Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Borate

  • zinc borate

  • Terms modified by Borate

  • borate anion
  • borate buffer
  • borate crystal
  • borate ligand
  • borate salt

  • Selected Abstracts

    Inhibition of SERCA Ca2+ pumps by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB)

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 15 2002
    2-APB reduces both Ca2+ binding, by interfering with the pathway leading to the Ca2+ -binding sites, phosphoryl transfer from ATP
    2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl Borate (2-APB) has been extensively used recently as a membrane permeable modulator of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive Ca2+ channels and store-operated Ca2+ entry. Here, we report that 2-APB is also an inhibitor of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA) Ca2+ pumps, and additionally increases ion leakage across the phospholipid bilayer. Therefore, we advise caution in the interpretation of results when used in Ca2+ signalling experiments. The inhibition of 2-APB onthe SERCA Ca2+ pumps is isoform-dependent, with SERCA 2B being more sensitive than SERCA 1A (IC50 values for inhibition being 325 and 725 µm, respectively, measured at pH 7.2). The Ca2+ -ATPase is also more potently inhibited at lower pH (IC50 = 70 µm for SERCA1A at pH 6). 2-APB decreases the affinity for Ca2+ binding to the ATPase by more than 20-fold, and also inhibits phosphoryl transfer from ATP (by 35%), without inhibiting nucleotide binding. Activity studies performed using mutant Ca2+ -ATPases show that Tyr837 is critical for the inhibition of activity by 2-APB. Molecular modeling studies of 2-APB binding to the Ca2+ ATPase identified two potential binding sites close to this residue, near or between transmembrane helices M3, M4, M5 and M7. The binding of 2-APB to these sites could influence the movement of the loop between M6 and M7 (L6-7), and reduce access of Ca2+ to their binding sites. [source]

    A Spirocyclic Chiral Borate for Catalytic Enantioselective Nozaki-Hiyama Allylation of Ketones

    Xin-Ren Huang
    Abstract A new class of chiral spirocyclic borate ligands 5a,d with a rigid borocycle has been developed. The catalyst formed from chromium(II)- 5a promotes the highly efficient enantioselective Nozaki,Hiyama allylation of alkyl and aryl ketones using allyl bromide. The scope of the present method is shown to be wide, and it affords an efficient access to chiral tertiary homoallylic alcohols. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: A New Low Temperature Methodology to Obtain Pure Nanocrystalline Nickel Borate.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 26 2010
    Menaka Menaka
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: High-Pressure Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Properties of the First Ternary Zirconium Borate ,-ZrB2O5.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 36 2008
    Johanna S. Knyrim
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    Structure and Magnetic Properties of Pb2Cu3B4O11: A New Copper Borate Featuring [Cu3O8]10- Units.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 31 2007
    Shilie Pan
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

    A New Rubidium Beryllium Borate, RbBe4(BO3)3.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 27 2006
    Xiao-Hong Wen
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

    Synthesis and Characterization of a New Layered Lead Borate

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 16 2006
    Guo-Ming Wang
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

    Associating Borate and Silicate Chemistry by Extreme Conditions: High-Pressure Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Properties of the New Borates Ln3B5O12 (Ln: Er,Lu).

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 32 2005
    Holger Emme
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    Borate Accelerates Rates of Steady Oxygen-Isotope Exchange for Polyoxoniobate Ions in Water


    Borate: guilty and charged! The borate ion, and possibly carbonate, enhances rates of steady oxygen-isotope exchanges at some, but not all, structural sites in polyoxometalate ions. Addition of an oxygen atom to an incoming neutral boric acid molecule (blue=boron) from a bridging oxygen atom on a decametalate ion is shown here. [source]

    Effect of Bismuth Borate/LiF on the Sintering, Thermal, and Microwave Dielectric Properties of Ba6,3xSm8+2xTi18O54 (x=2/3) Solid Solution

