Bowel Disease (bowel + disease)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Bowel Disease

  • chronic inflammatory bowel disease
  • functional bowel disease
  • human inflammatory bowel disease
  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • paediatric inflammatory bowel disease
  • pediatric inflammatory bowel disease
  • small bowel disease

  • Terms modified by Bowel Disease

  • bowel disease patient
  • bowel disease questionnaire

  • Selected Abstracts


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 5 2000
    Boon-Swee Ooi
    First page of article [source]

    Course and treatment of perianal disease in children newly diagnosed with Crohn's disease

    David J. Keljo MD
    Abstract Background: We sought to characterize perianal disease and its treatment in pediatric patients newly diagnosed with Crohn's disease. Methods: Data were obtained from the Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Collaborative Group Registry, a prospective, multicenter observational registry recording clinical and laboratory outcomes in children under 16 years of age newly diagnosed with IBD. Patients with Crohn's disease were selected who had data on perianal disease and at least 24 months of follow-up. The records of patients with a Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index perianal subscore greater than 0 were reviewed, and patients with abscesses or fistulas were selected. The therapies used and the course of their perianal disease were then assessed. Results: Of the 276 patients identified, 41 had perianal lesions within 30 days of diagnosis. Thirteen of these had skin tags and fissures only, whereas 28 had fistulas and/or abscesses. The latter lesions resolved by 1 year in 20 patients, and 8 had chronic/recurrent perianal disease persisting for more than 1 year following diagnosis. Patients with fistulizing disease were much more likely to be treated and were treated earlier with antibiotics, infliximab, and immunomodulators than were nonfistulizing patients. Patients who developed chronic perianal disease were more likely to have low body mass indices and required more perianal surgery than did patients whose perianal disease resolved. Conclusions: Approximately 10% of newly diagnosed pediatric patients with Crohn's disease will have perianal fistulas and/or abscesses at the time of diagnosis. Most of these will resolve within a year with medical therapy alone. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008) [source]

    Incidence and Prognosis of Colorectal Dysplasia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Population-based Study from Olmsted County, Minnesota,

    Tine Jess MD
    Abstract Background and Aims: The risk, fate, and ideal management of colorectal dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remain debated. We estimated the incidence, long-term outcome, and risk factors for progression of colorectal dysplasia (adenomas [adenoma-associated lesions or masses (ALMs)], flat dysplasia, and dysplasia-associated lesions or masses [DALMs]) in a population-based IBD cohort from Olmsted County, Minnesota. Materials and Methods: The Rochester Epidemiology Project was used to identify cohort patients with colorectal dysplasia. Medical records were reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics. Histology slides were reviewed by a pathologist blinded to previous pathology reports. The cumulative incidence of dysplasia was estimated, and the association between patient characteristics and recurrence/progression of dysplasia was assessed using proportional hazards regression. Results: Twenty-nine (4%) IBD patients developed flat dysplasia (n = 8), DALMs (n = 1), ALMs in areas of IBD (n = 18), or ALMs outside areas of IBD (n = 2). Among 6 patients with flat low-grade dysplasia (fLGD) who did not undergo colectomy, none progressed during a median of 17.8 (range 6,21) years of observation with a median of 3 (range 0,12) surveillance colonoscopies. Four (22%) patients with ALMs in areas of IBD who did not undergo surgery developed LGD or DALMs. Primary sclerosing cholangitis and dysplasia located proximal to the splenic flexure were significantly associated with risk for recurrence/progression of dysplasia. Conclusions: This population-based cohort study from Olmsted County, Minnesota did not confirm an increased risk of cancer related to fLGD, whereas 22% of patients with ALMs in areas of IBD developed fLGD or DALMs. [source]

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Returning Travelers

    Daphne Yanai-Kopelman
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Comparison of Oral Prednisone and Prednisone Combined with Metronidazole for Induction Therapy of Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Randomized-Controlled Trial

