Luxation injuries were associated with gender, tooth avulsion with overjet, and lip competence. Injury to the upper lip was associated with age. Conclusion.,, Male gender, increased overjet, and lip incompetence were the main risk factors of getting trauma to maxillary incisors, whereas age was the risk factor for injury to the upper lip. [source]

    Prevalence of early childhood caries among First Nations children, District of Manitoulin, Ontario

    S. Peressini
    Summary. Background., Epidemiological studies of Aboriginal communities in Canada and Native American populations in the United States have reported that early childhood caries (ECC) is highly prevalent. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ECC and dental caries in the First Nations population of 3- and 5-year-old children in the District of Manitoulin, Ontario to assist in developing effective dental health promotion strategies. Methods., All 3- and 5-year-old children in elementary schools and day-care centres in seven First Nation communities were eligible for the survey examination. Three-year-old children at home and 5-year-old children attending school off-reserve in six of the communities were also eligible for epidemiological survey examination of oral health status including caries, gingival and soft tissue conditions. Cases of ECC were defined as children with caries or restorations on two or more primary maxillary incisors or canines or those having a total decayed, missing, filled primary teeth (dmft) score of 4 or greater. Results., A total of 87 children (59% 5 years old, 54% females) were examined. Seventy-four per cent of children had one or more carious lesions. Forty-five cases of ECC were found, a prevalence of 52%. The mean dmft score for cases was 7·5 (95% CI 6·5,8·4) and 0·8 (95% CI 0·5,1·1) for non-cases (P < 0·001). Boys in both age groups were more likely to be affected by ECC than girls. Conclusion., Our results indicate that dental caries and ECC are highly prevalent in this population, with ECC cases having 6.7 more dmft than non-cases. [source]

    The progression of tooth erosion in a cohort of adolescents of mixed ethnicity

    C. R. Dugmore
    Summary. Objectives. To establish the prevalence of tooth erosion in a sample of 12-year-old children and to monitor changes over the subsequent 2 years. Methods. A random sample of 1753 children aged 12 years was drawn from all 62 state maintained schools in Leicestershire. A total of 1308 were re-examined 2 years later. Erosion was recorded on incisors and first molars using an erosion index based upon that from the Children's Dental Health in the United Kingdom 1993 survey. A score was also allocated to each subject according to the most advanced lesion in the mouth. Results. Erosion was present in 56·3% of subjects at age 12 and 64·1% at age 14. Deep enamel or dentine was eroded in 4·9% and 13·1% of subjects, respectively, at the same ages. One hundred and sixty-one (12·3%) children who were erosion-free at 12 years of age developed erosion over the subsequent 2 years. Boys had more erosion than girls, as did white compared to Asian children. Associations were found between erosion experience and social deprivation. Conclusion. New erosive lesions developed in 12·3% of the subjects between the ages of 12 and 14 years. New or more advanced lesions were seen in 27% of the children over the 2 years of the study. Males, white children and social deprivation were significantly associated with erosion experience. [source]

    BSSE-free description of the formamide dimers

    A. Bende
    Abstract The different configurations (linear, zig-zag, and cyclic) of formamide dimers have been studied at the level of both Hartree,Fock (HF) and second order Møller,Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). The widely used a posteriori Boys,Bernardi "counterpoise" (CP) correction scheme has been compared with our a priori methods utilizing the "chemical Hamiltonian approach" (CHA). The appropriate interaction energies have been calculated in six different basis sets (6-31G, 6-31G**, DZV, DZP, TZV, and cc-pVDZ). © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem, 2001 [source]

    The Impact of Parents' Overseas Employment on Educational Outcomes of Filipino Children

    Marie Joy B. Arguillas
    Family structure, household resources, numbers of siblings competing for those resources, and parents' own educational attainment are often important predictors of children's education outcomes. Overseas migration of parents from the Philippines has resulted in increasing numbers of long-term separations of parents from each other and from their children. Western-based analyses might predict negative education outcomes for children as a result of parental absence. We find that separations caused by overseas migration often are either neutral or can have positive effects on schooling outcomes, at least among older children. Girls fare better in terms of educational attainment than do boys overall. Boys are often more affected by background variables, including parents' international migration. [source]