    Narayana Iyer Santha
    Ba6,3xSm8+2xTi18O54 (x=2/3) (BST) was prepared by the solid-state method and the effect of bismuth borate (BB)/LiF on the sinterability, microstructure, and thermal and microwave dielectric properties were studied. BST+3.5 wt% BB+0.5 wt% LiF composite sintered at 1050°C has Q×f=4500 GHz, ,=52, and ,f=+6 ppm/°C. Raman spectrum of the composite was compared with that of BST and the structural changes were investigated. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: Polarity and Chirality in Uranyl Borates: Insights into Understanding the Vitrification of Nuclear Waste and the Development of Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 33 2010
    Shuao Wang
    Abstract The compounds (IV,VII) and (IX,XII) are synthesized with various Na(Tl):U:B molar ratios using H3BO3 as a reactive flux, and their structures are determined by single crystal XRD. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: How Are Centrosymmetric and Noncentrosymmetric Structures Achieved in Uranyl Borates?

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 28 2010
    Shuao Wang
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: Syntheses and Characterization of Two Alkali-Metal Zinc Borates, ,-LiZnBO3 and Li0.48Na0.52ZnBO3.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 12 2010
    Xuean Chen
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    Pd-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Baylis,Hillman Acetate Adducts with Bis(pinacolato)diboron: An Efficient Route to Functionalized Allyl Borates.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 51 2004
    George W. Kabalka
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    Coupling Reactions of ,-Bromoalkenyl Phosphonates with Aryl Boronic Acids and Alkenyl Borates.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 15 2003
    Yuichi Kobayashi
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: Chalcogen Electrophile Induced Rearrangement of 1-Alkynyltrialkyl Borates: Controlled Syntheses of Trisubstituted Olefins from 1-Alkynes.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 6 2002
    Julien Gerard
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    Critical evaluation of buffering solutions for pKa determination by capillary electrophoresis

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 13 2008
    Elisabet Fuguet
    Abstract The performance of the most common and also some other less common CE buffers has been tested for the pKa determination of several types of compounds (pyridine, amines, and phenols). The selected buffers cover a pH ranging from 3.7 to 11.8. Whereas some buffers, like acetic acid/acetate, BisTrisH+/BisTris, TrisH+/Tris, CHES/CHES,, and CAPS/CAPS, can be used with all type of analytes, others like ammonium/ammonia, butylammonium/butylammonia, ethylammonium/ethylammonia, diethylammonium/diethylammonia, and hydrogenphosphate/phosphate are not recommended because they interact with a wide range of compounds. The rest of the tested buffers (dihydrogenphosphate/hydrogenphosphate, MES/MES,, HEPES/HEPES,, and boric acid/borate) can show specific interactions depending on the nature of the analytes, and their use in some applications should be restricted. [source]

    Electrochemiluminescence Based on Solid State Tri(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) Ruthenium(II) Ditetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) Borate Immobilized on Carbon Fibers

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 12 2010
    Chunhua Liu
    Abstract A simple method for immobilization of tri(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) ditetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) borate ([Ru(dpp)3][(4-Clph)4B]2) on carbon fiber electrodes was developed. Excellent electrochemical activity and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of the coated carbon fiber electrodes were observed using oxalate as the co-reactant. In addition, the effects of pH, scan rate, nitrogen and oxygen on ECL intensity were also studied. To demonstrate the reliability, the coated carbon fiber electrodes were used as ECL detectors and very low concentration of phenol was detectable (5.0×10,8,M). [source]

    Lead(II) Potentiometric Sensor Based on 1,4,8,11-Tetrathiacyclotetradecane Neutral Carrier and Lipophilic Additives

