Blood Mononuclear Cells (blood + mononuclear_cell)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Blood Mononuclear Cells

  • human peripheral blood mononuclear cell
  • methods peripheral blood mononuclear cell
  • normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cell
  • peripheral blood mononuclear cell

  • Selected Abstracts

    Effects of Endotoxin Exposure on Cationic Amino Acid Transporter Function in Ovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Megan F. Clark
    Rodent models of sepsis differ from clinical human disease in that humans make substantially less whole-body nitric oxide and have different cellular responses to endotoxin. Sheep, when exposed to endotoxin, behave in a manner more similar to humans. Many studies of rodent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to endotoxin demonstrate increased cationic amino acid transporter function (particularly through the y+ transporter) to supply arginine substrate to upregulated nitric oxide synthase. Whether this is true in sheep is not known. We have studied cationic amino acid transport in sheep PBMCs stimulated with endotoxin, using labelled lysine. PBMCs stimulated both in vitro and in vivo show an initial reduction in total and y+ lysine transport (after 1-2 h exposure to endotoxin): a previously undescribed effect of endotoxin. In in vitro activated cells, the reduction in y+ transport was prevented by the lipoxygenase inhibitor, nordihydroguaretic acid (NDGA), and the phospholipase inhibitor 4-bromophenacyl bromide (4-BPAB), but not cyclohexamide or a number of other inhibitors of intracellular second-messenger pathways. In contrast after 14 h incubation, the expected increase in total and y+ lysine transport was seen. The increase in y+ transport could be prevented by cyclohexamide, dexamethasone, ibuprofen, the protein kinase C inhibitor sphingosine, NDGA and 4-BPAB. These results suggest that in response to endotoxin exposure there is an initial decrease in y+ activity mediated by a lipoxygenase product, followed by a substantial increase in y+ activity mediated by the products of either cyclo-oxygenase or lipoxygenase. Cyclo-oxygenase and/or lipoxygenase inhibition might be useful in reducing arginine transport, and hence nitric oxide production, in these cells. [source]

    Alterations of Mitochondria in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Vitiligo Patients

    Maria Lucia Dell'Anna
    The possible role for a defective mitochondrial functionality in the pathogenesis of vitiligo was investigated by measuring intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and of antioxidants, the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, as well as the effects of inhibitors of the electron transport chain, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with active or stable disease vs. normal subjects. Plasma glyoxal levels were also determined in the same groups of subjects as an index of systemic oxidative stress. In patients with vitiligo in active phase, we observed an increased intracellular production of reactive oxygen species with a consequent imbalance of the prooxidant/antioxidant equilibrium, whereas plasma did not show apparent alterations in glyoxal levels, ruling out a systemic oxidative stress. In patients with stable disease, the balance between pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants seems to be maintained. Moreover, a marked increase in the expression of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase activity and a specific sensitivity to electron transport chain complex I inhibitor were observed. Overall, these data provide further evidence for an altered mitochondrial functionality in vitiligo patients. [source]

    Stimulated IFN, and IL-10 Secretion of Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients on Renal Replacement Therapies Show Different Secretion Patterns

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 10 2000
    Dominik Mark Alscher
    Abstract: Infection is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT). Although the role of the immune system is of great importance, little is known about the influence of the mode of RRT to the preferential excretions of regulator cytokines of mononuclear cells. Therefore, we investigated the stimulated IFN, (Th1) and IL-10 (Th2) secretions of mononuclear cells from patients on RRT. Blood was drawn from 10 controls, 15 patients on hemodialysis (HD), 15 on peritoneal dialysis (PD), and 10 after kidney transplantation (Tx). The cells were separated, and phytohemagglutinine (PHA) was added for stimulation. After 0, 6, and 24 h, IFN, and IL-10 (pg/ml) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IFN, secretion was significantly enhanced 6 (p < 0.001) and 24 h (p = 0.002) after stimulation in all groups (in mean ± SEM). The analysis of the subgroups 6 h after adding PHA showed significant differences (p = 0.0239) with the lowest IFN, in Tx (16 ± 5) and the highest in PD (79 ± 30). For IL-10, secretion was enhanced in all groups 6 h after stimulation (p < 0.0116). The lowest secretions were seen in HD (18 ± 8) and controls (27 ± 9); the highest secretions were in Tx (98 ± 20) and PD (57 ± 12). The differences between HD and Tx (p < 0.01) and HD versus PD (p = 0.05) were significant. The stimulated cytokine secretion of blood mononuclear cells is preserved with RRT. The modes of RRT could influence the pattern of cytokine secretion. Surprisingly, the cells from patients on PD showed enhanced IL-10 secretion compared to HD. Presumably, this is due to the chronic contact of peritoneal dialysis fluids with monocytes and the lymphatic system in PD. [source]

    Puerarin Inhibits C-Reactive Protein Expression via Suppression of Nuclear Factor ,B Activation in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Stable Angina Pectoris

    Xiangjun Yang
    In this report, we examined the ability of puerarin to modulate C-reactive protein (CRP) expression and key molecules in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-,B) pathway to determine its molecular target. The protein and mRNA levels of CRP were determined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with unstable angina pectoris. Also, we detected the I-,B, phosphorylation and the p65NF-,B expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells under our experimental condition. The results indicated that puerarin inhibited the expression of the protein and mRNA levels of CRP in LPS-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Subsequently, we determined that the inhibition of CRP expression was because of a dose-dependent inhibition of phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor kappaB(I-,B), which resulted in a reduction of p65NF-,B nuclear translocation. We conclude that puerarin acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by blocking NF-,B signalling, and may possibly be developed as a useful agent for the chemoprevention of atherosclerosis. [source]

