Blood Withdrawal (blood + withdrawal)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Application of a constant blood withdrawal method in equine exercise physiology studies

Summary The aim of the present study was to test a constant blood withdrawal method (CBWM) to collect blood samples from horses during treadmill exercise. CBWM was performed in 4 Standardbreds and 5 Haflinger horses. A peristaltic pump was used to control blood aspiration from an i.v. catheter via an extension line. Blood was collected using an automatic fractions collector, with a constant delay time between the drawing of blood and sample collection. Blood withdrawal using CBWM was made during a treadmill standardised exercise test (SET). A blood flow of 12 ml/min was used and samples collected every 60 s during the entire period of exercise. The volume of blood collected in each sample tube was 12.1 0.2 ml, with a delay time of mean s.d. 25.3 0.8 s. Plasma lactate kinetics based on measurement of lactate in each fraction showed an exponential increase during the first 13 min of exercise (10.5 min of SET and 2.5 min recovery). The peak plasma lactate concentration was observed between 2.5 and 5.5 min after the end of SET. CBWM permits the kinetics of lactate and other blood-borne variables to be studied over time. This method could be a valuable aid for use in studying equine exercise physiology. [source]

Changes in serum cortisol, metabolites, osmotic pressure and electrolytes in response to different blood sampling procedures in cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

This study investigated the effect of five sampling procedures on serum cortisol, glucose, total protein, osmolality, Na+, Cl,, K+ and Ca++ concentrations in 2-year-old cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L). Mild disturbance caused by rapid removal of fish and brief handling did not induce significant variation in any of the blood parameters investigated. Confinement and crowding elicited a high and significant increase in serum cortisol, glucose, osmolality, Na+, Cl,, and Ca++ concentrations. Exposure to MS 222 (140 mg L,1) significantly increased osmolality, but not ionic concentration. Site of blood withdrawal (cardiac sinuses/caudal vein) had no effect on the concentration of analysed blood constituents, except for K+ levels. Scattered literature of sea bass blood chemistry is reviewed and compared with ,normal' ranges of blood constituents measured in this study. We conclude that it is necessary to select and rigorously execute an opportune blood sampling procedure whenever blood constituents are used as indicators of fish functional state. [source]

Clinical prediction rules for bacteremia and in-hospital death based on clinical data at the time of blood withdrawal for culture: an evaluation of their development and use

Tsukasa Nakamura MD (Research Fellow)
Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives, To develop clinical prediction rules for true bacteremia, blood culture positive for gram-negative rods, and in-hospital death using the data at the time of blood withdrawal for culture. Methods, Data on all hospitalized adults who underwent blood cultures at a tertiary care hospital in Japan were collected from an integrated medical computing system. Logistic regression was used for developing prediction rules followed by the jackknife cross validation. Results, Among 739 patients, 144 (19.5%) developed true bacteremia, 66 (8.9) were positive for gram-negative rods, and 203 (27.5%) died during hospitalization. Prediction rule based on the data at the time of blood withdrawal for culture stratified them into five groups with probabilities of true bacteremia 6.5, 9.6, 21.9, 30.1, and 59.6%. For blood culture positive for gram-negative rods, the probabilities were 0.6, 4.7, 8.6, and 31.7%, and for in-hospital death, those were 6.7, 15.5, 26.0, 35.5, and 56.1%. The area of receiver operating characteristic for true bacteremia, blood culture positive for gram-negative rods, and in-hospital death were 0.73, 0.64, and 0.64, respectively, in original cohort and 0.72, 0.64, and 0.64 in validation respectively. Conclusions, The clinical prediction rules are helpful for improved clinical decision making for bacteremia patients. [source]

Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with prevalent osteoarthritis of the hip in elderly men: The osteoporotic fractures in men study

