Blood Relatives (blood + relative)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Long-term clinical outcome of living-donor liver transplantation for primary biliary cirrhosis

Etsuko Hashimoto
Aim:, We described the recurrence of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) (Liver Transplantation, 7, 2001: 588). However, since the follow-up period in that study was insufficiently long (median 35.5 months), we performed a long-term study to further characterize recurrence of PBC after LDLT. Patients:, From 1991 to 2006, 15 patients with end-stage PBC underwent LDLT at Tokyo Women's Medical University. Of these patients, we studied 8 PBC patients (age 29 to 51 years, all females) who survived LDLT for more than 5 years. The follow-up period for these patients ranged form 68 to 120 months. Immunosuppression was maintained with tacrolimus and prednisone. Laboratory examinations performed in every patient and donor before LDLT included routine biochemical studies, antimitochondrial antibody (AMA) by immunofluorescence (IF), anti-M2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as antinuclear antibody (ANA) by IF, and immunoglobulin. After LDLT, the same laboratory examinations were performed in patients every 6 months. Liver biopsy was performed when patients exhibited clinical or biochemical signs of graft dysfunction. In addition, protocol biopsy was performed every 1 to 2 years after LDLT. Results:, At the time of LDLT, all patients had end-stage cholestatic liver failure. Seven patients were positive for AMAand anti-M2 while 1 patient was negative for these markers but strongly positive for ANA. Donors were blood relatives in 6 cases, and 2 donors who were not blood relatives still exhibited multiple HLA matches with the recipients. At the end of the study in May 2006, all patients were doing well. On laboratory examination, mild abnormal liver function test results were found in 4 patients: 3 were probably due to recurrence of PBC, 1 resulted from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Comparison of the AMA titer between before LDLT and the most recent follow-up visit showed an increase in three patients, a decrease in two patients and no change in three patients. In contrast, the ANA titer increased in five patients. Histologically, strong evidence of recurrent PBC was found in 4 patients, and findings compatible with PBC were present in 2 additional patients. Conclusions:, Although the number of our patients is small, our findings confirm that PBC can recur at high frequency after LDLT. However, this complication has not developed to advanced stages and has not caused appreciable symptoms in our patients, all of whom have a good quality of life. [source]

Women's "Justification" of Domestic Violence in Egypt

Kathryn M. Yount
We explored the influences of women's social learning, marital resources and constraints, and exposure to norms about women's family roles on their views about wife hitting or beating among 5,450 participants in the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. One half justified wife hitting or beating for some reason. Women from rural areas who were exposed to domestic violence more often justified such acts. Dependent wives whose husbands had more schooling, were blood relatives, and were coresident more often justified such acts. In settings where women tended to marry at older ages, women less often justified such acts. Women's resources and constraints in marriage accounted for the largest share of the variability in their attitudes about domestic violence against women. [source]

Characteristics of participants with self-reported hemochromatosis or iron overload at HEIRS study initial screening

James C. Barton
There are few descriptions of young adults with self-reported hemochromatosis or iron overload (H/IO). We analyzed initial screening data in 7,343 HEmochromatosis and IRon Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study participants ages 25,29 years, including race/ethnicity and health information; transferrin saturation (TS) and ferritin (SF) measurements; and HFE C282Y and H63D genotypes. We used denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography and sequencing to detect mutations in HJV, TFR2, HAMP, SLC40A1, and FTL. Fifty-one participants reported previous H/IO; 23 (45%) reported medical conditions associated with H/IO. Prevalences of reports of arthritis, diabetes, liver disease or liver cancer, heart failure, fertility problems or impotence, and blood relatives with H/IO were significantly greater in participants with previous H/IO reports than in those without. Only 7.8% of the 51 participants with previous H/IO reports had elevated TS; 13.7% had elevated SF. Only one participant had C282Y homozygosity. Three participants aged 25,29 years were heterozygous for potentially deleterious mutations in HFE2, TFR2, and HAMP promoter, respectively. Prevalences of self-reported conditions, screening iron phenotypes, and C282Y homozygosity were similar in 1,165 participants aged 30 years or greater who reported previous H/IO. We conclude that persons who report previous H/IO diagnoses in screening programs are unlikely to have H/IO phenotypes or genotypes. Previous H/IO reports in some participants could be explained by treatment that induced iron depletion before initial screening, misdiagnosis, or participant misunderstanding of their physician or the initial screening questionnaire. Am. J. Hematol., 2008. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Mesothelioma in blood related subjects: Report of 11 clusters among 1954 Italy cases and review of the literature

Valeria Ascoli
Abstract Background Malignant mesothelioma is a sporadic tumor related to asbestos. Its occurrence in blood relatives raises the question of potential contribution of predisposing factors. Methods The study analyses the features of mesothelioma in blood relatives that might explain the disease clustering. Data sources of familial clusters were three population-based Mesothelioma Registries in Italy (Veneto and Apulia Regions, Brescia province; 1978,2005) and Medline, Toxline, and Oshline/Hseline databases for a review of the literature (1968,2006). Results Eleven clusters (22 cases) were identified among 1954 Italy mesothelioma cases, and 51 clusters (120 cases) were extracted from 33 studies. The proportion of Italy familial cases was 1.4 per 100 mesothelioma cases; the ratio between the number of familial clusters and the number of non-familial mesothelioma cases was 1:148. The mesothelioma profile in consanguineous is the same as in non-consanguineous subjects (male prevalence; pleural site; age at diagnosis >50 years; asbestos exposure). Most clusters occurred in asbestos workers (shipyard, asbestos-cement production/processing, and insulation) and household-exposed blood relatives. Others were related to asbestos-cement factory pollution, asbestos-in-place, and handling asbestos-contaminated textiles. Two clusters were without any known exposure. Cancer family history revealed lung cancer cases in eight clusters. Conclusions Available data support asbestos exposure as the main risk factor in mesothelioma cases among blood relatives. Our finding of a low proportion of familial cases would not suggest the influence of a large genetic component for mesothelioma in blood relatives. Am. J. Ind. Med. 50:357,369, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]