Blood Cell Production (blood + cell_production)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Blood Cell Production

  • red blood cell production

  • Selected Abstracts

    Gene transfer by electroporation into hemogenic endothelium in the avian embryo

    Catalina Ana Rosselló
    Abstract Hematopoiesis is the dynamic process whereby blood cells are continuously produced in an organism. Blood cell production is sustained by a population of self-renewing multipotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) throughout the life of an organism. Cells with definitive HSC properties appear in the mid-gestation embryo as dense clusters of cells budding from the floor of the aorta, and that of the vitelline and umbilical arteries in the aorta-gonads-mesonephros region. Attempts to genetically modify the aortic floor from which these HSCs arise have been unsuccessful in the mouse, since the regulation of gene expression in the hemogenic endothelium is largely unknown. Here we report the implementation of gene transfer by electroporation into dorsal aortic endothelial cells in the chick embryo. This approach provides a quick and reproducible method of generating gain/loss-of-function models to investigate the function of genes involved in HSC birth. Developmental Dynamics 239:1748,1754, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Regulation of erythropoietin production

    K.-U. Eckardt
    Abstract The glycoprotein hormone erythropoietin (EPO) is an essential growth and survival factor for erythroid progenitor cells, and the rate of red blood cell production is normally determined by the serum EPO concentration. EPO production is inversely related to oxygen availability, so that an effective feedback loop is established, which controls erythropoiesis. Since recombinant EPO became available as an effective therapeutic agent, significant progress has also been made in understanding the basis of this feedback control. The main determinant of EPO synthesis is the transcriptional activity of its gene in liver and kidneys, which is related to local oxygen tensions. This control is achieved by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF), consisting of a constitutive ,-subunit and one of two alternative oxygen-regulated HIF, subunits (HIF-1, and HIF-2,). In the presence of oxygen (normoxia) the HIF, subunits are hydroxylated, which targets them for proteasomal degradation. Under hypoxia, because of the lack of molecular oxygen, HIF cannot be hydroxylated and is thereby stabilized. Although HIF-1, was the first transcription factor identified through its ability to bind to an enhancer sequence of the EPO gene, more recent evidence suggests that HIF-2, is responsible for the regulation of EPO. Although EPO is a prime example for an oxygen- regulated gene, the role of the HIF system goes far beyond the regulation of EPO, because it operates widely in almost all cells and controls a broad transcriptional response to hypoxia, including genes involved in cell metabolism, angiogenesis and vascular tone. Further evidence suggests that apart from its effect as an erythropoietic hormone EPO acts as a paracrine, tissue-protective protein in the brain and possibly also in other organs. [source]

    Erythropoietin-induced, antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia,

    The Pure Red Cell Aplasia Global Scientific Advisory Board (GSAB)
    Abstract Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare haematological condition that is characterized by severe aregenerative anaemia due to an almost complete cessation of red blood cell production. While antibody-mediated PRCA was extremely rare before 1998, the incidence of this disorder increased sharply after 1998 in patients receiving subcutaneous epoetin alfa produced by Ortho-Biotech and marketed outside the USA. The diagnosis of antibody-mediated PRCA relies mostly on the results of bone marrow biopsy or aspirate, which shows an absence of erythroid precursors and/or red cell maturation arrest while counts of white cell and platelet precursors are normal, and on the identification of circulating anti-erythropoietin antibodies. Retrospective analysis of PRCA cases has shown that immunosuppressive therapy can induce a disappearance of anti-erythropoietin antibodies in most patients. [source]

    Purification and characterization of recombinant human erythropoietin from milk of transgenic pigs

    Eun Gyo Lee
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Human erythropoietin (hEPO), a hydrophobic acidic glycoprotein responsible for the regulation of red blood cell production in mammals, is used for the treatment of anemia. In general, the purification of transgenic animal-derived therapeutic proteins is not easy due to their low titer concentrations and abundant contaminant proteins. For the first time, here the purification and characterization of rhEPO from the milk of transgenic pigs are described. RESULTS: The rhEPO was purified by heparin chromatography, reverse-phase chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography, resulting in a 16.5% yield and > 98% purity. The rhEPO purified from the milk of transgenic pigs contained less acidic isoforms and was underglycosylated in contrast to CHO-derived rhEPO. Cell proliferation of the F-36/EPO-dependent cell line was proportional to the dose of transgenic pig-derived rhEPO. CONCLUSION: Transgenic pig-derived rhEPO with high purity was achieved after three-step chromatography following two-step precipitation. The transgenic pig-derived rhEPO was demonstrated to have comparable potency with CHO-derived rhEPO. Transgenic pig-derived rhEPO may not be therapeutically feasible because of different glycosylation, and thus further studies are required to elucidate the effect of this aberrant glycosylation on the biological activity and stability in vivo. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Derivated fetal haemoglobin as a marker for red cell age in the human fetus reflecting stimulated or impaired red blood cell production

    PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, Issue 7 2001
    Margriet Huisman
    Abstract We have determined whether derivated fetal haemoglobin (dHbF, consisting of glycated and acetylated HbF) can be used as a cell age marker for fetal red blood cells (RBCs). Cord blood was obtained between 19 and 39 weeks of gestation from 28 alloimmunised anaemic fetuses (23 RhD+ and 5,Kell) and from 20 non-anaemic fetuses and newborns (controls). Density gradient centrifugation was applied to 36 samples (20 RhD+, 15 controls and 1,Kell) to obtain fractions of increasing cell age. Blood samples were used for measurements of mean cellular volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), pyruvate kinase activity (PK) and derivated fetal haemoglobin (dHbF) by cation-exchange HPLC. Reticulocytes were counted only in the whole blood samples. In all density gradient separated RBC fractions, the values for MCV, MCH and PK activity decreased and those of MCHC and dHbF increased with increasing density (equivalent to increasing cell age). The mean density was lower for RBCs of the anaemic RHD group (1.072±0.007,g/ml) than for the non-anaemic controls (1.077±0.005,g/ml) (p<0.05) The RBC density of the Kell sensitised fetus did not differ from those of the controls. In the control group, the values of the cell age markers in whole blood changed significantly with the gestational age, showing an increase of mean age of the erythrocyte population. The best linear relationship was found for dHbF (y=6.28+0.17*weeks; r=0.84; p<0.001). In the anaemic RhD+ fetuses, the RBC age markers did not change with gestational age; the dHbF percentages were lower, and the MCV, MCH, PK values and the reticulocyte counts were higher than in the controls (0.05[source]

    The causes of porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia: A reappraisal of the iron-deficiency-anemia hypothesis

    Phillip L. Walker
    Abstract Porosities in the outer table of the cranial vault (porotic hyperostosis) and orbital roof (cribra orbitalia) are among the most frequent pathological lesions seen in ancient human skeletal collections. Since the 1950s, chronic iron-deficiency anemia has been widely accepted as the probable cause of both conditions. Based on this proposed etiology, bioarchaeologists use the prevalence of these conditions to infer living conditions conducive to dietary iron deficiency, iron malabsorption, and iron loss from both diarrheal disease and intestinal parasites in earlier human populations. This iron-deficiency-anemia hypothesis is inconsistent with recent hematological research that shows iron deficiency per se cannot sustain the massive red blood cell production that causes the marrow expansion responsible for these lesions. Several lines of evidence suggest that the accelerated loss and compensatory over-production of red blood cells seen in hemolytic and megaloblastic anemias is the most likely proximate cause of porotic hyperostosis. Although cranial vault and orbital roof porosities are sometimes conflated under the term porotic hyperostosis, paleopathological and clinical evidence suggests they often have different etiologies. Reconsidering the etiology of these skeletal conditions has important implications for current interpretations of malnutrition and infectious disease in earlier human populations. Am J Phys Anthropol 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Christian Stockmann
    SUMMARY 1The mechanisms controlling the expression of the gene encoding for the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) are exemplary for oxygen-regulated gene expression. In humans and other mammals, hypoxia modulates EPO levels by increasing expression of the EPO gene. An association between polycythaemia and people living at high altitudes was first reported more than 100 years ago. 2Since the identification of EPO as the humoral regulator of red blood cell production and the cloning of the EPO gene, considerable progress has been made in understanding the regulation of EPO gene expression. This has finally led to the identification of a widespread cellular oxygen-sensing mechanism. Central to this mechanism is the transcription factor complex hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1. 3The abundance and activity of HIF-1, a heterodimer of an ,- and ,-subunit, is predominantly regulated by oxygen-dependent post-translational hydroxylation of the ,-subunit. Non-heme ferrous iron containing hydroxylases use dioxygen and 2-oxoglutarate to specifically target proline and an asparagine residue in HIF-1,. As such, the three prolyl hydroxylases (prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein (PHD) 1, PHD2 and PHD3) and the asparagyl hydroxylase (factor inhibiting HIF (FIH)-1) act as cellular oxygen sensors. In addition to erythropoiesis, HIF-1 regulates a broad range of physiologically relevant genes involved in angiogenesis, apoptosis, vasomotor control and energy metabolism. Therefore, the HIF system is implicated in the pathophysiology of many human diseases. 4In addition to the tight regulation by oxygen tension, temporal and tissue-specific signals limit expression of the EPO gene primarily to the fetal liver and the adult kidney. [source]