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 11 2008
    Abstract A potentiometric sensor for lead(II) ions based on the use of 1,4,8,11-tetrathiacyclotetradecane (TTCTD) as a neutral ionophore and potassium tetrakis-(p -chlorophenyl)borate as a lipophilic additive in plasticized PVC membranes is developed. The sensor exhibits linear potentiometric response towards lead(II) ions over the concentration range of 1.0×10,5,1.0×10,2,mol L,1 with a Nernstian slope of 29.9,mV decade,1 and a lower limit of detection of 2.2×10,6,mol L,1 Pb(II) ions over the pH range of 3,6.5. Sensor membrane without a lipophilic additive displays poor response. The sensor shows high selectivity for Pb(II) over a wide variety of alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal ions. The sensor shows long life span, high reproducibility, fast response and long term stability. Validation of the method by measuring the lower limit of detection, lower limit of linear range, accuracy, precision and sensitivity reveals good performance characteristics of the proposed sensor. The developed sensor is successfully applied to direct determination of lead(II) in real samples. The sensor is also used as an indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of Pb(II) with EDTA and potassium chromate. The results obtained agree fairly well with data obtained by AAS. [source]

    Comparative Studies of Tridentate Sulfur and Nitrogen-Containing Ligands as Ionophores for Construction of Cadmium Ion-Selective Membrane Sensors

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 11 2007
    Ashok, Kumar Singh
    Abstract New polymeric membrane cadmium-ion selective sensors have been prepared by incorporating nitrogen and sulfur containing tridentate ligands as the ionophores into the plasticized PVC membranes. Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based membranes of potassium hydrotris[N -(2,6-xylyl)thioimdazolyl) borate] (KTt2,6-xylyl) and potassium hydrotris(3-phenyl-5-methylpyrazolyl) borate (KTpPh,Me) with sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) as an anionic excluder and dibutylphthalate (DBP), tributylphthalate (TBP), dioctylsebacate (DOS), and o -nitrophenyloctyl ether (o -NPOE) as plasticizing solvent mediators were investigated in different compositions. KTt2,6-xylyl was found to be a selective and sensitive ion carrier for Cd(II) membrane sensor. A membrane composed of KTt2,6-xylyl:NaTPB:PVC:DBP with the % mole ratio 2.3,:,1.1,:,34.8,:,61.8 (w/w) works well over a very wide concentration range (7.8×10,8,1.0×10,2,M) with a Nernstian slope of 29.4±0.2,mV/decades of activity between pH values of 3.5 to 9.0 with a detection limit of 4.37×10,8,M. The sensor displays very good discrimination toward Cd(II) ions with regard to most common cations. The proposed sensor shows a short response time for whole concentration range (ca. 8,s). The effects of the cationic (tetrabutylammonium chloride, TBC), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) and nonionic (Triton X-100) surfactants were investigated on the potentiometric properties of proposed cadmium-selective sensor. The proposed sensor based on KTt2,6-xylyl ionophore has also been used for the direct determination of cadmium ions in different water samples and human urine samples. [source]

    Amperometric Sensor for Heparin: Sensing Mechanism and Application in Human Blood Plasma Analysis

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 13-14 2006
    Jan Langmaier
    Abstract Voltammetric measurements of heparin at a rotating glassy carbon (GC) electrode coated with a polyvinylchloride membrane are reported. A spin-coating technique is used to prepare thin membranes (20,40,,m) with a composition of 25% (w/w) PVC, 1,1,-dimethylferrocene as a reference electron donor for the GC|membrane interface, nitrophenyl octyl ether (o -NPOE) or bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS) as a plasticizer, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) borate (HTMATPBCl) or tridodecylmethylammonium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) borate (TDMATPBCl) as a background electrolyte. It is shown that the electrodes coated with either the HTMA+/o -NPOE (DOS) or TDMA+/o -NPOE (DOS) membrane provide a comparable amperometric response towards heparin (1,10,U mL,1) in the aqueous solution of 0.1,M LiCl. However, only the membranes formulated with TDMATPBCl can be used for an amperometric assay of heparin in human blood plasma with a detection limit of 0.2,U mL,1. Effects of membrane composition, heparin concentration, rotation speed and sweep rate on the voltammetric behavior of heparin provide some insight into the sensing mechanism. Theoretical analysis of the amperometric response is outlined, and the numeric simulation of the voltammetric behavior is presented. [source]

