Bladder Syndrome (bladder + syndrome)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Bladder Syndrome

  • interstitial painful bladder syndrome
  • overactive bladder syndrome
  • painful bladder syndrome


  • Selected Abstracts


    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,SEXUAL PAIN DISORDERS: Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome as a Cause of Sexual Pain in Women: A Diagnosis to Consider

    THE JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, Issue 3 2007
    Kristene Whitmore MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Sexual pain, or dyspareunia, is a common symptom among women. Dyspareunia presents in many ways, and arises from a range of causes. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is one potential cause that may frequently be overlooked by clinicians. Interstitial cystitis is increasingly recognized as more common than was once thought. However, it can be difficult to identify, as the symptoms of IC/PBS (urinary urgency and frequency, dyspareunia, nocturia, and pelvic pain) overlap with other urogynecologic conditions. Aim., This article will review the association between dyspareunia and IC/PBS, and will provide an approach to the diagnosis and treatment of IC/PBS in women with sexual pain. Methods and Main Outcome Measures., Review of the medical literature and expert medical opinion. Results., Many women with IC/PBS experience dyspareunia, often in conjunction with chronic pelvic pain. When IC/PBS is suspected, there are simple measures to aid in the diagnosis of this condition, and treatments are readily available. Conclusions., When a woman presents with the symptoms of urinary urgency and frequency, dyspareunia, nocturia, and/or pelvic pain, IC/PBS should be part of the diagnostic evaluation. Whitmore K, Siegel JF, and Kellogg-Spadt S. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome as a cause of sexual pain in women: A diagnosis to consider. J Sex Med 2007;4:720,727. [source]


    Trospium chloride once-daily extended release is effective and well tolerated for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome: an integrated analysis of two randomised, phase III trials

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 12 2009
    D. R. Staskin
    Summary Background:, Trospium chloride is an antimuscarinic agent with a hydrophilic polar quaternary amine structure that is minimally metabolised by hepatic cytochrome P450 and is actively excreted in the urine, each of which confers a potential benefit with regard to efficacy and tolerability. Purpose:, We analysed pooled data from two identically designed phase III trials of a once-daily, extended-release (XR) formulation of trospium chloride (trospium XR 60-mg capsules) in subjects with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). Methods:, Adults with OAB of , 6 months' duration with urinary urgency, frequency and , 1 urge urinary incontinence (UUI) episode/day were enrolled in these multicentre, parallel-group, double-blind trials. Participants were randomised (1 : 1) to receive trospium XR 60 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy variables were changes in urinary frequency and the number of UUI episodes/day. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout. Results:, In total, 1165 subjects were randomised (trospium XR, 578; placebo, 587). At baseline, subjects averaged 12.8 toilet voids/day and 4.1 UUI episodes/day. Compared with placebo, subjects treated with trospium XR had significantly greater reductions from baseline in the mean number of toilet voids/day (,1.9 vs. ,2.7; p < 0.001) and UUI episodes/day (,1.8 vs. ,2.4; p < 0.001) at week 12. The most frequent AEs considered possibly related to study treatment were dry mouth (trospium XR, 10.7%; placebo, 3.7%) and constipation (trospium XR, 8.5%; placebo, 1.5%). Notably, rates of central nervous system (CNS) AEs were lower with trospium XR vs. placebo (dizziness: 0.2% vs. 1.0%; headache: 1.4% vs. 2.4%). Conclusions:, Treatment with trospium XR resulted in statistically significant improvements in both of the dual primary and all of the secondary outcome variables. Trospium XR demonstrated favourable rates of AEs, particularly CNS AEs (numerically lower than with placebo) and dry mouth (lower than previously reported with trospium immediate-release, although not compared in a head-to-head study). [source]


    Botulinum toxin injection therapy in the management of lower urinary tract dysfunction