    In vitro culture of skin-homing T lymphocytes from inflammatory skin diseases

    Karen Bang
    Abstract:, We, in this study, describe how T lymphocytes in a skin biopsy can proliferate in vitro for up to 3 months by using T-cell growth factors , interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4 yielding approximately 100,160 million T lymphocytes within 1 month. We established cell lines from three tuberculin skin tests, four positive patch tests, 15 of 16 biopsies from atopic dermatitis (AD), 15 of 19 biopsies from mycosis fungoides (MF), 12 of 24 biopsies from psoriasis vulgaris, which was significantly less than AD (P < 0.05), and with a reduced cumulative number of lymphocytes (P < 0.05). Omitting IL-2 and IL-4 led to immediate halt of proliferation. Blood mononuclear cells from patients and biopsies from healthy persons never gave cell lines. All cells were T lymphocytes expressing CD45RO+, HLA-DR+ and CD150. The CD7 expression was significantly increased in cell lines from AD (P < 0.05). T-cell receptor ,-chain studies by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that all T lymphocytes had access to the skin compartment. Single-stranded conformational analysis showed clonally expanded T cells numbering between 40 and 60 clones. After approximately 2 months of growth, the mean CD4+ : CD8+ ratio was for AD 1.20, MF 0.65 and psoriasis 0.85. Patients with AD treated with cyclosporin-A had almost no growth of CD8+ cells in vitro. Our findings indicate a changed homeostasis among skin-homing lymphocytes for in vitro culture. Our culture system of skin-homing T lymphocytes leads to a prominent cellular expansion allowing for a range of studies of in vivo activated skin T lymphocytes. [source]

    Expression of STAMP2 in monocytes associates with cardiovascular alterations

    Zhi-Hao Wang
    Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40 (6): 490,496 Abstract Background, Metabolic and inflammatory pathways crosstalk at many levels. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of six-transmembrane protein of prostate 2 (STAMP2) in macrophages and tried to search for the association between the decreased STAMP2 expression, if any, and carotid atherosclerosis as well as cardiac adaptations. Materials and methods, A total of 97 unrelated Chinese subjects were recruited including 48 subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 49 controls. Clinical and biochemical characteristics were collected from subjects, with quantification of STAMP2 in monocyte/macrophages. All subjects underwent ultrasonography. Results, STAMP2 expression in macrophages was significantly decreased in MetS as compared with the control group (10·25 ± 9·20 vs. 15·20 ± 9·18, P = 0·009), especially in women patients. Partial correlation analysis showed that STAMP2 expression in macrophages correlated with BMI (r = ,0·375, P = 0·045), age (r = 0·414, P = 0·026) and HDL (r = 0·377, P = 0·044) after controlling for systolic blood pressure (SBP). Furthermore, STAMP2 expression was correlated with PI (r = ,0·454, P = 0·013), LVEF (r = ,0·503, P = 0·005), LA-ESR (r = ,0·424, P = 0·022), LA-S (r = 0·469, P = 0·010) and mitral E/A ratio (r = 0·492, P = 0·005) after controlling for SBP. Still, in multivariable analysis, STAMP2 expression was independently associated with IMTmean, PI and mitral E/A ratio. Conclusions, In MetS patients, especially women patients, STAMP2 expression was down-regulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cell, which was correlated with carotid atherosclerosis and cardiac adaptation. [source]

    Inhibition of T-cell activation in vitro in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by pimecrolimus and glucocorticosteroids and combinations thereof

    Anthony Winiski
    Abstract:, Pimecrolimus is an ascomycin macrolactam derivative that has been recently approved for the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis. In this study we report for the first time on a direct comparison of the inhibitory activity of pimecrolimus and the glucocorticosteroids betamethasone 17-valerate, dexamethasone and hydrocortisone at the level of T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. Stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) systems were used that are either sensitive or resistant to calcineurin inhibitors or glucocorticosteroids. Pimecrolimus and the glucocorticosteroids inhibited dose-dependently T-cell proliferation and cytokine production in a sensitive system (anti-CD3 mAb-stimulated PBMC) with the following rank order of potency: pimecrolimus , betamethasone 17-valerate , dexamethasone > hydrocortisone. In resistant systems (anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28- or Staphylococcal enterotoxin B-stimulated PBMC), pimecrolimus or the glucocorticosteroids alone exerted either no effect, or only a partial inhibitory effect. However, combinations of pimecrolimus with a glucocorticosteroid synergistically and strongly inhibited T-cell proliferation. Taken together, the data indicate that medium potency glucocorticosteroids, such as betamethasone 17-valerate and dexamethasone, are as potent T-cell inhibitors as pimecrolimus. Furthermore, the experimental evidence suggests that combinations of glucocorticosteroids and pimecrolimus could be used clinically to achieve superior therapeutic efficacy, when monotherapy with the individual agents is unsatisfactory. [source]

    Evidence of occult HCV genotypes in haemophilic individuals with unapparent HCV mixed infections

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 4 2008
    Summary., Individuals with haemophilia who received non heat-treated factor concentrates were likely to undergo multiple exposures to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Therefore, HCV mixed-genotype infections might be more frequent in these patients than in the general population. Their prevalence is extremely variable in similar groups of patients tested by different assays due to the fact that currently available genotyping techniques are not suitable to detect multiple HCV genotypes in a viral population. As an HCV viral reservoir, the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) might harbor viral variants distinct from the genotypes detected in plasma. We investigated the presence of HCV genotypes in a group of chronically infected haemophilic patients in the PBMC compartment using a non-stimulated cell culture system that allows the detection of the HCV genome in culture supernatants. We compared them to the HCV genotypes found in plasma samples. Cell culture experiments performed with PBMC demonstrated the presence of additional HCV genotypes that were undetected in the corresponding plasma samples with the same genotyping technique. Although mixed infections at HCV genotype level became evident in 5.6% of the patients (16/288), the culture methodology increased the number of HCV infections with multiple genotypes to 62.5% (10/16) (P < 0.0001). Once more, the role of mononuclear cells as HCV viral reservoirs is emphasized. Considering minor strains could influence the outcome of treatment, detection of covert HCV mixed-genotype infections might be essential for choosing the adequate therapeutic regimen. [source]

