Borage Oil (borage + oil)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Supercritical extraction of borage seed oil coupled to conventional solvent extraction of antioxidants

Carmen Soto
Abstract This paper describes the extraction of borage seed oil by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and the further extraction of antioxidants from the SC-CO2 -defatted borage meal with organic solvents (water, methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate). The optimal conditions for oil extraction were obtained at 303 and 323,K at 200,bar, 2.5,h and a continuous flow of CO2 of 1.5,L/h introduced through the bottom when the operating pressure and temperature were reached, attaining a yield of 60%. Borage oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids; oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid accounted for 74% of the total fatty acid content under the above conditions. The highest extraction yield was achieved using water or methanol as extracting solvent from the SC-CO2 -defatted borage meal at 303,K and pressures of 200 and 150,bar for water and methanol, respectively. The most potent extracts, according to all methods tested, were obtained with water and methanol. [source]

Dihomo-,-linolenic acid inhibits tumour necrosis factor-, production by human leucocytes independently of cyclooxygenase activity

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
Maaike M. B. W. Dooper
Summary Dietary oils (such as borage oil), which are rich in ,-linolenic acid (GLA), have been shown to be beneficial under inflammatory conditions. Dihomo-GLA (DGLA) is synthesized directly from GLA and forms a substrate for cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, resulting in the synthesis of lipid mediators (eicosanoids). In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of DGLA were investigated and compared with those of other relevant fatty acids. Freshly isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured in fatty acid (100 Ám)-enriched medium for 48 hr. Subsequently, cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 20 hr and the cytokine levels were measured, in supernatants, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Phospholipids were analysed by gas chromatography. Fatty acids were readily taken up, metabolized and incorporated into cellular phospholipids. Compared with the other fatty acids tested, DGLA exerted pronounced modulatory effects on cytokine production. Tumour necrosis factor-, (TNF-,) and interleukin (IL)-10 levels were reduced to 60% of control levels, whereas IL-6 levels were not affected by DGLA. Kinetic studies showed that peak levels of TNF-,, occurring early after LPS addition, were inhibited strongly, whereas IL-10 levels were not affected until 15 hr after stimulation. Both the reduction of cytokine levels and the decrease in arachidonic acid levels in these cells, induced by DGLA, were dose dependent, suggesting a shift in eicosanoid-subtype synthesis. However, although some DGLA-derived eicosanoids similarly reduced TNF-, levels, the effects of DGLA were probably not mediated by COX products, as the addition of indomethacin did not alter the effects of DGLA. In conclusion, these results suggest that DGLA affects cytokine production by human PBMC independently of COX activation. [source]

In-vitro transcutaneous delivery of tamoxifen and ,-linolenic acid from borage oil containing ethanol and 1,8-cineole

Suzanna Ho
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of ethanol and 1,8-cineole on the transcutaneous delivery of tamoxifen and ,-linolenic acid (GLA) as a two-pronged anti-breast cancer therapy. Formulations containing tamoxifen and varying concentrations of borage oil (,25% GLA), 1,8-cineole and ethanol were prepared and the simultaneous permeation of tamoxifen and GLA determined across full-thickness pig skin using Franz-type diffusion cells over 48 h. Analysis of tamoxifen and GLA (as methyl ester) were by reverse-phase HPLC. The highest flux of tamoxifen of 488.2 ▒ 191 times 10,3 ,g cm,2 h,1 was observed with a formulation containing 20% 1,8-cineole and 20% ethanol. The same formulation also provided the greatest flux of GLA, 830.6 times 10,3 ,g cm,2 h,1. The findings from this work demonstrate the ability of 1,8-cineole and ethanol to enhance the in-vitro permeation of tamoxifen and GLA across the skin and support the plausibility of simultaneously delivering tamoxifen and GLA transcutaneously as a two-pronged anti-breast cancer system. [source]

Clinical effects of undershirts coated with borage oil on children with atopic dermatitis: A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

ABSTRACT It has been reported that ,-linolenic acid contained in borage oil is effective against atopic dermatitis. The clinical effects of undershirts coated with borage oil rich in ,-linolenic acid on atopic dermatitis were evaluated. Thirty-two children, aged 1,10 years, were involved in the clinical control study. Sixteen had worn undershirts coated with borage oil everyday for 2 weeks, and 16 had worn non-coated undershirts as a placebo. Their symptoms were assessed on a 4-point scale. Those children who had worn undershirts coated with borage oil for 2 weeks showed improvements in their erythema and itch, which were statistically significant. Transepidermal water loss from the back was decreased. In the placebo group, there were no statistically significant differences. The undershirts coated with borage oil were found to be statistically effective, and had no side-effects on children with mild atopic dermatitis. [source]

Efficacy of borage oil in patients with atopic eczema , reply from author

B.M. Henz
No abstract is available for this article. [source]