    A.E. Jergens
    Background: Although prednisone and metronidazole are commonly used to treat canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), no randomized-controlled trials have been performed. Hypothesis: Combination drug therapy with prednisone and metronidazole will be more effective than prednisone alone for treatment of canine IBD. Reduction in disease severity will be accompanied by decreased canine IBD activity index (CIBDAI) scores and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. Animals: Fifty-four pet dogs diagnosed with IBD of varying severity. Methods: Dogs were randomized to receive oral prednisone (1 mg/kg; n = 25) or prednisone and metronidazole (10 mg/kg; n = 29) twice daily for 21 days. Clinical (CIBDAI) scores and serum CRP were determined at diagnosis and after 21 days of drug therapy. The primary efficacy measure was remission at 21 days, defined as a 75% or greater reduction in baseline CIBDAI score. Results: Differences between treatments in the rate of remission (both exceeding 80%) or the magnitude of its change over time were not observed. CRP concentrations in prednisone-treated dogs were increased because of many dogs having active disease. Both treatments reduced CRP in comparison with pretreatment concentrations. An interaction between CIBDAI and CRP was identified in 42 of 54 dogs (78%), whereas 8 of 54 dogs (15%) showed disagreement between these indices. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Prednisone is as effective as combined treatment with prednisone and metronidazole for induction therapy of canine IBD. CRP may be normal or increased in dogs with IBD and may be useful in assessing the response of individual dogs to treatment along with changes in the CIBDAI. [source]

    Perinuclear Antineutrophilic Cytoplasmic Antibody and Response to Treatment in Diarrheic Dogs with Food Responsive Disease or Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Nicole Luckschander
    The goal of this study was to investigate the correlation between perinuclear antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA) and clinical scores before and after treatment in diarrheic dogs with food-responsive disease (FRD) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). pANCA serology was evaluated prospectively by indirect immunofluorescence in 65 dogs with signs of gastrointestinal disease, and if positive, pANCA antibody titers were determined. Thirty-nine dogs with FRD responded to a novel diet, and 26 dogs with IBD were treated with corticosteroids. The severity of clinical signs was scored by means of a canine IBD activity index (CIBDAI). At initial examination, a significantly (P= .002) higher percentage of dogs were pANCA-positive in the FRD group (62%) compared with the IBD group (23%). pANCA titers were significantly higher (P=.003) before treatment in the FRD group (median titer 100) compared with the IBD group (median titer 1). However, there was no difference in pANCA titers between the groups after respective treatments because dogs in the IBD group had a significant increase in pANCA titer after treatment. The CIBDAI score decreased significantly (P <.001) after treatment in both groups (74% moderate to severe in FRD dogs before versus 8% after treatment; 85% moderate to severe in IBD dogs before versus 32% after treatment). There was no correlation between pANCA status in FRD or IBD dogs before treatment and scores for CIBDAI, endoscopy, or histopathology before or after treatment, except for the endoscopic duodenal score in dogs with FRD after treatment (P= .03). A positive pANCA test before therapy may aid in the diagnosis of FRD. [source]

    Influence of Dietary Fiber on Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Colon Cancer: Importance of Fermentation Pattern

    NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 2 2007
    Devin J. Rose MS
    The benefits of dietary fiber on inflammatory bowel disease may be related to the fermentative production of butyrate in the colon, which appears to decrease the inflammatory response. The benefits of dietary fiber against colon cancer may be related to both fermentative and non-fermentative processes, although poorly fermentable fibers appear more influential. Dietary fiber fermentation profiles are important in determining optimal fibers for colonic health, and may be a function of structure, processing conditions, and other food components. A greater understanding of the relationships between fermentation rate and dietary fiber structure would allow for development of dietary fibers for optimum colonic health. [source]

    Effect of Different Doses of Thalidomide in Experimentally Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Rats