    Studies on the association between immunoglobulin E autoreactivity and immunoglobulin E-dependent histamine-releasing factors

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
    Ilona Kleine Budde
    Summary It has been reported that serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) from certain atopic patients can sensitize basophils to release histamine in response to IgE-dependent histamine-releasing factors (HRFs). It has also been shown that patients suffering from severe forms of atopy may contain IgE autoantibodies. It was investigated whether HRF-responsive sera contained IgE autoantibodies and if there was an association between IgE autoreactivity and IgE-dependent responsiveness to HRF. The presence of HRF-responsive IgE (IgE+) in serum of patients with respiratory atopy was determined by stimulating stripped human basophils sensitized by serum with peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived HRF, and measuring the release of histamine. In parallel, these sera were screened for the presence of IgE autoantibodies to nitrocellulose-blotted human cellular extracts. The capacity of IgE autoantigen-containing preparations to induce histamine release was tested in the stripped basophil assay. Eleven out of 52 sera contained IgE autoantibodies to blotted cellular extracts of human PBMCs or of the human epithelial cell line A431. No significant association was found between IgE autoreactivity and IgE-dependent responsiveness to HRF: 7/26 IgE+ sera contained IgE to human cellular extracts, and 4/26 of the sera without IgE+ did also. IgE autoantigen-containing extracts did not induce histamine release of appropriately sensitized basophils. By size-exclusion chromatography it was shown that a 32,000 MW autoantigen eluted in the >55,000 MW fraction, which indicates that this protein forms polymers or complexes with other macromolecules. This might explain the discrepancy between binding and histamine-releasing activity. A 20,000 MW IgE-defined autoantigen cross-reacted with a shrimp allergen. Our results indicate that IgE-reactivity to immunoblotted human protein and IgE-dependent HRF activity are distinct entities that may co-occur in atopic patients. [source]

    ,-Endorphin Neuronal Cell Transplant Reduces Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Hyperresponse to Lipopolysaccharide and Eliminates Natural Killer Cell Functional Deficiencies in Fetal Alcohol Exposed Rats

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2009
    Nadka I. Boyadjieva
    Background:, Natural killer (NK) cell dysfunction is associated with hyperresponse of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) to immune challenge and with a loss of ,-endorphin (BEP) neurons in fetal alcohol exposed animals. Recently, we established a method to differentiate neural stem cells into BEP neurons using cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-elevating agents in cultures. Hence, we determined whether in vitro differentiated BEP neurons could be used for reversing the compromised stress response and immune function in fetal alcohol exposed rats. Methods:, To determine the effect of BEP neuron transplants on NK cell function, we implanted in vitro differentiated BEP neurons into the paraventricular nucleus of pubertal and adult male rats exposed to ethanol or control in utero. The functionality of transplanted BEP neurons was determined by measuring proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in these cells and their effects on CRH gene expression under basal and after lipopolysaccaride (LPS) challenge. In addition, the effectiveness of BEP neurons in activating NK cell functions is determined by measuring NK cell cytolytic activity and interferon-, (IFN-,) production in the spleen and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) following cell transplantation. Results:, We showed here that when these in vitro differentiated BEP neurons were transplanted into the hypothalamus, they maintain biological functions by producing POMC and reducing the CRH neuronal response to the LPS challenge. BEP neuronal transplants significantly increased NK cell cytolytic activity in the spleen and in the PBMC and increased plasma levels of IFN-, in control and fetal alcohol exposed rats. Conclusions:, These data further establish the BEP neuronal regulatory role in the control of CRH and NK cell cytolytic function and identify a possible novel therapy to treat stress hyperresponse and immune deficiency in fetal alcohol exposed subjects. [source]

    Principles of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Apheresis in a Preclinical Canine Model of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    M. Lupu
    Background: Preclinical studies of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) transplantation conducted in a well-established canine hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) model have been successfully translated to human patients over the past 5 decades. Objective: We retrospectively investigated the safety and feasibility of PBMC apheresis in the canine model of HCT by analyzing apheresis parameters, cell yields, and the impacts of donor-related and apheresis-related variables on collection yields and donor stability. Animals: One hundred and twenty dogs that underwent PBMC aphereses were evaluated. Methods: Aphereses were performed with a COBE Spectra blood separator and a central dual-lumen catheter, with or without recombinant canine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rcG-CSF) stem cell mobilization. Results: Aphereses from dogs not given rcG-CSF yielded an average volume of 280 ± 42 mL containing an average of 15,086 ± 9,834 leukocytes/mL. Aphereses from dogs given rcG-CSF yielded an average volume of 261 ± 55 mL containing an average of 39,711 ± 24,488 leukocytes/mL. Higher pre-apheresis white blood cell (WBC) counts correlated with higher apheresis WBC yields (R=0.50, P<.0001). The correlations of collection time, inlet volume, and collection flow rate on WBC yields were statistically significant but only weak to moderate in magnitude (R=0.34, P=.0001; R=0.38, P=.0006; R=0.26, P=.002, respectively) as were the correlations of collection time and inlet volume on collection volumes (R=0.30, P=.002; R=0.42, P<.0001, respectively). All dogs recovered promptly after PBMC aphereses and catheter removal, without complications. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: These data may be useful for translating PBMC apheresis technology to the field of veterinary oncology for the treatment of dogs with hematologic malignancies. [source]

    Allergen-induced in vitro expression of IL-18, SLAM and GATA-3 mRNA in PBMC during sublingual immunotherapy

