Borderline Significant (borderline + significant)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Predictive Validity of Measures of Comorbidity in Older Community Dwellers: The Insufficienza Cardiaca negli Anziani Residenti a Dicomano Study

Mauro Di Bari MD
OBJECTIVES: To compare the ability of five measures of comorbidity to predict mortality and incident disability in basic activities of daily living (BADLs) in unselected older persons. DESIGN: An assessment of the data obtained from the Insufficienza Cardiaca negli Anziani Residenti a Dicomano (ICARe Dicomano) Study, a longitudinal epidemiological survey on heart failure in older people. SETTING: Dicomano, a small, rural town near Florence, Italy. PARTICIPANTS: The entire population aged 65 and older living in Dicomano, Italy, was enrolled in the ICARe Dicomano Study. MEASUREMENTS: At baseline (1995), comorbidity was quantified in 688 participants, based on clinical diagnoses, using disease count (DC), Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), Index of Co-Existent Diseases (ICED), and Geriatric Index of Comorbidity (GIC), or on drug use, using Chronic Disease Score (CDS). Incident ADL disability was assessed in 1999 and vital status in 2004. RESULTS: Mortality increased with the severity of comorbidity, with hazard ratios around 2 when comparing the highest and the lowest quartiles of DC, CCI, and ICED in Cox regressions adjusted for age, sex, and physical and cognitive performance. Prediction of mortality with GIC and CDS was only borderline significant. All measures predicted incident ADL disability; the strongest risk gradient (hazard ratio=8.2 between the highest and lowest quartiles) was observed with ICED. Physical and, to a minor extent, cognitive performance added significantly to predicting mortality and incident BADL disability. CONCLUSION: All the measures of comorbidity predicted death and BADL disability in older community dwellers. DC, CCI, and ICED performed better than GIC and CDS. Physical performance measures are strong, independent contributors to the prediction of these outcomes. [source]

Relationship Characteristics and Risk of HIV Infection: Rusbult's Investment Model and Sexual Risk Behavior of Gay Men in Steady Relationships,

Udi Davidovich
This study examined the effects of relationship characteristics, as measured by Rusbult's (1980) investment model, on safer-sex behavior between steady gay male partners. Analyses showed that low satisfaction with the relationship was associated with more risky unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). High commitment to the relationship was associated with more practice of negotiated safety (i.e., having safe UAI after both partners have tested negative for HIV and have reached sexual safety agreements). High relationship investment was associated with more risky UAI (borderline significant). We conclude that using relationship satisfaction, commitment, and investment as co-determinants of sexual risk behavior could prove useful in the development of new HIV-prevention strategies for gay men in relationships. [source]

Trends and Determinants of Alcohol Consumption in Portugal: Results From the National Health Surveys 1995 to 1996 and 1998 to 1999

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2005
Pedro Marques-Vidal
Background: There is very little information on trends and determinants of alcohol consumption in the Portuguese population, which is usually characterized by high wine consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional studies was conducted in 1995/1996 and 1998/1999 in a representative sample of 0.5% of the mainland Portuguese population (49,768 participants in 1995/1996 and 48,606 in 1998/1999), aged 15 years or more. Alcohol consumption was assessed by asking whether the participants had consumed alcohol in the previous week and how many drinks of wine/beer/whiskey/Port wine they consumed on average during that week. Results: Prevalence of reported alcohol consumption decreased slightly between 1995/1996 and 1998/1999 (men: 65.7 vs. 64.0%, p < 0.001; women: 26.9 vs. 26.0%, p < 0.001). Among drinkers, the most frequently consumed alcoholic beverage was wine, followed by beer, whiskey, and Port wine. The amount of alcohol and wine consumed decreased in both sexes, whereas the amount of beer, whiskey, and Port wine consumed increased in men and the increase in beer consumption was borderline significant in women (p= 0.056). In both sexes, participants <50 years of age tended to consume less wine and more beer, whiskey, and Port wine than their older counterparts. Also, higher education was related to a higher frequency of alcohol consumption, whereas smoking was related to a lower consumption of wine odds ratio (OR): 0.69 (95% confidence interval CI: 0.62,0.77) for men and OR: 0.76 (95% CI: 0.61,0.95) for women and a higher consumption of beer OR: 1.43 (95% CI: 1.33,1.54) for men and OR: 2.13 (95% CI: 1.84,2.42) for women and whiskey OR: 1.28 (95% CI: 1.21,1.35) for men and OR: 2.61 (95% CI: 2.25,3.02) for women. Conclusions: The pattern of alcohol consumption is changing in Portugal: the prevalence of drinkers is decreasing, and younger generations are shifting from wine to beer and spirits. Educational level seems to be a powerful mediator in the choice of alcoholic beverage. [source]

Novel pharmacology: asimadoline, a ,-opioid agonist, and visceral sensation

M. Camilleri
Abstract, Asimadoline is a potent ,-opioid receptor agonist with a diaryl acetamide structure. It has high affinity for the , receptor, with IC50 of 5.6 nmol L,1 (guinea pig) and 1.2 nmol L,1 (human recombinant), and high selectively with , : , : , binding ratios of 1 : 501 : 498 in human recombinant receptors. It acts as a complete agonist in in vitro assay. Asimadoline reduced sensation in response to colonic distension at subnoxious pressures in healthy volunteers and in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients without alteration of colonic compliance. Asimadoline reduced satiation and enhanced the postprandial gastric volume (in female volunteers). However, there were no significant effects on gastrointestinal transit, colonic compliance, fasting or postprandial colonic tone. In a clinical trial in 40 patients with functional dyspepsia (Rome II), asimadoline did not significantly alter satiation or symptoms over 8 weeks. However, asimadoline, 0.5 mg, significantly decreased satiation in patients with higher postprandial fullness scores, and daily postprandial fullness severity (over 8 weeks); the asimadoline 1.0 mg group was borderline significant. In a clinical trial in patients with IBS, average pain 2 h post- on-demand treatment with asimadoline was not significantly reduced. Post hoc analyses suggest that asimadoline was effective in mixed IBS. In a 12-week study in 596 patients, chronic treatment with 0.5 mg and 1.0 mg asimadoline was associated with adequate relief of pain and discomfort, improvement in pain score and number of pain-free days in patients with IBS-D. The 1.0 mg dose was also efficacious in IBS-alternating. There were also weeks with significant reduction in bowel frequency and urgency. Asimadoline has been well tolerated in human trials to date. [source]

Perinatal risk factors for early childhood onset type 1 diabetes in Austria , a population-based study (1989,2005)

Thomas Waldhoer
Background:, To investigate the rapid increase in incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children <5 yr in Austria. Methods:, Data of children born between 1989 and 2005 (n = 444) from the T1DM children incidence registry were linked with birth certificates (n = 1 407 829). Results:, Age of mother, level of education, birth weight, birth length, body mass index, and APGAR score at 10 min were not significant. Boys have about 25% higher risk than girls [hazard ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62,0.91]. The risk of developing diabetes increases over time significantly (1989,1991 vs. 2001,2005, hazard ratio = 2.86, 95% CI: 2.07,3.94). The linear effect of parity is borderline significant (p = 0.045), with lower risks for second and later born siblings. Marital status is significant [hazard ratio = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57,0.90)]. Native-born children exhibit twice as high risk as non-native children (hazard ratio = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.37,0.71). Birth weight shows a positive but not significant effect on risk of T1DM. Conclusions:, In this very young and rapidly increasing cohort of diabetic children <5 yr of age, no association with birth weight but with year of birth, gestational age, nationality and parity could be observed. [source]