Boundary Effects (boundary + effects)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Standing contact fatigue with a cylindrical indenter

ABSTRACT A hardened steel cylinder was repeatedly pressed against a flat case-hardened steel specimen that was equally wide as the cylinder was long. Some contact end effects were noted as a result of limited plastic deformation. A strain gauge on the contact surface, just outside the contact and oriented perpendicular to the cylinder detected a surface strain when the cylinder was loaded. The non-zero surface strain was the result of boundary effects of the finite specimen. Four different types of contact fatigue cracks developed in and below the specimen contact surface. The cracks were named lateral, median, contact end and edge cracks. Changes in the measured surface strain values could be used to determine when the lateral and edge cracks developed. The order in which all four crack types typically developed was determined from optical crack observation at test termination, strain measurements and stress computations. Numerical computations using finite-element (FE) analyses were used to verify the surface strain behaviour due to loading and cracking; to verify contact end effects; crack locations and crack orientation by aid of the Findley multi-axial fatigue criterion. [source]

Area-to-Point Prediction Under Boundary Conditions

E. -H.
This article proposes a geostatistical solution for area-to-point spatial prediction (downscaling) taking into account boundary effects. Such effects are often poorly considered in downscaling, even though they often have significant impact on the results. The geostatistical approach proposed in this article considers two types of boundary conditions (BC), that is, a Dirichlet-type condition and a Neumann-type condition, while satisfying several critical issues in downscaling: the coherence of predictions, the explicit consideration of support differences, and the assessment of uncertainty regarding the point predictions. An updating algorithm is used to reduce the computational cost of area-to-point prediction under a given BC. In a case study, area-to-point prediction under a Dirichlet-type BC and a Neumann-type BC is illustrated using simulated data, and the resulting predictions and error variances are compared with those obtained without considering such conditions. [source]

Flat boundaries and their effect on sand testing

G. Marketos
Abstract A study of the effect of the use of flat boundaries on the stressing of a sample of an idealized granular material with no applied shear is presented. Discrete element method (DEM) data of 1D compression were analysed and the local strain field inside the sample was investigated as the sample was stressed. A best-fit strain was seen to best describe the material behaviour free from boundary effects. The individual particle displacements were probed, providing insight into the behaviour of particles adjacent to the boundaries. In addition, the porosity and force distribution inside the sample were observed, allowing for estimates of the width of a boundary region to be made. This region, non-representative of far-field material behaviour, will affect the behaviour of a granular sample in DEM or laboratory tests, with local porosity differences leading to a change in the transport properties of the sample, and force distribution changes leading to a bias in the location of grain cracking or crushing events for sufficiently high stress levels. Nevertheless, the largest effect of the boundary region was a severe underestimation of the stiffness of a granular material. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Numerical simulation of high-Reynolds number flow around circular cylinders by a three-step FEM,BEM model

D. L. Young
Abstract An innovative computational model, developed to simulate high-Reynolds number flow past circular cylinders in two-dimensional incompressible viscous flows in external flow fields is described in this paper. The model, based on transient Navier,Stokes equations, can solve the infinite boundary value problems by extracting the boundary effects on a specified finite computational domain, using the projection method. The pressure is assumed to be zero at infinite boundary and the external flow field is simulated using a direct boundary element method (BEM) by solving a pressure Poisson equation. A three-step finite element method (FEM) is used to solve the momentum equations of the flow. The present model is applied to simulate high-Reynolds number flow past a single circular cylinder and flow past two cylinders in which one acts as a control cylinder. The simulation results are compared with experimental data and other numerical models and are found to be feasible and satisfactory. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Redundant wavelet processing on the half-axis with applications to signal denoising with small delays: theory and experiments

François Chaplais
Abstract A wavelet transform on the negative half real axis is developed using an average-interpolation scheme. This transform is redundant and can be used to perform causal wavelet processing, such as on-line signal denoising, without delay. Nonetheless, in practice some boundary effects occur and thus a small amount of delay is required to reduce them. The effect of this delay is studied using a numerical example of a signal with large noise and sharp transients. It is shown that the delay required to obtain acceptable denoising levels is decreased by using the proposed redundant transform instead of a non-redundant one. We also present results from the experimental implementation of the proposed algorithm for the denoising of a feedback signal during the control of a three-phase permanent-magnet synchronous brushless DC motor. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Models for the treatment of crystalline solids and surfaces

Karl Jug
Abstract Crystalline solids and surfaces have become a subject of growing interest. The difficulty of a comprehensive description of a variety of phenomena by a single method has led to the development of many models. These models can be classified as nonperiodic and periodic models. The former include free clusters, saturated clusters, and embedded clusters. The latter two models serve to remove the boundary effects of the free clusters. No perfect avoidance of such effects can be achieved in this way. The cyclic cluster model overcomes this difficulty in a natural way. It is periodic with a finite periodicity. An embedding can take into account a long-range effect in ionic crystals. Previous periodic approaches relied on the large unit cell model, which is related to the supercell approach. For perfect crystals the conventional unit cell approach is a well-known standard. However, its disadvantage is the unphysical periodicity of defects, which is avoided in the cyclic cluster model. The present article presents a description of these models together with selective applications to solid-state systems and surfaces. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 13: 1551,1567, 2004 [source]

Characterization of Taylor vortex flow in a short liquid column

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 12 2009
Rensheng Deng
Abstract We present a study on Taylor vortex flow in the annulus between a rotating inner cylinder and a stationary outer cylinder, featured with a wide gap (radius ratio is 0.613) and a short column (aspect ratio is 5.17). A particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to determine the position, shape, and velocity distribution of the vortices, by which the flow was also confirmed to lie in the nonwavy Taylor vortex regime for all operating conditions explored in this study. Our results suggest that end boundary effects are important, in which the vortex number decreases with decreasing column length. For a system with an aspect ratio of 5.17, six vortices appear in the gap with their position, size, and shape varying at different Reynolds numbers. The fluid velocities show an asymmetric feature with respect to the vortex centers, while the maximum axial and radial velocities increase almost linearly with the increasing reduced Reynolds number (Re , Rec). In addition, computational fluid dynamics study was employed under the same conditions, and its results agree well with the PIV measurements. Overall, this study provides a quantitative understanding of the formation of Taylor vortices in a constrained space. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]

Crack Patterns in Ceramic Plates after Quenching

Yingfeng Shao
The crack patterns generated in a real ceramic plate and in a plate stacked by ceramic slabs under quenching are experimentally studied. The results here reveal that there are some distinct differences between the two crack patterns. The reasons that caused the differences are the size and boundary effects of the slabs. These crack patterns are very useful to understand the failure mechanisms of ceramic materials in thermal shock. [source]