    ALLERGY, Issue 8 2007
    J. Savolainen
    Background:, Signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) and interleukin (IL)-18 induce interferon (IFN)-, production from Th1 cells. The allergen-induced SLAM and IL-18 mRNA expressions are increased during subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), but nothing is known about their role during sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Transcription factor GATA-3 is associated with Th2 cells but its role in SCIT and SLIT is yet unexplored. This study was undertaken to analyse the allergen induced in vitro mRNA expression of IL-18, SLAM and GATA-3 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of children with allergic rhinitis (AR) during SLIT. Methods:, Ten patients with AR undergoing pollen SLIT with a weekly dose of 200 000 SQ-U, 10 with 24 000 SQ-U of mixture of Betula verrucosa, Corylus avellana and Alnus glutinosa and 10 with placebo were included. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell were stimulated with birch extract prior to, after 1 and 2 years of the treatment. The mRNA expression was assessed using kinetic real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan®; Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). Results:, The expression of IL-18 mRNA was increased in the high-dose group in comparison to the placebo group after 1 year of therapy (P = 0.028) and had an inverse correlation with the late phase skin reaction after the second study year (r = ,0.41, P = 0.041). SLAM mRNA expression increased in the high-dose group from baseline to 1 year (P = 0.028) and correlated with IL-10 (r = 0.96, P < 0.0001) and transforming growth factor-, (r = 0.80, P = 0.0037) mRNA expression. No significant changes were seen in GATA-3 mRNA expression. Conclusions:, During SLIT, IL-18 and SLAM are upregulated, suggesting that the Th2 type inflammatory response is downregulated during SLIT by increased Th1 type response. [source]

    T lymphocytes expressing CCR3 are increased in allergic rhinitis compared with non-allergic controls and following allergen immunotherapy

    ALLERGY, Issue 1 2007
    J. N. Francis
    Background:, In T cell-associated allergic inflammation, homing of T-helper 2 (Th2) effector cells to mucosal sites may be influenced by chemokine receptor expression. Previous studies have identified CCR3 and CCR4 as putative markers of Th2 cells and CCR5 and CXCR3 as markers of Th1 cells. The aim of this study was to assess differential chemokine receptor expression from symptomatic atopic grass pollen-sensitive subjects, compared with patients on high-dose allergen injection immunotherapy (IT) and healthy controls. Methods:, We examined chemokine receptor expression (CCR1,7 and CXCR1,4) by flow cytometry of peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We also depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) populations of CCR3+ CD4+ cells by magnetic bead separation and cells were stimulated with grass pollen allergen for 6 days. Cytokine production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results:, On freshly isolated PBMC, atopic individuals exhibited increased numbers of CCR3+ CD4+ cells compared with normal controls (P < 0.01). CCR3 expression in IT patients was reduced compared with matched atopic rhinitic controls (P < 0.05) and comparable with that observed in normal subjects. Depletion of CCR3+ CD4+ cells from allergen-stimulated PBMC cultures resulted in decreased interleukin (IL)-5 production compared with whole CD4+ populations (P < 0.05). Freshly isolated CCR3+ CD4+ cells have significantly higher intracellular IL-4 and lower IFN- , levels than CCR3, CD4+ cells. CD4+ T cells cultured from both peripheral cells and nasal biopsies demonstrated increased expression of CCR3 in the presence of IL-4 (P < 0.05). Conclusion:, CCR3+ CD4+ T cells are increased in allergic rhinitis, are reduced by allergen IT, have a Th2 phenotype and contribute to allergen-specific responses. Strategies against CCR3+ T cells may be effective in human allergic diseases. [source]

    Inhibitory effect of pooled human immunoglobulin on cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Kuan-Hsun Wu
    Human intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) are widely used as immunomodulators because of their ability to modify the course of various immune-mediated diseases. We investigated the mechanisms responsible for the regulatory effects of IVIG on in vitro human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine production. Pre-incubation of PBMCs with IVIG inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin stimulated cytokine secretion. Pre-incubation of PBMCs with IVIG induced a significant inhibition of LPS-stimulated (IL-6) secretion (p = 0.045); the effect on tumor necrosis factor- , (TNF- ,) secretion was not significant (p = 0.234). Pre-incubation of PBMCs with IVIG inhibited IL-6 secretion (p = 0.033) stimulated with anti-CD14 antibody cross-linking but had no significant effect on TNF- , secretion (p = 0.125). PBMC pre-incubation with anti-CD14-blocking antibody induced a significant reduction (p = 0.042) in LPS-stimulated TNF- , secretion in comparison with a non-significant reduction (p =0.256) noted with IVIG pre-treatment. In contrast, pre-incubation of PBMCs with anti-CD14 antibody did not induce a significant reduction in LPS-stimulated IL-6 secretion (p = 0.166) in comparison with a significant reduction (p = 0.001) induced with IVIG pre-treatment. Our data suggest that the immunoregulatory properties of IVIG may rely on several mechanisms, some of which may be independent of CD14. Our data also showed that cross-linking cell membrane-bound IVIG with anti-human kappa- and lambda-chain antibodies resulted in cytokine secretion levels similar to those elicited by LPS. In addition, intracellular DNA staining results did not support the involvement of apoptosis in the regulatory mechanisms of IVIG. This data may further our understanding of the immunoregulatory effects exerted by IVIG on the production of inflammatory-response mediators. [source]

    5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Based Photodynamic Therapy in Leukemia Cell HL60,