    Amperometry of Heparin Polyion Using a Rotating Disk Electrode Coated with a Plasticized PVC Membrane

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 2 2006
    Jan Langmaier
    Abstract Electrochemical method of detection of heparin polyion was developed based on voltammetry of heparin on a rotating glassy carbon (GC) electrode coated with a plasticized PVC membrane. The membrane was deposited on the GC disk by spin-coating technique using a mixture of solutions of PVC in tetrahydrofuran, and 1,1,-dimethylferrocene (DMFc) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate (HTMATPBCl) in o -nitrophenyl octyl ether. UV/vis reflection spectrometry was used to evaluate the membrane thickness, which exhibits a linear correlation with the membrane resistance measured by impedance spectroscopy. It is shown that this electrode can be used for amperometric or coulometric detection of heparin in aqueous samples of medically relevant concentrations (1,10,U mL,1), with a detection limit of 1.4,U mL,1. Evidence is provided indicating that the current determining step is the reversible adsorption of the ion-pair of heparin polyion with HTMA+ cation at the membrane/aqueous electrolyte interface, which is driven by oxidation of DMFc at the GC/membrane interface. [source]

    Simultaneous determination of nine endogenous steroids in human urine by polymeric-mixed micelle capillary electrophoresis

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 19 2010
    Sabrina Flor
    Abstract A new CE system based on the use of polymeric-mixed micelles (cholic acid, SDS and the poloxamine Tetronic® 1107) was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine steroids in human urine. This method allows the baseline separation and quantitation of cortisol, androstenedione, estriol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estrone, progesterone and estradiol in less than 25,min showing to be sensitive enough to detect low concentrations of these steroids in urine samples (5,45,ng/mL). The optimized electrophoretic conditions were performed using a 50,cm×75,,m capillary, 18,kV, 25°C, with 44,mM cholic acid, 10,mM SDS, 0.05%,w/v tetronic® 1107, 2.5%,v/v methanol, 2.5%,v/v tetrahydrofuran in 5,mM borate , 5,mM phosphate buffer (pH=8.0) as a background electrolyte and a dual 210/254 UV-detection. The method can simultaneously determine 0.1,120,,g/mL, which corresponds to 5,6000,ng/mL of steroids in 2,mL urine. The recoveries ranged between 82.4 and 101.5%. Due to its simplicity, speed, accuracy and reliability, the proposed method could be a potential alternative to the traditional methodologies used with clinical purposes. [source]

    Dynamic coating of SU-8 microfluidic chips with phospholipid disks

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 15 2010
    Tiina Sikanen
    Abstract In this work, PEG-stabilized phosphatidylcholine lipid aggregates (disks), mimicking mammalian cell membranes, were introduced as a new biofouling resistant coating for SU-8 polymer microchannels. A rapid and simple method was developed for immobilization of PEGylated phosphatidylcholine disks in microchannels. Microfluidic chips made from SU-8, PDMS, or glass were dynamically coated with the PEGylated disks followed by characterization of their surface chemistry before and after coating. On the basis of the observed changes in EOF and nonspecific protein adsorption, the affinity of the PEGylated disks was shown to be particularly strong toward SU-8. The PEG-lipid coating enabled permanent change in EOF in SU-8 microchannels with an initial value of 4.5×10,8,m2,V,1,s,1, decreasing to 2.1×10,8,m2,V,1,s,1 (immediately after modification), and, eventually, to 1.5×10,8,m2,V,1,s,1 (7 days after modification) for 9,mM sodium borate (pH 10.5) as BGE. As determined by the Wilhelmy plate measurements and microchip-CE analysis of BSA, the PEG-lipid coating also enabled efficient biofouling shield against protein adsorption, similar to that of low amounts of SDS (3.5,mM) or Tween-20 (80,,M) as buffer additives. These results suggest that dynamically attached PEG-lipid aggregates provide stable, biomimicking surface modification that efficiently reduces biofouling on SU-8. [source]