    Om Prakash
    Adult Wistar rats of either sex were used (n = 36). Colitis was induced by a single intra-colonic application of 20 mg 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) dissolved in 35% ethanol into the descending colon. Rats were divided into six groups (n = 6). Animals were treated with vehicle (ethanol), TNBS dissolved in 35% ethanol, thalidomide (with different doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight), and sulfasalazine (360 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days. After completion of 14 days of treatment, animals were killed and the following parameters were assessed: morphological score, histological score and biochemical parameters (myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde and tumour necrosis factor-,). Results showed thalidomide with different doses provided protection against TNBS-induced colonic damage. There was significant protection with thalidomide 150 mg/kg body weight compared to controls (P < 0.001). All the biochemical parameters were highly reduced in the entire thalidomide-treated group compared to controls particularly with thalidomide 150 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.001). Treatment with thalidomide restored malondialdehyde as well as reduction of myeloperoxidase and tumour necrosis factor-, towards normal levels. Morphological and histological score were significantly reduced in all the treated groups with significant effect found with 150 mg/kg (P < 0.001). Our results indicate efficacy of thalidomide in TNBS induce experimental colitis model in rats but present findings requires further investigation to establish the real safety and efficacy in human beings. [source]

    Abstracts from the 2009 Advances in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Crohn's & Colitis Foundation's National Clinical & Research Conference

    Article first published online: 16 NOV 200
    First page of article [source]

    Abstracts from the 2008 Advances in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Crohn's & Colitis Foundation's National Clinical & Research Conference

    Article first published online: 26 NOV 200
    First page of article [source]

    Abstracts from the 2007 CCFA National Research and Clinical Conference, 6th Annual Advances in the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Article first published online: 10 DEC 200
    First page of article [source]

    Abstracts from the 2006 CCFA National Research and Clinical Conference, 5th Annual Advances in the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Dec. 1-3, 2006, Miami, FL

    Article first published online: 6 APR 200
    First page of article [source]

    Increased prevalence of burnout symptoms in parents of chronically ill children

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 3 2010
    C Lindström
    Abstract Aim:, To examine the prevalence of burnout symptoms in the context of parenting a chronically ill child. Methods:, A total of 252 parents of children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and 38 parents of children with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases participated in a population-based study. A control group consisted of 124 randomly selected parents of healthy children. We used self-report questionnaires to assess symptoms of burnout. Results:, The main finding was that significantly more parents of children with chronic diseases (36%) scored for clinical burnout, compared with parents of healthy children (20%). Burnout symptoms were most prominent among mothers of children with diabetes, although fathers of children with diabetes and mothers and fathers of children with inflammatory bowel diseases also reported higher levels of various burnout symptoms. Conclusion:, Burnout may be a useful model for understanding long-term parental responses and should be acknowledged among the different types of psychological consequences of the multi-faceted experience of parenting a child with chronic illness. Gender seems to influence the risk of burnout symptoms. Continued research about other background factors, and how the parents' situation changes over time are warranted. In the clinic, we need to draw attention to the group of parents who may suffer from burnout. [source]

    Pediatric inflammatory Bowel disease: perspective and consequences

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 3 2010
    Erkki Savilahti
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Epidemiology of comorbidities in psoriasis

    Luigi Naldi
    ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have shown that, in patients with psoriasis, associated disorders may occur more frequently than expected. Such comorbidities include, among others, psoriatic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, several cancer types, and depression. Comorbidities often become clinically manifest years after onset of psoriasis and tend to be more frequently seen in severe disease. [source]