    Su-Juan Zhang
    ABSTRACT A study to explore the optimal experimental parameters and the photosensitization of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) in promyelocytic leukemia cell HL60 has been conducted, in which HL60 cells and their control groups, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), first are incubated with different concentrations of ALA in dark for different periods of time and then followed by irradiating with different wavebands for different fluences. Fluorescence microscope and spectrofluorometer have been used to detect the fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) endogenously produced by ALA. The response of the cells to ALA-PDT was evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2-5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay (interval between irradiation and the MTT assay is 24 h) and by flow cytometry (the length of time between irradiation and the flow assay is 30 min). MTT results will reflect the relative number of metabolically active mitochondria in the population. Propidium iodide uptake in flow cytometry will test for membrane damage. The results of parameter experiments were obtained: 1 × 105/mL HL60 cell was first incubated with 1 mmol/L ALA in dark for 4 h and the maximum fluorescence of PpIX level appeared; then irradiated with 410 nm (4 mW/cm2) for 14.4 J/cm2 and maximum photodamage to membrane and mitochondrial function of HL60 cell resulted. With the normal granulocytes, such response was not detected. Therefore a hypothetical idea can be brought forward that ALA-based PDT can be used for inactivation of leukemia cell HL60 and these optimal parameters may be useful for clinical application. [source]

    Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells During Normal Pregnancy and Pre-Eclampsia

    Keiichi Matsubara
    Problem Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC), which mediates neovascularization of uterine endometrium may be involved in the neovascularization in the utero-placental circulation. We evaluated whether EPC proliferation in pre-eclampsia (PE) differed from that in normal pregnancy. Method of study EPC number in peripheral blood (20 non-pregnancy, 36 normal pregnancy, 10 PE) was measured using flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell was cultured for 7 days and EPC proliferation was assessed based on detection of the uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein and lectin. Furthermore, the proliferative activity induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and tumor necrosis factor- , (TNF- ,) was measured by BrdU assay. Results EPC number in peripheral blood did not differ significantly between PE and normal pregnancy; however, EPC proliferation was significantly increased in PE. Furthermore, Ang II and TNF- , induced the proliferation of EPC derived from patients with PE. Conclusions In PE, some factors including Ang II and TNF- , stimulated EPC proliferation; however, the impairment of EPC mobilization into systemic circulation by serum factors may contribute to insufficient regeneration of EC in disturbed utero-placental circulation of PE. [source]

    Impact of Thrombocytopenia on Survival of Baboons with Genetically Modified Pig Liver Transplants: Clinical Relevance

    B. Ekser
    A lack of deceased human donor livers leads to a significant mortality in patients with acute-on-chronic or acute (fulminant) liver failure or with primary nonfunction of an allograft. Genetically engineered pigs could provide livers that might bridge the patient to allotransplantation. Orthotopic liver transplantation in baboons using livers from ,1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO) pigs (n = 2) or from GTKO pigs transgenic for CD46 (n = 8) were carried out with a clinically acceptable immunosuppressive regimen. Six of 10 baboons survived for 4,7 days. In all cases, liver function was adequate, as evidenced by tests of detoxification, protein synthesis, complement activity and coagulation parameters. The major problem that prevented more prolonged survival beyond 7 days was a profound thrombocytopenia that developed within 1 h after reperfusion, ultimately resulting in spontaneous hemorrhage at various sites. We postulate that this is associated with the expression of tissue factor on platelets after contact with pig endothelium, resulting in platelet and platelet-peripheral blood mononuclear cell(s) aggregation and deposition of aggregates in the liver graft, though we were unable to confirm this conclusively. If this problem can be resolved, we would anticipate that a pig liver could provide a period during which a patient in liver failure could be successfully bridged to allotransplantation. [source]

    Increased aeroallergen-specific interleukin-4-producing T cells in asthmatic adults

    P. Pala
    Summary Background Asthma, atopy and some forms of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease are thought to be caused by T cells making IL-4 (Th2 cells). However, not all patients with similar patterns of clinical disease have the same underlying pathogenesis and the ability to detect immunopathogenic T cells by examination of the peripheral blood remains in doubt. With the prospect of specific immunotherapy for diseases caused by T cell subsets, it is important to determine whether peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) reactivity can be used to establish the presence of immunopathogenic responses and therefore to predict therapeutic effects. Objective To detect IL-4 and IFN-, production as markers of Th1 and Th2 responses in the peripheral blood of atopic and asthmatic adults. Methods PBMC from 22 adult asthmatics (18 of whom were atopic) and 21 non-asthmatic volunteers (ten of whom were atopic) were stimulated with cat, birch and house dust mite allergens, human rhinovirus, RSV and recombinant chimaeric F/G protein from RSV in vitro. ELISPOT assays were used to enumerate cells producing IL-4 and IFN-,. Results Asthmatics had a sixfold increase in frequencies of IL-4-producing cells to cat and birch allergen (median values: 37 vs. 7 per million PBMC, P < 0.01 and 20 vs. 3 per million PBMC, P < 0.04, respectively) compared to non-asthmatics. By contrast, non-asthmatic atopics showed no specific increase in antigen-specific IL-4 responses and there was no evident correlation between skin prick test reactivity and ELISPOT results. Atopics had significantly more IFN- ,-producing cells specific for FG than nonatopics. while IFN-, and IL-4 responses to other antigens were not significantly different. Conclusion Enhanced IL-4 responses to non-viral aeroallergens are seen in adults with asthma, while enhanced IFN-, responses to viral antigen FG were seen in atopics. In practical terms, ELISPOT assays for specific cytokines may provide a method that could be used to monitor antigen-specific T cell responses in peripheral blood. [source]

    After discontinuation of calcineurin inhibitors, tapering of mycophenolate mofetil further impairs donor-directed cytotoxicity