    The dependence of the electrophoretic mobility of small organic ions on ionic strength and complex formation

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 5 2010
    Stuart A. Allison
    Abstract The ionic strength dependence of the electrophoretic mobility of small organic anions with valencies up to ,3 is investigated in this study. Provided the anions are not too aspherical, it is argued that shape and charge distribution have little influence on mobility. To a good approximation, the electrophoretic mobility of a small particle should be equal to that of a model sphere with the same hydrodynamic radius and same net charge. For small ions, the relaxation effect (distortion of the ion atmosphere from equilibrium due to external electric and flow fields) is significant even for monovalent ions. Alternative procedures of accounting for the relaxation effect are examined. In order to account for the ionic strength dependence of a specific set of nonaromatic and aromatic anions in aqueous solution, it is necessary to include complex formation between the anion with species in the BGE. A number of possible complexes are considered. When the BGE is Tris-acetate, the most important of these involves the complex formed between anion and Tris, the principle cation in the BGE. When the BGE is sodium borate, an anion,anion (borate) complex appears to be important, at least when the organic anion is monovalent. An algorithm is developed to analyze the ionic strength dependence of the electrophoretic mobility. This algorithm is applied to two sets of organic anions from two independent research groups. [source]

    Analysis of lamotrigine and its metabolites in human plasma and urine by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 4-5 2005
    Vincenzo Pucci
    Abstract A reliable micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of lamotrigine and its metabolites in human plasma and urine. The variation of different parameters, such as pH of the background electrolyte (BGE) and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentration, were evaluated in order to find optimal conditions. Best separation of the analytes was achieved using a BGE composed of 10 mM borate and 50 mM SDS, pH 9.5; melatonin was selected as the internal standard. Isolation of lamotrigine and its metabolites from plasma and urine was accomplished with an original solid-phase extraction procedure using hydrophilic-lypophilic balance cartridges. Good absolute recovery data and satisfactory precision values were obtained. The calibration plots for lamotrigine and its metabolites were linear over the 1,20 ,g/mL concentration range. Sensitivity was satisfactory; the limits of detection and quantitation of lamotrigine were 500 ng/mL and 1 ,g/mL, respectively. The application of the method to real plasma samples from epileptic patients under therapy with lamotrigine gave good results in terms of accuracy and selectivity, and in agreement with those obtained with an high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method.* [source]

    Separation and determination of carnosine-related peptides using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 3 2005
    Ying Huang
    Abstract A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection was developed for the separation and detection of carnosine-related peptides (carnosine, anserine, and homocarnosine). A sensitive and fluorogenic regent, 3-(4-carboxybenzoyl) quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde (CBQCA) was selected as a precapillary labeling reagent for imidazole dipeptides to form isoindole derivatives. The optimized molar ratio between CBQCA and peptide was found to be 75:1, and 50 mmol/L borate buffer (pH 9.2) was used for the derivatization in order to achieve good efficiency. Three imidazole dipeptides were baseline-separated within 20 min by using 112 mmol/L sodium borate (pH 10.4,10.8) as running buffer. Concentration detection limits (signal-to-noise ratios) for carnosine, anserine, and homocarnosine were 4.73, 4.37, and 3.94 nmol/L, respectively. This method has been applied to the analysis of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and meat dry powder of pig and sheep. Recoveries were in the range of 82.9,104.8% for homocarnosine in CSF. For carnosine and anserine, the recoveries are 98.3% and 80.2% in meat dry powder of pig and 111.2% and 112.8% in meat dry powder of sheep, respectively. [source]

    Importance of the counterion in optimization of a borate electrolyte system for analyses of anions in samples with complex matrices performed by capillary zone electrophoresis