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 2006
    A. K. PATEL
    Summary We have great pleasure in introducing this supplement containing a collection of articles reviewing the contemporary clinical management of functional disorders of the lower urinary tract (LUT) with particular emphasis on the potential role of botulinum toxin injection therapy. Detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD), detrusor overactivity (DO), painful bladder syndrome (PBS) and LUT symptoms consequent on bladder outflow obstruction (LUTS/BPH) have all been treated by the injection of botulinum toxin. This treatment can be administered as a minimally invasive, outpatient procedure which on the initial trials for DO (particularly of neurogenic aetiology) shows a remarkable efficacy with effects lasting up to a year after a single treatment with few significant side effects. Success has been reported with the management of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia and preliminary series report positive outcomes in the management of PBS and LUTS/BPH. However, most of the studies to date include small numbers and have a recruitment bias with few randomised controlled trials having been reported. The answers to some of the key questions are addressed with reference to our contemporary knowledge. It is clear that considerable work both clinical and basic science still needs to be performed to answer the many remaining questions with regard to this treatment modality but undoubtedly it will be a major future treatment option in those with intractable symptoms or those unable to tolerate medications. Currently, all botulinum toxin use for urological conditions is off-label and unlicensed, therefore caution should be exercised until future large randomised studies are reported. [source]


    The basics behind bladder pain: A review of data on lower urinary tract sensations

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 2003
    J. J. WYNDAELE
    Abstract Interstitial cystitis is a syndrome consisting of frequency, urgency, and bladder pain that increases with bladder filling and improves temporarily after voiding. The exact cause or causes are not as yet fully understood. This leads to uncertainty in diagnosis and treatment. There is need for more knowledge, and to acquire this for more research. The fact that the condition causes pain, a pathologic stimulation of sensory fibres, makes understanding the basic sensory mechanisms in the lower urinary tract in normal and pathologic conditions mandatory. In this article we review the data on bladder sensation from the last 25 years and the possible relation with painful bladder syndrome. [source]


    Interstitial Cystitis and the Therapeutic Effect of Suplatast Tosilate

    LUTS, Issue 2009
    Yukio HAYASHI
    Painful bladder syndrome (PBS)/interstitial cystitis (IC) can be a chronic and debilitating disease characterized by urinary urgency, frequency, and bladder pain, which are often very difficult to treat, regardless of currently-proposed treatments. Suplatast tosilate (IPD-1151T) is an immunoregulator that suppresses Th2 cytokine production, immunoglobulin E (IgE) synthesis, chemical mediator release from mast cells, and eosinophilic recruitment. In a preliminary, open-label clinical study of IPD-1151T in 14 women with IC, treatment with IPD-1151T significantly increased bladder capacity and decreased urinary urgency, urinary frequency, and lower abdominal pain, as measured by the IC symptom index, in patients with non-ulcerative IC. A concomitant reduction in immunological parameters (eosinophils, IgE, and urine T cells) was observed. Also, in basic experimental studies using hydrochloric acid-induced chronic cystitis rats, the oral administration of IPD-1151T (0.1,100 mg/kg/day) for 7 days after the induction of cystitis dose dependently increased the intercontraction intervals and micturition volume. In addition, the infiltration of mast cells and eosinophils into the bladder was suppressed by IPD-1151T. These findings suggest that IPD-1151T could be a new medicine for treating debilitating symptoms, such as bladder pain and urinary frequency in PBS/IC. [source]


    Urgency: All or none phenomenon?,

    NEUROUROLOGY AND URODYNAMICS, Issue 4 2010
    Stefan De Wachter
    Abstract Urgency is the key symptom of a very prevalent symptom complex, the overactive bladder syndrome. Addressing urgency as a hallmark for detrusor overactivity is for physicians very comfortable, but appears to be an oversimplification of a very complex symptom entity. This overview tries to put the relevant literature on urgency against the question whether urgency is an all or none phenomenon, and summarizes the current views on how urgency is perceived. Neurourol. Urodynam. 29:616,617, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of cystometry using saline versus 0.3 M potassium chloride infusion in women with overactive bladder syndrome,,

