Bloom-forming Species (bloom-forming + species)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Toxicology of a Microcystis ichthyoblabe waterbloom from Lake Oued Mellah (Morocco)

Brahim Sabour
Abstract In the Lake Oued Mellah cyanobacteria waterblooms occur periodically in late spring and summer with Microcystis ichthyoblabe as the main bloom-forming species. In 1999, a heavy waterbloom of M. ichthyoblabe occurred during May June with a maximal biomass of 298 mg/l. During this period, several bloom samples were collected. The toxicity assessment was done by mouse and brine shrimp (Artemia) bioassays. Apart from the sample collected on 15/06/1999, all the other samples were toxic by mouse bioassay. The LD50 determined by intraperitoneal injection to mice during active cyanobacterial growth and decline phases were 518 and 1924 mgDW/kg respectively. Using Artemia bioassay, the 24hLC50 varied from 6.0 to 40.6 mg/ml and the 48hLC50 ranged from 2.8 to 18.2 mg/ml. The separation and identification of microcystin variants was performed by high performance liquid chromatography,photodiode array detection. Eleven toxins were separated and preliminarily identified as microcystin variants as they exhibit a typical UV spectra like the microcystin-LR standard. The quantification of total microcystins determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the contents were varied between 0.1 and 0.76 ,g/g DW. © 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 17: 24,31, 2002 [source]

Seasonal dynamics and toxicity of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in Lake Guiers (Senegal, West Africa)

Céline Berger
Abstract Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a toxic bloom-forming cyanobacterium that occurs at tropical and temperate latitudes. Despite several reports from Africa, no data were previously available about its dynamics or toxic potential there. We therefore carried out a 1-year survey of the dynamics of C. raciborskii in the main water reservoir in Senegal, Lake Guiers. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii never formed a bloom in this lake during the period studied, but was dominant during the dry season. The only observed bloom-forming species was a diatom, Fragilaria sp., which displayed a seasonal pattern contrary to that exhibited by C. raciborskii. Principal component analysis applied to environmental and phytoplankton data showed that high C. raciborskii biomasses were mainly related to high temperature and water column stability. Tests for C. raciborskii species-related toxicity and/or toxin synthesis were performed on 21 isolated clones. All the strains isolated tested negative in mouse toxicity bioassays, toxin analysis (MS/MS) and tests for known cylindrospermopsin genes (ps, pks). The limited number of isolates studied, and the occurrence of toxic and nontoxic clones in natural cyanobacterial populations, mean that we cannot conclude that there is no C. raciborskii- associated health risk in this drinking water reservoir. [source]


Steffi Gaebler-Schwarz
Few members of the well-studied marine phytoplankton taxa have such a complex and polymorphic life cycle as the genus Phaeocystis. However, despite the ecological and biogeochemical importance of Phaeocystis blooms, the life cycle of the major bloom-forming species of this genus remains illusive and poorly resolved. At least six different life stages and up to 15 different functional components of the life cycle have been proposed. Our culture and field observations indicate that there is a previously unrecognized stage in the life cycle of P. antarctica G. Karst. This stage comprises nonmotile cells that range in size from ,4.2 to 9.8 ,m in diameter and form aggregates in which interstitial spaces between cells are small or absent. The aggregates (hereafter called attached aggregates, AAs) adhere to available surfaces. In field samples, small AAs, surrounded by a colony skin, adopt an epiphytic lifestyle and adhere in most cases to setae or spines of diatoms. These AAs, either directly or via other life stages, produce the colonial life stage. Culture studies indicate that bloom-forming, colonial stages release flagellates (microzoospores) that fuse and form AAs, which can proliferate on the bottom of culture vessels and can eventually reform free-floating colonies. We propose that these AAs are a new stage in the life cycle of P. antarctica, which we believe to be the zygote, thus documenting sexual reproduction in this species for the first time. [source]

97 Sensitivity of cyanobacteria to a potential biological control agent, bacterium SG-3

K. Wilkinson
Cyanobacteria cause many problems in freshwater ecosystems. For example, the production of off-flavor compounds by cyanobacteria causes serious problems in catfish aquaculture. Control of cyanobacteria is generally limited to treatment with copper compounds, which are non-selective and sometimes ineffective at controlling certain species of cyanobacteria. Biological control could provide selective management by removing unwanted species while leaving desirable algae species. A bacterium (SG-3) (NRRL B-30043) lyses a number of planktonic species of cyanobacteria including bloom-forming species of Anabaena and Oscillatoria. We tested SG-3 for activity against 10 isolates, representing seven species, of mat-forming cyanobacteria within the genera Oscillatoria, Lyngbya, and Phormidium. Plugs (0.5 cm diameter) were cut from mats of the cyanobacterium, inoculated with liquid cultures of SG-3, and incubated as static cultures. The reduction in dry weights ranged from ,0.5% to 90% compared to the untreated controls and appeared to be species specific. For example, dry weight reductions of Oscillatoria deflexoides and O. amoena ranged from 80 to 90% whereas the reduction of O. limosa tended to be lower at 36 to 72%. Although results varied among and within species, they indicate that this bacterium could have potential for use as a biological control for mat-forming cyanobacteria. Light microscopic observations indicate the bacteria do not penetrate the cyanobacteria cells. Currently, we are studying the possible causes of the observed cell lysis. [source]

162 Interactions Between Planktonic Microalgae and Protozoan Grazers

U. Tillmann
For an algal bloom to develop, the growth rate of the bloom-forming species must exceed the sum of all loss processes. Among these loss processes, grazing is generally believed to be one of the more important factors. Based on numerous field studies it is now recognised that microzooplankton are dominant consumers of phytoplankton in both open ocean and coastal waters. Heterotrophic protists, a major component of microzooplankton communities, constitute a vast complex of diverse feeding strategies and behaviour which allow them access to even the larger phytoplankton species. A number of laboratory studies have shown the capability of different protistan species to feed and grow on bloom forming algal species. Because of short generation times, their ability for fast reaction to short-term variation in food conditions enables phagotrophic protists to fulfil the function of a heterotrophic buffer, which might balances the flow of matter in case of phytoplankton blooms. The importance of grazing as control of microalgae becomes most apparent by its failure; if community grazing controls initial stages of bloom development, there simply is no bloom. However, if a certain algal species is difficult to graze, e.g. due to specific defence mechanisms, a reduced grazing pressure will certainly favour bloom development. The present contribution will provide a general overview on the interactions between planktonic microalgae and protozoan grazers with special emphasis on species-specific interactions and algal defence strategies against protozoan grazers. [source]