    Nicole M Van Besouw
    Abstract:, Background:, Recently, we described a significant decrease in donor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte precursor frequency (CTLpf) after discontinuation of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), while the proliferative capacity in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC), and the number of interferon-, (IFN-,) producing cells (pc) in Elispot remained unchanged. Methods:, We tested T-cell reactivity in CNI free patients with stable renal graft function, on mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or azathioprine (AZA) plus prednisone, who were tapered to 50% of their MMF or AZA dose. Results:, Furthermore, tapering of the MMF or AZA dose resulted in a decrease of donor-reactive CTLpf in all patients with detectable CTLpf. Detectable numbers decreased from a median of 32 to 8 CTLp/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC). No effect on third-party reactive CTLpf was found, while the T-cell reactivity to donor and third-party cells as tested in MLC and in IFN-, Elispot was not affected either by tapering of immunosuppression. Third-party reactivity was significantly higher than donor-specific reactivity in all tests. A control group showed no changes in any of the in vitro assays. Conclusion:, Both withdrawal of CNI and tapering of MMF or AZA dose decreases the donor-specific CTLpf. Our data suggest that reduction of immunosuppression results in a specific decrease of donor-directed cytotoxic capacity of immunocompetent cells, while their proliferation and cytokine production capacity remained unchanged. Immunosuppression hinders development of cytotoxic non-responsiveness. [source]

    Reactivity of in vitro activated human T lymphocytes to p -phenylenediamine and related substances

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 4 2008
    Claudia Skazik
    Background:, Patch tests to p -phenylenediamine (PPD) and related substances often show concurrent reactions that can be attributed to separate sensitization or cross-reactivity. Objectives:, In order to understand the health risks associated with cross-reactivity, we studied cross-reactivity of eight chemicals in vitro by measurement of T-cell proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), T-cell lines (TCL), and T-cell clones (TCC) of subjects with a positive patch test result to PPD. Patients/Methods:, We studied PBMC from 13 patients and were able to generate TCL from seven and TCC from four patients. Their proliferative responses to the chemicals were estimated. Results:, Concurrent reactions to these compounds on the polyclonal and monoclonal level were found. A restricted T-cell receptor (TCR) V,16-usage was observed (5/8 clones). A detailed analysis of 34 TCL showed broad cross-reactivity (64.7%) between PPD, p -toluenediamine, Bandrowski's Base, and p -aminoazobenzene. More restricted patterns were found in 8.8%, which responded only to compounds with two or three benzene rings, whereas 26.5% of the clones reacted specifically only to one compound. Conclusion:, More than 60% of the clones showed a broad cross-reactivity pattern. Hence, clinically observed cross-reactivity between different para-amino compounds can be based on a TCR recognizing similar epitopes of these compounds with low specificity. [source]

    Monocytes and T lymphocytes contribute to a predominance of interleukin 6 and interleukin 10 in systemic lupus erythematosus,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 4 2009
    Susana Mellor-Pita
    Abstract Objective To investigate the contribution of T lymphocytes and monocytes to cytokine production in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Forty-five SLE patients and 19 healthy volunteers were included. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF,), interferon gamma (IFN,), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL10 were quantified by ELISA. The cytokine production capacities of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were assessed by culturing in vitro with PMA+Ionomycin or LPS. The intracellular cytokine expression was measured by flow cytometry in T lymphocytes and monocytes, respectively. The influence of the disease activity (measured as the SLE-disease activity index; SLEDAI) and the treatment the patients were receiving was evaluated. Results Serum IL10, IL6, and TNF, levels were increased in patients (P , 0.01), and a higher spontaneous (without stimuli) intracellular expression of IL10 in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes (P < 0.05) and of IL6 in monocytes (P = 0.01) were found. After stimulation, patients presented a higher percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes producing IL4 and IL10 (P , 0.01), and of monocytes producing IL6 (P = 0.04) and IL10 (P = 0.008). The SLEDAI score was positively correlated with the percentage of CD4+IL10+ and CD8+IL10+ T lymphocytes (P < 0.01), and inversely correlated with CD8+TNF,+ (P= 0.02), CD4+IFN,+ (P = 0.04) and CD8+ IFN,+ (P = 0.002) T lymphocytes. Patients receiving high dose prednisone produced higher IL10, but they also were the patients with a more active disease. Conclusion Monocytes and T lymphocytes (CD4+ and CD8+) contribute to an overproduction of IL6 and IL10 in SLE; this correlates with the disease activity but is independent of the treatment the patients are receiving. © 2009 Clinical Cytometry Society [source]

    A decreased positivity for CD90 on human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is associated with a loss of immunosuppressive activity by MSCs,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 3 2009
    Diana Campioni
    Abstract Biologic and clinical interest in human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) has risen over the last years, mainly due to their immunosuppressive properties. In this study, we investigated the basis of immunomodulant possible variability using hMSC from different sources (amniotic membrane, chorion, and bone marrow from either healthy subjects or patients with hematological malignancies, HM) and having discordant positivity for several immunological markers. The CD90+ hMSC reduced lymphoproliferative response in phytohemagglutinin (PHA) activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) via sHLA-G and IL-10 up-modulation. On the contrary, hMSC showing a significantly lower expression for CD90 antigen, elicited a lymphoproliferative allogeneic response in PHA/PBMCs without any increase in soluble HLA-G and IL-10 levels. These data seems to suggest that CD90 molecule may be considered a novel predictive marker for hMSC inhibitory ability, and might cooperate with HLA-G molecule in regulating suppressive versus stimulatory properties of hMSC. These results may have clinical implication in either transplantation or in regenerative medicine fields. © 2008 Clinical Cytometry Society [source]

