Blood DNA (blood + dna)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Association between leptin receptor gene polymorphisms and early-onset prostate cancer

BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2003
Z. Kote-Jarai
Significant tissue loss is a consistent feature of ureteric obstruction with, most studies showing increased programmed cell death or apoptosis of kidney epithelial cells. The study by Chuang et al. showed that there is also muscular damage during obstruction, specifically of the ureteric myocytes. More importantly they show for the first time that this induction of cell death is associated with the increased expression of cytochrome c and the caspases, key proteins that drive the induction of apoptosis. Admittedly they do not show whether cytochrome c is released from the mitochondria or that the caspases are truly activated, important events in the cell death pathway, but an increase in their expression does indicate their role in this process. Understanding the pathways leading to tissue loss during ureteric obstruction has important implications in the development of novel treatments for this condition. OBJECTIVE To report a case-control study examining the relationship between polymorphisms in the leptin receptor (OBR) gene and the development of young-onset prostate cancer, because epidemiological studies report that prostate cancer risk is associated with animal fat intake, and thus we investigated if this association occurs via this genetic mechanism. PATIENTS, SUBJECTS AND METHODS The Lys109Arg (OBR1) and Gln223Arg (OBR2) polymorphisms in the coding region of OBR were studied in blood DNA from 271 patients with prostate cancer aged < 56 years at diagnosis and 277 geographically matched control subjects. Cases were collected through the Cancer Research UK/British Prostate Group Familial Prostate Cancer Study. Blood DNA was genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction and a restriction enzyme digest. RESULTS There was no statistically significant association between the OBR genotype and prostate cancer risk; men homozygous for 109Arg genotype had a slightly increased risk for prostate cancer, with a relative risk (95% confidence interval) of 1.36 (0.65,2.85), and those homozygous for the 223Arg allele had some reduction in prostate cancer risk, at 0.82 (0.58,1.26), but neither was statistically significant. CONCLUSION This case-control study showed no significant association between leptin receptor gene polymorphisms and the risk of young-onset prostate cancer, suggesting that genetic variations in OBR are unlikely to have a major role in the development of early-onset prostate cancer in the UK. [source]


Paternal germline mosaicism in Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa

EXPERIMENTAL DERMATOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
Peter B. Cserhalmi-Friedman
Abstract: We studied a single patient with the lethal (Herlitz) type of junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB). Screening for mutations in the LAMB3 gene in the patient revealed the previously described hotspot mutation R635X and a novel one basepair deletion in exon 10. The single basepair deletion 1094delA could be detected in the clinically unaffected mother, while the nonsense mutation R635X could not be found in the peripheral blood DNA of either parent. After excluding non-paternity by microsatellite analysis using random markers on chromosomes 3, 8 and 18, we determined that the mutation R635X in the proband was most likely the result of a de novo event or alternatively, germline mosaicism. The parents requested prenatal diagnosis for a second pregnancy, and while the maternal mutation 1094delA could not be detected in DNA from the fetus, unexpectedly, the mutation R635X was present in the chorionic villus DNA. These findings were most consistent with paternal germline mosaicism for the recessive mutation R635X. The results have had a significant impact on the genetic counseling in this family. To our knowledge, this study represents the first documented case of germline mosaicism in junctional epidermolysis bullosa, and serves as a reminder that germline mosaicism should be considered in cases in which a ,new' mutation is found in the offspring of a clinically and/or genetically unaffected parent. [source]


Hereditary gastrointestinal stromal tumors sharing the KIT Exon 17 germline mutation p.Asp820Tyr develop through different cytogenetic progression pathways

GENES, CHROMOSOMES AND CANCER, Issue 2 2010
Isabel Veiga
Hereditary gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder originated by germline mutations in the KIT or PDGFRA genes. We report the third family with hereditary predisposition to GIST due to the KIT Exon 17 germline mutation p.Asp820Tyr and characterize the cytogenetic progression pathways followed by different GIST sharing the same primary genetic event, using a combination of chromosome banding, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses. The missense mutation p.Asp820Tyr was detected in the proband's rectal and gastric GIST, as well as in his aunt's GIST epiplon metastasis. The mutation p.Asp820Tyr was subsequently also found in the proband's peripheral blood DNA, as well as in that of 4 of 10 relatives thus far analyzed. CGH analysis revealed loss of 14q and 15q in the proband's gastric lesion, whereas FISH analysis of the proband's rectal GIST did not detect loss of 14q and 15q, but instead loss of 4q and 22q and gain of 20q, indicating that the two tumors were independent GIST. Chromosome banding and CGH analyses of the aunt's GIST epiplon metastasis revealed multiple cytogenetic alterations, including 1p loss, but none in common with the two proband's GIST. We conclude that, although the patients share the same KIT Exon 17 germline mutation, the multiple GIST analyzed followed different pathogenetic progression pathways, each of which did not significantly differ from what has been described in sporadic GIST. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Antiretroviral genotypic resistance in plasma RNA and whole blood DNA in HIV-1 infected patients failing HAART,