    NEUROUROLOGY AND URODYNAMICS, Issue 1 2007
    Joe Philip
    Abstract Aim To evaluate the effect of 0.3 M potassium chloride on cystometric parameters by comparing it with normal saline as a filling solution in women with overactive bladder (OAB). Patients and Methods Twenty-three women with significant OAB symptoms underwent consecutive cystometrograms (CMGs) using 0.9% normal saline (NS) and 0.3 M potassium chloride (KCl), the order of which was randomized for each patient. Individual CMGs were performed by separate investigators and both patients and investigators were blinded to the order in which each solution was given and to the results of the other CMG. Results Regardless of the nature of the filling solution, the order in which the CMGs were performed had little influence on either first desire to void (FDV, mean 83.5 ml vs. 117.8 ml for first and second CMGs respectively, P,=,0.10) or on maximum cystometric capacity (Cmax, mean 265.0 ml vs. 264.4 ml, P,=,0.98). KCl produced a significant (24%) reduction in mean Cmax compared to NS (mean 228.6 ml vs. 300.8 ml, P,=,0.001), irrespective of the order of infusion. Conclusion This comparative study using 0.3 M KCl versus NS as filling solutions suggests that intravesical potassium may not simply act on urothelial sensory nerve endings; it may also stimulate detrusor muscle contraction. These findings may influence the interpretation of the potassium sensitivity test in patients with OAB symptoms, particularly in those suspected of having interstitial cystitis. Neurourol. Urodynam. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    How do you stretch a bladder?

    NEUROUROLOGY AND URODYNAMICS, Issue 1 2005
    A survey of UK practice, a literature review, a recommendation of a standard approach
    Abstract Aims To assess how and why hydrodistension of the bladder is performed by UK urologists and to compare this practise with the published literature on distension. To suggest a standardised technique for hydrodistension to allow comparison of diagnostic and therapeutic studies. Methods A questionnaire was sent to all UK consultant urologists. Questions addressed the indications for short bladder distension (SBD), details of technique, evaluation of outcome, and awareness of evidence base. The literature on bladder distension was reviewed. Results The majority of respondents perform SBD, principally in the diagnosis and therapy of interstitial cystitis (IC). There was considerable variation in the duration of distension, repetition of distension, the pressure used for distension, and the measurement of bladder capacity. The literature on the technique of hydrodistension is imprecise and no respondent was able to cite literature to support his or her practice. We suggest a simple, more objective technique for performing hydrodistension. Conclusions SBD is widely used. There is marked variability in technique and little more than anecdotal evidence to support any particular approach. Research into the evaluation and treatment of painful bladder syndrome in general and IC in particular would be facilitated by the adoption of a standardised technique. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,SEXUAL PAIN DISORDERS: Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome as a Cause of Sexual Pain in Women: A Diagnosis to Consider

    THE JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, Issue 3 2007
    Kristene Whitmore MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Sexual pain, or dyspareunia, is a common symptom among women. Dyspareunia presents in many ways, and arises from a range of causes. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is one potential cause that may frequently be overlooked by clinicians. Interstitial cystitis is increasingly recognized as more common than was once thought. However, it can be difficult to identify, as the symptoms of IC/PBS (urinary urgency and frequency, dyspareunia, nocturia, and pelvic pain) overlap with other urogynecologic conditions. Aim., This article will review the association between dyspareunia and IC/PBS, and will provide an approach to the diagnosis and treatment of IC/PBS in women with sexual pain. Methods and Main Outcome Measures., Review of the medical literature and expert medical opinion. Results., Many women with IC/PBS experience dyspareunia, often in conjunction with chronic pelvic pain. When IC/PBS is suspected, there are simple measures to aid in the diagnosis of this condition, and treatments are readily available. Conclusions., When a woman presents with the symptoms of urinary urgency and frequency, dyspareunia, nocturia, and/or pelvic pain, IC/PBS should be part of the diagnostic evaluation. Whitmore K, Siegel JF, and Kellogg-Spadt S. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome as a cause of sexual pain in women: A diagnosis to consider. J Sex Med 2007;4:720,727. [source]


    Improvements in overactive bladder syndrome after polypropylene mesh surgery for cystocele

    AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Nobuo OKUI
    Background: The International Continence Society has defined overactive bladder syndrome (OABS) by the following set of symptoms: ,urgency, with or without urge incontinence, usually with urinary frequency and nocturia'. OABS and cystocele often coexist. Aim: This study aimed to analyse the changes in the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) of women followed up for one year after anterior repair surgery performed using a polypropylene mesh. In this surgery, a tape with four straps designed for optimum tissue holding capacity was fixed to the obturator foramen. Material and methods: Thirty-four women were operated using the abovementioned mesh. The OABSS, maximal urinary flow rate (Qmax) and postvoid residual (PVR) volume were evaluated pre- and post-surgery. Results: We observed significant improvements in the OABSS and quality of life scores before and after one year of surgery. The surgery was significantly effective in improving urgency, daytime frequency, incontinence, the Qmax and the PVR volume. No significant change in nocturia was observed post-surgery. Conclusions: Our study confirmed the efficacy of the propylene mesh introduction surgery for cystocele for the improvement of OABS symptoms. [source]