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 20 2004
    Ludmila K, ivánková
    Abstract Borate buffers are common background electrolytes for analyses of anions in capillary zone electrophoresis. Usually, sodium borate at a given pH is used and this specification seems to be sufficient for a successful analysis. In this paper, we show that free migration of OH - may deteriorate the analysis of a typical anionic analysis of clinical samples due to uncontrolled migration of OH - throughout the systems of analyzed zones and may damage the stacking of anionic analytes of interest. We have proven that the use of ammonium borate may remedy the situation where the presence of ammonium may selectively stop the free migration of OH - ions, slow down their effective mobility and bring their safe behavior resulting in reproducible stacking of clinically important anions. Results of real analyses of human serum samples confirmed the proposed method and proved that substitution of sodium for ammonium in borate buffers offers reliable analyses of clinical samples having chloride as the bulk component. The experimental results given in this paper are supported also by computer simulation, which can not only support the positive results but also show the dynamics of the separation that is otherwise hidden to any detection possibilities. [source]

    Determination of the bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella tarda in fish species by capillary electrophoresis with blue light-emitting diode-induced fluorescence

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 18-19 2004
    Lijun Yu
    Abstract High-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) has been applied to the identification, separation, and quantitation of intact bacteria. We demonstrate that a pathogen (Edwardsiella tarda) which causes systemic infection in commercially important fish species can be rapidly identified and determined (<10 min) after direct injection into fish fluid by CE blue light-emitting diode (LED)-induced fluorescence. SYTO 13 (488 nm/509 nm), a cell-permeable green nucleic acid stain, was used to stain the cells. Remarkably high efficiency (>1 200,000 theoretical plates/m) was achieved with this rapid and efficient CE method. It was found that proper sample vortexing (90 s) would be beneficial to disperse aggregated cells and facilitate the focusing of intact cells during electrophoresis. Ionization of the surface constituents of Edwardsiella tarda cells provided efficient surface charges for the intact cells to be separated from the EOF and damaged or lysed cells when the separation was performed in running buffer (3.94 mM Tris, 0.56 mM borate, 0.013 mM EDTA) at pH 10.5. The limit of detection (LOD) and recovery were found to be 4.2×104 cells/mL and 70.0%, respectively. This proposed CE method could become an effective tool for diagnosis and tracking of certain diseases caused by bacteria in fish species as well as in human beings. [source]

    Atrazine increases the sodium absorption in frog (Rana esculenta) skin

    Giuseppe Cassano
    Abstract The presence of atrazine in agricultural sites has been linked to the decline in amphibian populations. The efforts of the scientific community generally are directed toward investigating the long-term effect of atrazine on complex functions (reproduction or respiration), but in the present study, we investigated the short-term effect on the short-circuit current (ISC), a quantitative measure of the ion transport operated by frog (Rana esculenta) skin. Treatment with 5 ,M atrazine (1.08 mg/L) does not affect the transepithelial outfluxes of [14C]mannitol or [14C]urea; therefore, atrazine does not damage the barrier properties of frog skin. Atrazine causes a dose-dependent increase in the short-circuit current, with a minimum of 4.64 ± 0.76 ,A/cm2 (11.05% ± 1.22%) and a maximum of 12.7 ± 0.7 ,A/cm2 (35% ± 2.4%) measured at 10 nM and 5 ,M, respectively. An increase in ISC also is caused by 5 ,M ametryne, prometryn, simazine, terbuthylazine, or terbutryn (other atrazine derivatives). In particular, atrazine increases the transepithelial 22Na+ influx without affecting the outflux. Finally, stimulation of ISC by atrazine is suppressed by SQ 22536, H89, U73122, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, and W7 (blockers of adenylate cyclase, protein kinase A, phospholipase C, intracellular Ca2+ increase, and calmodulin, respectively), whereas indomethacin and calphostin C (inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and protein kinase C, respectively) have no effect. [source]