    Association of diverticular colitis and inflammatory bowel disease

    Mitsuro Chiba
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Jean-Francois Rey
    Background:, There are circumstances when a colonoscopy should be repeated after a short interval following the first endoscopic procedure which has not completely fulfilled its objective. Review of the literature:, A second look colonoscopy is proposed when there remains a doubt about missed neoplastic lesions, either because the intestinal preparation was poor or because the video-endoscope did not achieved a complete course in the colon. The second look colonoscopy is also proposed at a short interval when it is suspected that the endoscopic removal of a single or of multiple neoplastic lesions was incomplete and that a complement of treatment is required. When the initial endoscopic procedure has completely fulfilled its objective, a second look colonoscopy can be proposed at longer intervals in surveillance programs. The intervals in surveillance after polypectomy are now adapted to the initial findings according to established guidelines. This also applies to the surveillance of incident focal cancer in patients suffering from a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Conclusion:, Finally, in most developed countries, a priority is attributed to screening of colorectal cancer and focus is given on quality assurance of colonoscopy which is considered as the gold standard procedure in the secondary prevention of colorectal cancer. [source]

    Surveillance colonoscopy for colitic cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    Keisuke Hata
    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are known to be at increased risk for the development of colorectal cancer, especially those with long-standing extensive ulcerative colitis. Although some recommend prophylactic total proctocolectomy for these high-risk patients, surveillance colonoscopy to detect ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer is, instead, generally performed. Dysplasia has been considered to be a useful marker to detect colorectal cancer at surveillance colonoscopy. High-grade dysplasia is a definite indication for total proctocolectomy, while management of low-grade dysplasia is still controversial. Patients with Crohn's disease are also considered to be at higher risk for the development of colorectal cancer, although the risk may be lower than in extensive ulcerative colitis. Molecular biology-based surveillance and chemoprevention for ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer are also reviewed. [source]

    Halophilic archaea in the human intestinal mucosa

    Andrew P. A. Oxley
    Summary The human gastrointestinal tract microbiota, despite its key roles in health and disease, remains a diverse, variable and poorly understood entity. Current surveys reveal a multitude of undefined bacterial taxa and a low diversity of methanogenic archaea. In an analysis of the microbiota in colonic mucosal biopsies from patients with inflammatory bowel disease we found 16S rDNA sequences representing a phylogenetically rich diversity of halophilic archaea from the Halobacteriaceae (haloarchaea), including novel phylotypes. As the human colon is not considered a salty environment and haloarchaea are described as extreme halophiles, we evaluated and further discarded the possibility that these sequences originated from pre-colonoscopy saline lavage solutions. Furthermore, aerobic enrichment cultures prepared from a patient biopsy at low salinity (2.5% NaCl) yielded haloarchaeal sequence types. Microscopic observation after fluorescence in situ hybridization provided evidence of the presence of viable archaeal cells in these cultures. These results prove the survival of haloarchaea in the digestive system and suggest that they may be members of the mucosal microbiota, even if present in low numbers in comparison with methanogenic archaea. Investigation of a potential physiological basis of this association may lead to new insights into gastrointestinal health and disease. [source]

    Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease in a Hackney pony by gastroduodenal endoscopy and biopsy and successful treatment with corticosteroids

    T. J. Divers
    First page of article [source]

    Potential role of soluble angiopoietin-2 and Tie-2 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    I. E. Koutroubakis
    Abstract Background, Angiogenesis has been suggested to play an important role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the study was to evaluate the serum markers of angiogenesis angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and soluble angiopoietin receptor Tie-2 in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Materials and methods, Serum Ang-2 and Tie-2 serum levels were measured in 160 IBD patients (79 UC and 81 CD) and in 80 matched healthy controls using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum Ang-2 and Tie-2 levels were correlated with the disease activity, as well as the type, localization and treatment of the disease. Results, Median serum Ang-2 and Tie-2 levels were significantly higher in both the UC patients and the CD patients compared with the healthy controls (P < 0·05 and P < 0·001, respectively). The IBD patients with early disease (diagnosis < 2 years) had significantly higher (P = 0·04) median serum Ang-2 levels but significantly lower (P = 0·02) median serum Tie-2 levels as compared with IBD patients with late disease (diagnosis > 2 years). The CD patients with active disease had significantly higher levels of Ang-2 compared with non-active disease (P = 0·02). Serum levels of both Ang-2 and Tie-2 were not correlated with laboratory markers such as ESR, CRP, white blood cell count, platelet count and albumin. Conclusions, Serum Ang-2 and Tie-2 levels are elevated in patients with IBD. These markers may mediate angiogenesis and vascular permeability in the mucosa of patients with IBD. [source]