    A review of medical management of the overactive bladder syndrome

    BJOG : AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS & GYNAECOLOGY, Issue 2006
    L Cardozo
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Intravesical alkalinized lidocaine (PSD597) offers sustained relief from symptoms of interstitial cystitis and painful bladder syndrome

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 7 2009
    J. Curtis Nickel
    OBJECTIVE To assess the immediate and sustained relief of the symptoms of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBlS) after a consecutive 5-day course of treatment with intravesical alkalinized lidocaine (PSD597), and to characterize the pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of intravesical PSD597 in a subgroup of patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS In all, 102 adult patients (99 women) with a clinical diagnosis of IC/PBlS were randomized from 19 centres in the USA and Canada to receive a daily intravesical instillation of PSD597 (200 mg lidocaine, alkalinized with a sequential instillation of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate solution, to a final volume of 10 mL) or placebo (double-blind), for 5 consecutive days. Patients were followed at intervals up to 29 days after the first instillation. Efficacy was assessed by changes in the Global Response Assessment (GRA), Likert scales for bladder pain, urgency and frequency, and validated O'Leary-Sant IC symptom and problem indices. RESULTS Significantly more patients treated with PSD597 rated their overall bladder symptoms as moderately or markedly improved on the GRA scale 3 days after completing the 5-day course of treatment (30% and 9.6%, respectively, for patients treated with PSD597 and placebo; P = 0.012). The treatment effects were also maintained beyond the end of treatment and are further supported by the secondary endpoints, including symptom and problem indices. The peak serum lidocaine concentration during the study was <2 g/mL, and well below the toxic level (>5 g/mL). CONCLUSION This preliminary study showed that PSD597 was effective for providing sustained amelioration of symptoms of IC/PBlS beyond the acute treatment phase. The drug was safe, well tolerated and devoid of the systemic side-effects often experienced with oral drug administration. Long-term studies are needed to determine the optimum regimen to maintain this favourable treatment effect. [source]


    The economic impact of overactive bladder syndrome in six Western countries

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2009
    Debra E. Irwin
    OBJECTIVE To calculate up-to-date estimates of the economic impact of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) with and without urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) on the health sector of six countries (Canada, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the UK), as OAB is a significant health concern for adults aged >18 years living in Western countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS The prevalence data derived from the EPIC study were combined with healthcare resource-use data to derive current direct and indirect 1-year or annual cost of illness estimates for OAB including UUI in Canada, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the UK. This model estimates the direct healthcare costs attributed to OAB, as well as the impact of work absenteeism. RESULTS The estimated average annual direct cost of OAB per patient ranged between ,262 in Spain and ,619 in Sweden. The estimated total direct cost burden for OAB per country ranges between ,333 million in Sweden and ,1.2 billion in Germany and the total annual direct cost burden of OAB in these six countries is estimated at ,3.9 billion. In addition, nursing home costs were estimated at ,4.7 billion per year and it was estimated that work absenteeism related to OAB costs ,1.1 billion per year. CONCLUSIONS The cost of illness for OAB is a substantial economic and human burden. This study may under-estimate the true economic burden, as not all costs for sequelae associated with OAB have been included. Cost-effective treatments and management strategies that can reduce the burden of OAB and in particular UUI have the potential to significantly reduce this economic burden. [source]


    Treating patients with overactive bladder syndrome with antimuscarinics: heart rate considerations

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 5 2007
    Karl-Erik Andersson
    In this excellent mini-review, the authors present an extensive and relevant paper on the effect of antimuscarinic agents on the heart. This is without doubt the most detailed and the most reader-friendly paper on this subject, and I am sure that it will help urologists to assist in further educating their patients when prescribing these compounds. [source]


    The future magnitude of urological symptoms in the USA: projections using the Boston Area Community Health survey