    In Vivo Perfusion of Human Skin Substitutes With Microvessels Formed by Adult Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    BACKGROUND At present, tissue-engineered human skin substitutes (HSSs) mainly function as temporary bioactive dressings due to inadequate perfusion. Failure to form functional vascular networks within the initial posttransplantation period compromises cell survival of the graft and its long-term viability in the wound bed. OBJECTIVES Our goal was to demonstrate that adult circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) seeded onto HSS can form functional microvessels capable of graft neovascularization and perfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS Adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) underwent CD34 selection and endothelial cell (EC) culture conditions. After in vitro expansion, flow cytometry verified EC phenotype before their incorporation into HSS. After 2 weeks in vivo, immunohistochemical analysis, immunofluorescent microscopy, and microfil polymer perfusion were performed. RESULTS CD34+ PBMCs differentiated into EPC demonstrating characteristic EC morphology and expression of CD31, Tie-2, and E-selectin after TNF,-induction. Numerous human CD31 and Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) microvessels within the engineered grafts (HSS/EPCs) inosculated with recipient murine circulation. Limitation of murine CD31 immunoreactivity to HSS margins showed angiogenesis was attributable to human EPC at 2 weeks posttransplantation. Delivery of intravenous rhodamine-conjugated UEA-1 and microfil polymer to HSS/EPCs demonstrated enhanced perfusion by functional microvessels compared to HSS control without EPCs. CONCLUSION We successfully engineered functional microvessels in HSS by incorporating adult circulating EPCs. This autologous EC source can form vascular conduits enabling perfusion and survival of human bioengineered tissues. [source]

    High-dose immunoglobulines and extracorporeal photochemotherapy in the treatment of febrile ulceronecrotic Mucha-Habermann disease

    Federica Marenco
    ABSTRACT Febrile ulcero-necrotic Mucha-Habermann disease (FUMHD) is a rare subtype of pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta (only 41 cases described to date), characterized by an acute onset of ulcero-necrotic papules accompanied by high fever and severe constitutional symptoms. We report a case of a 23-year-old man with a steroid-resistant FUMHD treated by intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) combined with methotrexate. Only one case of FUMHD treated by IVIG has been reported to date in literature. Also in our case, IVIG proved to be effective in inducing a dramatic improvement of ulceration and in arresting the appearance of new lesions. Moreover, in our experience we decided to perform a maintenance treatment with extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP), to the best of our knowledge not previously used in the treatment of pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta. ECP, which involves extracorporeal exposure of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to photo-activated 8-methoxypsoralen, induces an immunological reaction against auto-reactive T cell clones, without immune-depression and thus could potentially be useful particularly in FUMHD avoiding the risk of an infective reactivation. [source]

    Phenotypic and genetic analyses of T-cell-mediated immunoregulation in patients with Type 1 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 10 2006
    Y. Tsutsumi
    Abstract Aims To investigate the contribution of regulatory T cells and co-stimulatory molecules in CD4+ T cells to the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods Twelve patients with T1D, nine patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and 12 age-matched healthy control subjects participated. We analysed the proportions of CD25+CD4+ T cells and natural killer T cells (NKT cells), and the expression levels of Foxp3, CTLA-4, CD28, ICOS, PD-1 and BTLA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and purified CD4+ T cells. Results There were no significant differences in the proportions of CD25+ CD4+ T cells or NKT cells among the three groups. PD-1 expression levels of peripheral CD4+ T cells from T1D patients were significantly lower than those from healthy control subjects (P = 0.00066). In contrast, PD-1 expression levels were similar in SLE patients and healthy control subjects. The expression levels of Foxp3, CTLA-4, CD28, ICOS and BTLA were similar in the three groups. Conclusions Decreased expression of the PD-1 gene in CD4+ T cells may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of autoimmune T1D. As the population studied was small and heterogeneous, further studies are required to confirm the findings. [source]

    Cell microarray platform for anticancer drug development,

    Min-Jung Lee
    Abstract Pharmacodynamic assessment of whether a drug has interacted with and modified its target is an essential component of molecularly targeted clinical trials. Although many trials are written with the intent to assess tumor biopsies, if available, thus far the great majority of early drug trials have used peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as a tumor surrogate. Typically, PBMC are studied by low-throughput techniques such as Western blot. We present the use of a cell-based tissue microarray for assessment of anticancer drug activity in vivo. We demonstrate the utility of this technique for analysis of protein hyperacetylation in response to treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor, SNDX-275 in PBMC treated in vitro and in PBMC and bone marrow aspirates from patients in Phase I clinical trials with SNDX-275. We demonstrate that the cell microarray can be used to measure drug response in a high-throughput manner, allowing analysis of an entire trial on one or two glass slides. The cell microarray technique brings the advantages of the tissue microarray platform to the pharmacodynamic assessment of single cells, such as those isolated from bone marrow aspirates, fine needle aspirates, or malignant effusions, and to analysis of PBMC, the most commonly studied surrogate in oncology trials. Drug Dev Res 68:226,234, 2007. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Quantification by real-time PCR of the magnitude and duration of leucocyte-associated viraemia in horses infected with neuropathogenic vs. non-neuropathogenic strains of EHV- 1

    G. P. Allen
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Neurological disease in horses caused by infection with certain ,paralytic' strains of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is a potentially devastating condition the pathogenesis of which is poorly understood. Preliminary observations in both experimentally induced and naturally occurring cases of the central nervous system disease have revealed a more robust cell-associated viraemia in horses infected with paralytic isolates of EHV-1, relative to horses infected with abortigenic isolates. To investigate further this pathogenesis - rdevant question, the present study was performed using a greater number of horses and a more precise method for quantification of EHV-1 DNA present in viraemic leucocytes. Objective: To compare the magnitude and duration of leucocyte-associated viraemia in seronegative, age-matched foals following infection with paralytic vs. abortigenic isolates of EHV-1. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected from 20 weanling foals at 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14 and 21 days after intranasal inoculation with either paralytic or abortigenic isolates of EHV-1. The amount of EHV-1 DNA present in each PBMC sample was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Results: Foals inoculated with paralytic strains of EHV-1 developed both a greater magnitude and longer duration of PBMC-associated viraemia than foals inoculated with abortigenic strains of the virus. Conclusions: Both the higher magnitude and longer duration of cell-associated viraemia contribute to the risk for development of neurological signs in horses infected with paralytic strains of EHV-1. Potential relevance: Our results provide empirically derived, scientific data that contributes to a better understanding of the pathogenetic basis for the differing abilities of paralytic and abortigenic strains of EHV-1 to cause post infection central nervous system disease in the horse. The findings identify the importance of minimising the quantitative burden of viraemic leucocytes that follows exposure to the virus, by the use of effective therapeutic antiviral drugs and efficacious prophylactic vaccines that stimulate cytotoxic immune responses against EHV-1 infected cells. [source]

