Boreal Summer (boreal + summer)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Interannual variability of boreal summer rainfall in the equatorial Atlantic

Guojun Gu
Abstract Tropical Atlantic rainfall variations during boreal summer (June,July,August (JJA)) are quantified by means of a 28-year (1979,2006) monthly precipitation dataset from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Rainfall variability during boreal spring (March,April,May (MAM)) is also examined for comparison in that the most intense interannual variability is usually observed during this season. Comparable variabilities in the Atlantic maritime intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) (15° ,35°W) strength (PITCZ) are found during both seasons. Variations in the ITCZ's latitudinal location (LatITCZ) during JJA, however, are much weaker than during MAM. PITCZ and LatITCZ are shown to be closely associated with sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in both the tropical Atlantic and Pacific. Within the tropical Atlantic, the Atlantic Niño events (Atl3) and SST anomalies in the tropical North Atlantic (TNA) are the two major local factors modulating surface rainfall patterns and variations. Atl3 is significantly correlated with PITCZ and LatITCZ during JJA and MAM. TNA is significantly correlated to PITCZ during JJA but not to LatITCZ. In contrast, TNA is significantly correlated to LatITCZ during MAM but its correlation with PITCZ is weak. The impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events (Nino3.4) is observed during both seasons, while the correlation between Nino3.4 and LatITCZ is slightly weak. However, with the effects of Atl3 and TNA removed, the ENSO tends to have a quite limited direct impact on the tropical Atlantic, specifically over the open ocean. High second-order partial correlation between Nino3.4 and rainfall is generally confined to the western basin and over the northeastern South America. Therefore, during JJA, the two local SST modes are of dominance for the tropical Atlantic rainfall variability. Nevertheless, the ENSO seems to still play an active role in modulating surface zonal wind anomalies in the western basin and then the Atlantic Niño mode. Copyright © 2008 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

Variability in sea-surface temperature and winds in the tropical south-east Atlantic Ocean and regional rainfall relationships

J. C. Hermes
Abstract Variability in sea-surface temperature (SST) and winds in the Angola Benguela frontal zone (ABFZ) in the tropical south-east Atlantic Ocean has previously been shown to be important for regional fisheries and for seasonal rainfall anomalies over Angola/Namibia in austral summer and coastal West Africa in boreal summer. This study investigates intraseasonal variability in winds and SST over this region using QuikSCAT and tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) satellite data for 1999,2004. Wavelet analyses reveal periods of relatively strong power in the 20,30 or 30,64 day frequency bands throughout the record but that there is substantial interannual variability in the occurrence of these intraseasonal oscillations. The implications of this variability for seasonal rainfall anomalies during the main rainy seasons in southern Africa (austral summer) and coastal West Africa (boreal summer) are discussed. Copyright © 2008 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

Trends in the boreal summer regional Hadley and Walker circulations as expressed in precipitation records from Asia and Africa during the latter half of the 20th century

Hongxu Zhao
Abstract West African summer rainfall, north China summer rainfall and a new climate proxy, snow accumulation from the Dasuopu ice core in the southern Himalaya, have all experienced decreasing trends during the latter half of the 20th century. In this paper, we investigate the existence of a common mechanism that explains these geographically dispersed trends during the boreal summer. In particular, we explore the hypothesis that these trends are related to changes in the regional Hadley and Walker circulations. We show that the divergent circulation in the NCEP reanalysis indicates the existence of trends in these circulations that are consistent with the observed changes in the precipitation records. In addition, the regressions of the divergent circulation in the NCEP reanalysis against these precipitation records indicate that a similar globally coherent signal is associated with the time series and their linear trends while the regressions against the de-trended residuals do not contain statistically significant large-scale signals. These similarities lead us to conclude that the decreasing trends in the three precipitation time series during the latter half of the 20th century are consistent with large-scale changes in the global overturning circulation during the boreal summer. Copyright © 2007 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

Climate dynamics of atmosphere and ocean in the equatorial zone: a synthesis

Stefan Hastenrath
Abstract A synopsis is offered of circulation mechanisms in the oceanic regions of the equatorial zone. Over the eastern Atlantic and Pacific, and especially in boreal summer, cross-equatorial flow from the Southern Hemisphere is strong and induces a tongue of cold surface waters, centred to the south of the equator. Upon crossing the equator in these sectors, owing to the Coriolis effect and a kinetic energy imbalance, the airstream speeds up and divergence develops, producing the Intertropical Divergence Zone (ITDZ). Once these processes result in the wind recurving from southeasterly to southwesterly, the flow slows down and becomes convergent, manifest in the Intertropical Convergence Zone, with a maximum to the south of the wind confluence. By contrast, over the western Atlantic and central Pacific and especially in boreal winter, winds in the equatorial band are predominantly from the east, upper-ocean Ekman transport is directed away from the equator, and the upwelling and cold tongue are centred on the equator. Cross-equatorial flow is insufficient to produce recurvature, the ITDZ is narrower and weaker, the divergence maximum is at the equator rather than in low northern latitudes, and the convergence maximum straddles the wind confluence. Over the Indian Ocean, the wind field is dominated by the alternation between the predominantly meridional flow of the winter and summer monsoons. Equatorial westerlies are limited to the short monsoon transition seasons. Essential for their origin is an eastward pressure gradient along the equator and weak southern trade winds, allowing recurvature somewhat south of the equator. Because the zonal pressure gradient is strongest in boreal summer and the southern trade winds are weakest in austral summer, the equatorial westerlies peak in spring and autumn. The boreal autumn equatorial westerlies are the surface manifestation of a powerful zonal,vertical circulation cell along the Indian Ocean equator. Equatorial zonal,vertical circulation cells require well-developed zonal flow in the lower troposphere along the equator and, therefore, appear confined to the oceanic longitudes and certain seasons. Thus, they are found over the Atlantic only in boreal winter and over the Indian Ocean only in boreal autumn, whereas over the Pacific they prevail all year round. Copyright © 2004 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

Uncertainties in future projections of extreme precipitation in the Indian monsoon region

A. G. Turner
Abstract Uncertainties in changes to the spatial distribution and magnitude of the heaviest extremes of daily monsoon rainfall over India are assessed in the doubled CO2 climate change scenarios in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. Results show diverse changes to the spatial pattern of the 95th and 99th subseasonal percentiles, which are strongly tied to the mean precipitation change during boreal summer. In some models, the projected increase in heaviest rainfall over India at CO2 doubling is entirely predictable based upon the surface warming and the Clausius,Clapeyron relation, a result which may depend upon the choice of convection scheme. Copyright © 2009 Royal Meteorological Society and Crown Copyright [source]