R. K. Chaganti
Objective To examine the cross-sectional association of serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or 25(OH)D, with prevalent radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA) in elderly men. Methods In a cohort of 1,104 elderly men from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study, 25(OH)D serum levels were determined by mass spectrometry, followed by pelvic radiographs ,4.6 years later. Categories of vitamin D levels were defined as follows: deficiency as ,15 ng/ml, insufficiency as 15.1,30 ng/ml, and sufficiency as >30 ng/ml. Radiographs were assessed for severity of hip OA using a summary grade of 0,4 for individual features of hip OA. Logistic regression was used to assess associations of serum 25(OH)D levels with prevalent radiographic hip OA; covariates included age, clinic site, season at the time of blood withdrawal, self-reported hip pain for >30 days, timed 6-meter walk, presence of at least 1 coexisting condition, and self-rated health status. Results Men with radiographic hip OA had a slower 6-meter walking time (P < 0.0001), reported more hip pain (P = 0.0001), had a lower vitamin D level (P = 0.0002), and had a higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (P = 0.002) and vitamin D deficiency (P = 0.012) compared with controls. Higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with a lower prevalence of radiographic hip OA (odds ratio [OR] 1.39 per 1 SD decrease in 25[OH]D, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.11,1.74) after adjusting for age, season, and clinic site. Men with vitamin D insufficiency had an increased likelihood of prevalent radiographic hip OA (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.21,3.97) compared with men with sufficient levels of 25(OH)D, and in men with vitamin D deficiency, there was a tendency toward an increased likelihood of radiographic hip OA (OR 1.99, 95% CI 0.83,4.74). Conclusion Men with vitamin D deficiencies are twice as likely to have prevalent radiographic hip OA, and therefore vitamin D therapy to augment skeletal health in the elderly is warranted. [source]

Role of hydrogen sulphide in haemorrhagic shock in the rat: protective effect of inhibitors of hydrogen sulphide biosynthesis

Ying-Yuan Pamela Mok
Haemorrhagic shock (60 min) in the anaesthetized rat resulted in a prolonged fall in the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Pre-treatment (30 min before shock) or post-treatment (60 min after shock) with inhibitors of cystathionine , lyase (CSE; converts cysteine into hydrogen sulphide (H2S)), dl-propargylglycine or , -cyanoalanine (50 mg kg,1, i.v.), or glibenclamide (40 mg kg,1, i.p.), produced a rapid, partial restoration in MAP and HR. Neither saline nor DMSO affected MAP or HR. Plasma H2S concentration was elevated 60 min after blood withdrawal (37.51.3 ,m, n=18 c.f. 28.91.4 ,m, n=15, P<0.05). The conversion of cysteine to H2S by liver (but not kidney) homogenates prepared from animals killed 60 min after withdrawal of blood was significantly increased (52.11.6 c.f. 39.84.1 nmol mg protein,1, n=8, P<0.05), as was liver CSE mRNA (2.7 ). Both PAG (IC50, 55.03.2 ,m) and BCA (IC50, 6.51.2 ,m) inhibited liver H2S synthesizing activity in vitro. Pre-treatment of animals with PAG or BCA (50 mg kg,1, i.p.) but not glibenclamide (40 mg kg,1, i.p., KATP channel inhibitor) abolished the rise in plasma H2S in animals exposed to 60 min haemorrhagic shock and prevented the augmented biosynthesis of H2S from cysteine in liver. These results demonstrate that H2S plays a role in haemorrhagic shock in the rat. CSE inhibitors may provide a novel approach to the treatment of haemorrhagic shock. British Journal of Pharmacology (2004) 143, 881,889. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706014 [source]

Methaemoglobinaemia risk factors with inhaled nitric oxide therapy in newborn infants

I Hamon
Abstract Background:, Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), commonly used for hypoxic neonates, may react with haemoglobin to form methaemoglobin (MetHb). MetHb monitoring during iNO therapy has been questioned since low doses of iNO are used. Aim:, To evaluate the incidence of and identify risk factors associated with elevated MetHb in neonates treated with iNO. Methods:, Neonates who were treated with iNO and had at least one MetHb measurement were included. Demographic characteristics and methods of iNO administration (dosage, duration) at the time of each MetHb measurement were analysed. Results:, Four hundred and fifty-two MetHb measurements from 81 premature and 82 term and near-term infants were analysed. MetHb was above 5% in one-term infant, and between 2.5,5% in 16 infants. A higher maximum dose of iNO (22.7 vs 17.7 p.p.m.), but not gestational age, was a significant risk factor for elevated MetHb. Significantly higher oxygen levels (75.5% vs 51.7%) were associated with higher MetHb in term infants. Preterm infants had no risk for high MetHb when iNO was kept below 8 p.p.m. These data suggest the possibility of limiting blood withdrawal when low doses iNO are used. Conclusion:, High MetHb is exceptional in neonates treated with low dose iNO. Associated risk factors are related to high iNO dose and the simultaneous use of high concentrations of oxygen. [source]