    Expression of inflammatory molecules and associations with BMI in children

    George V. Z. Dedoussis
    Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40 (5): 388,392 Abstract Background, Adipose tissue secrets several adipokines that have been proposed to be enrolled in many inflammatory pathways. Our aim was to investigate the adipokine expression in adipose tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in children. Materials and methods, Thirty-one (17 males and 14 females) healthy children aged 10·9 ± 1·8 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 19·3 ± 3·5 kg m,2 were enrolled. Adipokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and leptin) gene expression was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR in adipose tissue and PBMCs from the same children. Their serum levels were also measured. Results, BMI was positively correlated with leptin gene expression in adipose tissue and with leptin serum levels (, = 0·476, P = 0·006 and , = 0·576, P = 0·003 respectively). Leptin's serum levels were positively correlated with leptin gene expression in adipose tissue (, = 0·462, P = 0·02). Adipose tissue gene expression of leptin and TNF-alpha and serum leptin and TNF-alpha serum levels were positively correlated (, = 0·752, P < 0·001, , = 0·311 and P = 0·015 respectively). In PBMCs, a positive correlation between TNF-alpha and IL-6 expression was found (, = 0·526, P = 0·042). Conclusion, We demonstrated powerful correlations of adipokines gene expression in adipose tissue and PBMCs in children, underlying that these molecules share common pathways related to childhood obesity. [source]

    Irradiated cultured apoptotic peripheral blood mononuclear cells regenerate infarcted myocardium

    H. J. Ankersmit
    Abstract Background, Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is followed by post AMI cardiac remodelling, often leading to congestive heart failure. Homing of c-kit+ endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) has been thought to be the optimal source for regenerating infarcted myocardium. Methods, Immune function of viable peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was evaluated after co-culture with irradiated apoptotic PBMC (IA-PBMC) in vitro. Viable PBMC, IA-PBMC and culture supernatants (SN) thereof were obtained after 24 h. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were utilized to quantify interleukin-8 (IL-8), vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) in PBMC, SN and SN exposed fibroblasts. Cell suspensions of viable- and IA-PBMC were infused in an experimental rat AMI model. Immunohistological analysis was performed to detect inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cells within 72 h post-infarction. Functional data and determination of infarction size were quantified by echocardiography and Elastica van Gieson staining. Results, The IA-PBMC attenuated immune reactivity and resulted in secretion of pro-angiogenic IL-8 and MMP9 in vitro. Fibroblasts exposed to viable and IA-PBMC derived SN caused RNA increment of IL-8 and MMP9. AMI rats that were infused with IA-PBMC cell suspension evidenced enhanced homing of endothelial progenitor cells within 72 h as compared to control (medium alone, viable-PBMC). Echocardiography showed a significant reduction in infarction size and improvement in post AMI remodelling as evidenced by an attenuated loss of ejection fraction. Conclusion, These data indicate that infusion of IA-PBMC cell suspension in experimental AMI circumvented inflammation, caused preferential homing of regenerative EPC and replaced infarcted myocardium. [source]

    Haemodialysis induces mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis

    D. S. C. Raj
    Abstract Background Mitochondria play a crucial role in the regulation of the endogenous pathways of apoptosis activated by oxidant stress. Nuclear factor-,B (NF-,B) is a central integration site for pro-inflammatory signals and oxidative stress. Materials and methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from eight end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients before haemodialysis (Pre-HD) and during the last 10 min of HD (End-HD). A new polysulfone membrane (F70, Fresenius) was used for dialysis. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial redox potential (,,m) and PBMC apoptosis were determined by flow-cytometry. Results Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) (24·9 ± 7·0 vs. 17·4 ± 5·5 pg dL,1, P < 0·05), IL-6 soluble receptor (52·2 ± 4·9 vs. 37·6 ± 3·2 ng dL,1, P < 0·02) and IL-6 gp130 (405·7 ± 41·0 vs. 235·1 ± 38·4 ng dL,1, P < 0·02) were higher end-HD compared to pre-HD. IL-6 secretion by the isolated PBMC (24·0 ± 2·3 vs. 19·3 ± 3·5 pg dL,1, P < 0·02) increased end-HD. Percentage of lymphocytes exhibiting collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (43·4 ± 4·6% vs. 32·6 ± 2·9%, P < 0·01), apoptosis (33·4 ± 7·1% vs. 23·7 ± 7·7%, P < 0·01), and generation of superoxide (20·7 ± 5·2% vs. 12·5 ± 2·9%, P < 0·02) and hydrogen peroxide (51·1 ± 7·8% vs.38·2 ± 5·9%, P < 0·04) were higher at end-HD than pre-HD. NF-,B activation (3144·1 ± 208·1 vs. 2033·4 ± 454·6 pg well,1, P < 0·02), expression of B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (6494·6 ± 1461 vs. 3501·5 ± 796·5 ng mL,1, P < 0·03) and heat shock protein-70 (9·81 ± 1·47 vs. 6·38 ± 1·0 ng mL,1, P < 0·05) increased during HD. Conclusions Intra-dialytic activation of cytokines, together with impaired mitochondrial function, promotes generation of ROS culminating in augmented PBMC apoptosis. There is concomitant activation of pathways aimed at attenuation of cell stress and apoptosis during HD. [source]