    Paradox of simultaneous intestinal ischaemia and hyperaemia in inflammatory bowel disease

    O. A. Hatoum
    Abstract This review has focused on evidence regarding intestinal perfusion of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Basic investigation has defined an altered microvascular anatomy in the affected IBD bowel, which corresponds with diminished mucosal perfusion in the setting of chronic, long-standing inflammation. Diminished perfusion is linked to impaired wound healing, and may contribute to the continued refractory mucosal damage, which characterizes IBD. Alterations in vascular anatomy and physiology in IBD suggests additional possible mechanisms by which micro-vessels may contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of IBD. This begs the following questions: will angiogenesis within the gut lead to sustained inflammation, does the growing vasculature generate factors that transform the surrounding tissue and does angiogenesis generate vascular anastomosis within the gut, with shunting of blood away from the mucosal surface, impairment of metabolism and potentiation of gut damage? Further studies are required to define the mechanisms that underlie the vascular dysfunction and its role in pathophysiology of IBD. [source]

    Vitamin D and calcium deficits predispose for multiple chronic diseases

    M. Peterlik
    Abstract There is evidence from both observational studies and clinical trials that calcium malnutrition and hypovitaminosis D are predisposing conditions for various common chronic diseases. In addition to skeletal disorders, calcium and vitamin D deficits increase the risk of malignancies, particularly of colon, breast and prostate gland, of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (e.g. insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis), as well as of metabolic disorders (metabolic syndrome, hypertension). The aim of the present review was to provide improved understanding of the molecular and cellular processes by which deficits in calcium and vitamin D cause specific changes in cell and organ functions and thereby increase the risk for chronic diseases of different aetiology. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and extracellular Ca++ are both key regulators of proliferation, differentiation and function at the cellular level. However, the efficiency of vitamin D receptor-mediated intracellular signalling is limited by the negative effects of hypovitaminosis D on extrarenal 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1,-hydroxylase activity and thus on the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Calcium malnutrition eventually causes a decrease in calcium concentration in extracellular fluid compartments, resulting in organ-specific modulation of calcium-sensing receptor activity. Hence, attenuation of signal transduction from the ligand-activated vitamin D receptor and calcium-sensing receptor seems to be the prime mechanism by which calcium and vitamin D insufficiencies cause perturbation of cellular functions in bone, kidney, intestine, mammary and prostate glands, endocrine pancreas, vascular endothelium, and, importantly, in the immune system. The wide range of diseases associated with deficits in calcium and vitamin D in combination with the high prevalence of these conditions represents a special challenge for preventive medicine. [source]

    Platelet factor 4 and ,-thromboglobulin in inflammatory bowel disease and giant cell arteritis

    Background As platelet factors are important in the inflammatory response, we examined the course of platelet factor 4 and ,-thromboglobulin in relation to disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease and in giant cell arteritis. Patients and methods In a prospective study, the platelet count, platelet factor 4 and ,-thromboglobulin were measured in 20 patients with Crohn's disease, 18 with ulcerative colitis and 19 with giant cell arteritis, during active and inactive disease, as well as in 51 controls without inflammation. Results Platelet counts were significantly higher in active vs. inactive Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and giant cell arteritis. Levels of platelet factor 4 and ,-thromboglobulin were significantly higher in active inflammatory bowel disease and giant cell arteritis, as well as in inactive inflammatory bowel disease and giant cell arteritis, than in the non-inflammatory controls. A positive correlation was found between the Crohn's disease activity index and the platelet count, platelet factor 4 and ,-thromboglobulin. Also, a positive correlation was found between the ulcerative colitis activity index and ,-thromboglobulin. However, even after 12 months of follow-up, in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis the mean levels of platelet factor 4 and ,-thromboglobulin were significantly higher than the levels of the controls. Conclusion Platelet factors were correlated with inflammatory bowel disease activity. Levels of platelet factor 4 and ,-thromboglobulin, however, were markedly raised for a long time in clinically inactive inflammatory bowel disease, which might point to a pre-thrombotic state of disease. [source]