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 4 2007
    Heather J. Litman
    OBJECTIVE To use the population-based data from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey to estimate the likely magnitude (prevalence) of urological symptoms in the USA population in 2025, as health-services researchers use projections of the likely magnitude of disease to inform decisions on the future allocation of health resources. METHODS Age and gender-specific prevalence rates from BACH were combined with USA population projections to estimate the likely magnitude of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and symptoms suggestive of urine leakage, painful bladder syndrome (PBlS) and prostatitis (men only). RESULTS In total and accounting for overlapping symptoms, 52 million adults in the USA will have symptoms of LUTS, urine leakage, PBlS or prostatitis in 2025. These urological symptoms have a large impact on physical and mental aspects of quality of life, that is comparable to other chronic conditions. CONCLUSIONS The future magnitude of symptoms indicative of these four urological conditions might reach the current level of cardiovascular disease in the USA, which is considered ,a modern epidemic.' Our projections have important implications for medical education, training of healthcare providers, health-services research, and policy and patient education. [source]


    Antimuscarinic drugs in detrusor overactivity and the overactive bladder syndrome: motor or sensory actions?

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2006
    STEVEN M. FINNEY
    Antimuscarinic drugs are generally thought to exert their therapeutic action on detrusor overactivity by reducing the ability of the detrusor muscle to contract. We review currently available published data to establish whether there is any evidence to support this contention. Using a PubMed data search, only 14 original articles (including two abstracts) were found that contained cystometric data for both filling and voiding phases and where the actions of antimuscarinic drugs have been reported in detail. These articles were separated into three groups dealing with neuropathic patients (three papers), patients with idiopathic overactive bladder (four papers) and a group whose aetiology was unclear (seven papers). Variables relating to bladder function during the filling phase (time of first desire to void, time to first unstable contraction, and bladder capacity) were identified. Similarly, variables relating to voiding were identified and compared (e.g. maximum detrusor pressure and detrusor pressure at maximum flow rate). The antimuscarinic drugs have a clearly significant effect on sensations of urge, time to first sensation to void, maximum bladder capacity, decrease in voiding frequency and reduction in incontinence episodes. However, only one article (studying neuropaths) reported a significant reduction of the variables associated with detrusor contraction. The remaining four studies (idiopaths/not stated), reported no change in bladder contractility with antimuscarinic drugs. Thus the available data do not support the conclusion that antimuscarinic drugs at doses used in current clinical practice exert their therapeutic action by inhibiting detrusor contractility, but they suggest effects on variables associated with sensation. [source]


    Myogenic bladder decompensation in boys with a history of posterior urethral valves is caused by secondary bladder neck obstruction?

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2005
    Philippos A. Androulakakis
    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether myogenic bladder decompensation in patients treated for congenital posterior urethral valves (PUV, the most serious cause of infravesical obstruction in male neonates and infants) may be secondary to bladder neck obstruction, as despite prompt ablation of PUV these patients can have dysfunctional voiding during later childhood or adolescence, the so-called ,valve bladder syndrome'. PATIENTS AND METHODS The study comprised 18 boys (mean age 14 years, range 6.2,18.5) who had had successful transurethral ablation of PUV between 1982 and 1996, and had completed a follow-up which included serial assessment of serum creatinine, completion of a standard voiding diary, ultrasonography with measurement of urine before and after voiding, a urodynamic examination with simultaneous multichannel recording of pressure, volume and flow relationships during the filling and voiding phases, coupled with video-cystoscopy at least twice. The mean (range) follow-up was 9.3 (6,17) years. RESULTS Urodynamic investigation showed myogenic failure with inadequate bladder emptying in 10 patients; five with myogenic failure also had unstable bladder contractions. On video-cystoscopy the posterior bladder neck lip appeared elevated in all patients but in those with myogenic failure it was strongly suggestive of hypertrophy, with evidence of obstruction. At the last follow-up one patient with myogenic failure who had had bladder neck incision and four others who were being treated with ,-adrenergic antagonists had a significant reduction of their postvoid residual urine. CONCLUSION Despite early valve ablation, a large proportion of boys treated for PUV have gradual detrusor decompensation, which may be caused by secondary bladder neck obstruction leading to obstructive voiding and finally detrusor failure. Surgical or pharmacological intervention to improve bladder neck obstruction may possibly avert this course, but further studies are needed to validate this hypothesis. [source]