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 10 2008
Annalisa Saracino
Abstract The extent to which HIV-1 proviral DNA mutations cause clinically relevant antiretroviral resistance is still controversial. Paired plasma HIV-1 RNA and whole blood DNA were compared in patients failing HAART to investigate if the additional knowledge of archived mutations could improve the selection of potentially active drugs. Seventy-three HIV-1-infected patients with first/second HAART failure were studied before starting a new regimen based on RNA genotyping. Follow-up data after a 12-week therapy were available. DNA genotyping was retrospectively performed on stored whole blood samples and mutational profiles were compared to those from RNA. The mean number of IAS pol mutations was significantly higher in RNA (4.45,,2.76) than in DNA (2.88,,2.47) (P,<,0.001). DNA genotyping provided a 6% increase in detection of resistance-associated mutations. Among 64/73 patients showing discordant DNA/RNA profiles, 54 (84%) also differed for predicted active drugs. 16/73 (22%) patients had ,1 mutation revealed by DNA genotyping alone, probably affecting therapy success in 2/16. However, neither RNA/DNA discordance nor detection of isolated DNA mutations were statistically associated with outcome. In conclusion, plasma RNA remains the elective choice for HIV genotyping in patients with therapy failure, even if the detection of proviral resistance-associated mutations, not simultaneously found in RNA, is a frequent event. Therefore, in some cases DNA plus RNA genotyping might assist in choosing more accurately subsequent antiretroviral regimens. J. Med. Virol. 80:1695,1706, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Association between leptin receptor gene polymorphisms and early-onset prostate cancer

BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2003
Z. Kote-Jarai
Significant tissue loss is a consistent feature of ureteric obstruction with, most studies showing increased programmed cell death or apoptosis of kidney epithelial cells. The study by Chuang et al. showed that there is also muscular damage during obstruction, specifically of the ureteric myocytes. More importantly they show for the first time that this induction of cell death is associated with the increased expression of cytochrome c and the caspases, key proteins that drive the induction of apoptosis. Admittedly they do not show whether cytochrome c is released from the mitochondria or that the caspases are truly activated, important events in the cell death pathway, but an increase in their expression does indicate their role in this process. Understanding the pathways leading to tissue loss during ureteric obstruction has important implications in the development of novel treatments for this condition. OBJECTIVE To report a case-control study examining the relationship between polymorphisms in the leptin receptor (OBR) gene and the development of young-onset prostate cancer, because epidemiological studies report that prostate cancer risk is associated with animal fat intake, and thus we investigated if this association occurs via this genetic mechanism. PATIENTS, SUBJECTS AND METHODS The Lys109Arg (OBR1) and Gln223Arg (OBR2) polymorphisms in the coding region of OBR were studied in blood DNA from 271 patients with prostate cancer aged < 56 years at diagnosis and 277 geographically matched control subjects. Cases were collected through the Cancer Research UK/British Prostate Group Familial Prostate Cancer Study. Blood DNA was genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction and a restriction enzyme digest. RESULTS There was no statistically significant association between the OBR genotype and prostate cancer risk; men homozygous for 109Arg genotype had a slightly increased risk for prostate cancer, with a relative risk (95% confidence interval) of 1.36 (0.65,2.85), and those homozygous for the 223Arg allele had some reduction in prostate cancer risk, at 0.82 (0.58,1.26), but neither was statistically significant. CONCLUSION This case-control study showed no significant association between leptin receptor gene polymorphisms and the risk of young-onset prostate cancer, suggesting that genetic variations in OBR are unlikely to have a major role in the development of early-onset prostate cancer in the UK. [source]


Very early detection of RET proto-oncogene mutation is crucial for preventive thyroidectomy in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 children

CANCER, Issue 2 2002
Presence of C-cell malignant disease in asymptomatic carriers
Abstract BACKGROUND Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is an inherited disease caused by germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, and is responsible for the development of endocrine neoplasia. Its prognosis is dependent on the appearance and spread of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Relatives at risk can be identified before clinical or biochemical signs of the disease become evident. METHODS Twenty-one families with MEN 2 (16 families with MEN 2A and 5 families with MEN 2B) were studied. Peripheral blood DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. DNA sequence or restriction enzyme analysis was performed to detect mutations of RET proto-oncogene exons 10, 11, and 16. Molecular analysis was carried out in all index patients as well as in 98 relatives of MEN 2A patients (60 juveniles, ages 6 months to 21 years, and 38 adults, ages 22 to 81 years) and in 13 relatives (6 juveniles ages 10 to 21 years, and 7 adults ages 41 to 66 years) from MEN 2B families. RESULTS Molecular studies showed a mutation at codon 634, exon 11 in all MEN 2A patients. All MEN 2B patients showed an ATG to ACG (Met918Thr) mutation. In MEN 2A families, 42 out of 98 relatives were affected. Total thyroidectomy was performed in 18 juvenile carriers ages 17 months to 21 years. Histopathologic studies of the glands revealed parafollicular cell (C-cell) hyperplasia in all of these carriers, medullary thyroid carcinoma in 15 carriers, and only one carrier with lymph node metastases. CONCLUSIONS The consistent finding of C-cell disease in all the juvenile carriers who underwent preventive thyroidectomy emphasizes the relevance of early screening in children at risk of developing MTC. The presence of MTC in the specimen of prophylactic thyroidectomy from a 17 month old girl highlights the importance of thyroidectomy as soon as the molecular diagnosis is confirmed. Cancer 2002;94:323,30. 2002 American Cancer Society. [source]