    TLR2-independent induction and regulation of chronic intestinal inflammation

    Olivier Boulard
    Abstract Interactions between the intestinal microflora and host innate immune receptors play a critical role in intestinal homeostasis. Several studies have shown that TLR2 can modulate inflammatory responses in the gut. TLR2 signals enhance tight junction formation and fortify the epithelial barrier, and may play a crucial role in driving acute inflammatory responses towards intestinal bacterial pathogens. In addition, TLR2 agonists can have direct effects on both Th1 cells and Treg. To define the role of TLR2 in the induction and regulation of chronic intestinal inflammation we examined the effects of TLR2 deletion on several complementary models of inflammatory bowel disease. Our results show that TLR2 signals are not required for the induction of chronic intestinal inflammation by either innate or adaptive immune responses. We further show that TLR2,/, mice harbor normal numbers of Foxp3+ Treg that are able to suppress intestinal inflammation as effectively as their WT counterparts. We also did not find any intrinsic role for TLR2 for pathogenic effector T-cell responses in the gut. Thus, in contrast to their role in acute intestinal inflammation and repair, TLR2 signals may have a limited impact on the induction and regulation of chronic intestinal inflammation. [source]

    The role of MAPK in governing lymphocyte adhesion to and migration across the microvasculature in inflammatory bowel disease

    Franco Scaldaferri
    Abstract Lymphocyte recruitment is a key pathogenic event in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Adhesion of T cells to human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMEC) is mediated by ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and fractalkine (FKN), but the signaling molecules that orchestrate this process have yet to be identified. Because MAPK play an important role in the response of many cell types to pro-inflammatory stimuli, we assessed the functional role of p38 MAPK, p42/44 MAPK and JNK in the regulation of lymphocyte adhesion to and chemotaxis across the microvasculature in IBD. We found that the MAPK were phosphorylated in the bowel microvasculature and human intestinal fibroblasts of patients with IBD but not of healthy individuals. Stimulation of HIMEC with TNF- , triggered phosphorylation of the MAPK, and up-regulation of VCAM-1, FKN and ICAM-1. Blockade of p38 decreased the expression of all MAPK by 50% (p<0.01), whereas inhibition of p42/44 decreased the expression of ICAM-1 and FKN by 50% (p<0.01). Treatment of human intestinal fibroblasts with TNF- , elicited production of IL-8 and MCP-1, which was reduced (p<0.05) by blockade of p38 and p42/44. Finally, blockade of p38 and p42/44 reduced lymphocyte adhesion to (p<0.05) and transmigration across (p<0.05) HIMEC monolayers. These findings suggest a critical role for MAPK in governing lymphocyte influx into the gut in IBD patients, and their blockade may offer a molecular target for blockade of leukocyte recruitment to the intestine. [source]

    Type II collagen without adjuvant induces eosinophilic arthritis

    Robert Bockermann
    Abstract Eosinophilia is a characteristic feature of many inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease and asthma. It also occurs in a subtype of rheumatoid arthritis but the role of eosinophils has been unclear and animal models have been lacking. Here, we introduce a new mouse model to study the role of eosinophilia in arthritis. Intraperitoneal injection of type II collagen alone, without any adjuvant, was sufficient to induce chronic arthritis in a mouse with transgenic T cells specific for type II collagen. The arthritis was accompanied by infiltration of eosinophils into the synovial tissue and the disease could be blocked with neutralizing anti-IL-5 antibodies. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an eosinophilic disease form of destructive arthritis. [source]

    Interaction between the CCR5 chemokine receptors and microbial HSP70

    Trevor Whittall
    Abstract Evidence is presented that the microbial 70-kD heat shock protein (HSP70) binds to CCR5 chemokine receptors in CCR5-transfected cell lines and in primary human cells. Significant CCR5-mediated calcium mobilization was stimulated by HSP70 and inhibited with TAK,779, which is a specific CCR5 antagonist. HSP70-mediated activation of the p38 MAPK phosphorylation signaling pathway was also demonstrated in CCR5-transfected HEK 293 cells. Direct binding of three extracellular peptides of CCR5 to HSP70 was demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance. Functional evidence of an interaction between HSP70, CCR5 and CD40 was shown by enhanced production of CCL5 by HEK 293 cells transfected with both CD40 and CCR5. Primary monocyte-derived immature DC stimulated with HSP70 produced IL-12 p40, which showed dose-dependent inhibition of >90% on treatment with both TAK 779 and anti-CD40 mAb. Stimulation of IL-12 p40 or TNF-, by HSP70 was related to the differential cell surface expression of CCR5 in primary human immature and mature DC, and those with the homozygous ,,32 CCR5 mutation. These findings may be of significance in the interaction between HSP70 and immune responses of CCR5+ T cells in HIV-1 infection, as well as in inflammatory bowel disease. See accompanying commentary: [source]

    CCR6 has a non-redundant role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease

    Rosa Varona
    Abstract Antigen-loaded tissues such as the intestinal mucosa must simultaneously elicit appropriate immune response to innocuous bacteria and food proteins, and to potentially harmful antigens. Impairment of the mechanisms controlling this response may mediate the excessive immune reaction that can lead to tissue destruction and inflammatory intestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. The intestinal epithelium influences local immune responses through the expression of adhesion molecules, costimulatory factors, cytokines and chemokines. CCL20, a ,-chemokine expressed in epithelia from colon and other intestinal tissue, plays a role in immune responses of intestinal mucosa, as deduced from the defects in intestinal leukocyte homeostasis shown by mice lacking CCR6, the CCL20 receptor. We studied the response of CCR6-deficient mice in two models of inflammatory bowel disease. The data show that absence of CCR6 resulted in less severe intestinal pathology in animals treated with dextran sodium sulfate. Conversely, CCR6 deficiency alters leukocyte homeostasis and the cytokine environment in the intestinal mucosa; these changes are sufficient to confer susceptibility to trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced intestinal inflammation in the otherwise resistant C57BL/6J mouse strain. These results suggest that the CCR6/CCL20 axis has a critical, non-redundant role in the in vivo control of immune responses in the intestine. [source]

    Detection of Helicobacter species DNA by quantitative PCR in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy individuals and of patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Xander W. Huijsdens
    Abstract In many animal species different intestinal Helicobacter species have been described and a few species are associated with intestinal infection. In humans, the only member of the Helicobacter family which is well described in literature is Helicobacter pylori. No other Helicobacter -associated diseases have definitely been shown in humans. We developed a sensitive quantitative PCR to investigate whether Helicobacter species DNA can be detected in the human gastrointestinal tract. We tested gastric biopsies (including biopsies from H. pylori positive persons), intestinal mucosal biopsies and fecal samples from healthy persons, and intestinal mucosal biopsies from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) for the presence of Helicobacter species. All gastric biopsies, positive for H. pylori by culture, were also positive in our newly developed PCR. No Helicobacter species were found in the mucosal biopsies from patients with IBD (n=56) nor from healthy controls (n=25). All fecal samples were negative. Our study suggests that Helicobacter species, other than H. pylori, are not present in the normal human gastrointestinal flora and our results do not support a role of Helicobacter species in IBD. [source]