Block Lines (block + line)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Entrainment Mapping of Dual-Loop Macroreentry in Common Atrial Flutter:

New Insights into the Atrial Flutter Circuit
Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine using entrainment mapping whether the reentrant circuit of common type atrial flutter (AFL) is single loop or dual loop. Methods and Results: In 12 consecutive patients with counterclockwise (CCW) AFL, entrainment mapping was performed with evaluation of atrial electrograms from the tricuspid annulus (TA) and the posterior right atrial (RA) area. We hypothesized that a dual-loop reentry could be surmised from "paradoxical delayed capture" of the proximal part of the circuit having a longer interval from the stimulus to the captured beat compared with the distal part of the circuit. In 6 of 12 patients with CCW AFL, during entrainment from the septal side of the posterior blocking line, the interval from the stimulus to the last captured beat was longer at the RA free wall than at the isthmus position. In these six patients with paradoxical delayed capture, flutter cycle length (FCL) was 227 12 ms and postpacing interval minus FCL was significantly shorter at the posterior blocking line than at the RA free wall (20 11 ms vs 48 33 ms, P < 0.05). In two of these patients, early breakthrough occurred at the lateral TA. A posterior block line was confirmed in all six patients in the sinus venosa area by intracardiac echocardiography. Conclusion: Half of the patients with common type AFL had a dual-loop macroreentrant circuit consisting of an anterior loop (circuit around the TA) and a posterior loop (circuit around the inferior vena cava and the posterior blocking line). (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 15, pp. 679-685, June 2004) [source]

Conduction Properties of the Crista Terminalis and Its Influence on the Right Atrial Activation Sequence in Patients with Typical Atrial Flutter

YAMABE, H., et al.: Conduction Properties of the Crista Terminalis and Its Influence on the Right Atrial Activation Sequence in Patients with Typical Atrial Flutter. The conduction properties of the crista terminalis (CT) and its influence on the right atrial activation sequence were analyzed in 14 patients with typical atrial flutter (AF). Atrial mapping was performed with 35 points of the right atrium during typical AF and during atrial pacing performed after linear ablation of inferior vena cava-tricuspid annulus (IVCTA) isthmus. Atrial pacing was delivered from the septal isthmus at cycle lengths of 600 ms and the tachycardia cycle length (TCL). The right atrial activation sequence and the conduction interval (CI) from the septal to lateral portion of the IVC-TA isthmus were analyzed. During AF, the conduction block line (CBL) (detected by the appearance of double potentials along the CT and craniocaudal activation on the side anterior to CT) was observed along the CT in all patients. The TCL and CI during AF were 254 19 and 207 14 ms, respectively. During pacing at a cycle length of 600 ms, the CBL was observed along the CT in four patients, however, a short-circuiting activation across the CT was observed in the remaining ten patients. The CI during pacing at 600 ms was 134 38 ms, shorter than that during AF (P < .0001). During pacing at the TCL, the CBL was observed along the CT in all patients. The presence of the CBL along the CT prevented a short-circuiting activation across the CT and resulted in the same right atrial activation as observed during AF. With the formation of the CBL, the CI significantly increased to 206 17 ms and was not different from that during AF. These data suggest that the conduction block along the CT is functional. It was presumed that presence of conduction block at the CT has some relevance to the initiation of typical AF though it was not confirmed. [source]

Relationship of Specific Electrogram Characteristics During Sinus Rhythm and Ventricular Pacing Determined by Adaptive Template Matching to the Location of Functional Reentrant Circuits that Cause Ventricular Tachycardia in the Infarcted Canine Heart

Localization of Reentrant Circuits. Introduction: It would be advantageous, for ablation therapy, to localize reentrant circuits causing ventricular tachycardia by quantifying electrograms obtained during sinus rhythm (SR) or ventricular pacing (VP). In this study, adaptive template matching (ATM) was used to localize reentrant circuits by measuring dynamic electrogram shape using SR and VP data. Methods and Results: Four days after coronary occlusion, reentrant ventricular tachycardia was induced in the epicardial border zone of canine hearts by programmed electrical stimulation. Activation maps of circuits were constructed using electrograms recorded from a multichannel array to ascertain block line location. Electrogram recordings obtained during SR/AP then were used for ATM analysis. A template electrogram was matched with electrograms on subsequent cycles by weighting amplitude, vertical shift, duration, and phase lag for optimal overlap. Sites of largest cycle-to-cycle variance in the optimal ATM weights were found to be adjacent to block lines bounding the central isthmus during reentry (mean 61.1% during SR; 63.9% during VP). The distance between the mean center of mass of the ten highest ATM variance peaks and the narrowest isthmus width was determined. For all VP data, the center of mass resided in the isthmus region ocurring during reentry. Conclusion: ATM high variance measured from SR/AP data localizes functional block lines forming during reentry. The center of mass of the high variance peaks localizes the narrowest width of the isthmus. Therefore, ATM methodology may guide ablation catheter position without resorting to reentry induction. [source]

Mapping of Atrial Activation Patterns After Inducing Contiguous Radiofrequency Lesions: An Experimental Study

CHORRO, F.J., et al.: Mapping of Atrial Activation Patterns After Inducing Contiguous Radiofrequency Lesions: An Experimental Study. High resolution mapping techniques are used to analyze the changes in atrial activation patterns produced by contiguous RF induced lesions. In 12 Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts, left atrial activation maps were obtained before and after RF induction of epicardial lesions following a triple-phase sequential protocol: (phase 1) three separate lesions positioned vertically in the central zone of the left atrial wall; (phase 2) the addition of two lesions located between the central lesion and the upper and lower lesions; and (phase 3) the placement of four additional lesions between those induced in the previous phases. In six additional experiments a pathological analysis of the individual RF lesions was performed. In phase 1 (lesion diameter = 2.8 0.2 mm, gap between lesions = 3 0.8 mm), the activation process bordered the lesions line in two (2.0-ms cycles) and four experiments (1.0-ms cycles). In phase 2, activation bordered the lesions line in eight (2.0-ms cycles, P < 0.01 vs control) and nine experiments (1.0-ms cycles, P < 0.001), and in phase 3 this occurred in all experiments except one (both cycles, P < 0.001 vs control). In the experiments with conduction block, the increment of the interval between activation times proximal and distal to the lesions showed a significant correlation to the length of the lesions (r = 0.68, P < 0.05, 100-ms cycle). In two (17%) experiments, sustained regular tachycardias were induced with reentrant activation patterns around the lesions line. In conclusion, in this acute model, atrial RF lesions with intact tissue gaps of 3 mm between them interrupt conduction occasionally, and conduction block may be frequency dependent. Lesion overlap is required to achieve complete conduction block lines. Tachycardias with reentrant activation patterns around a lesions line may be induced. [source]

Opposite Effects of Myocardial Stretch and Verapamil on the Complexity of the Ventricular Fibrillatory Pattern: An Experimental Study

CHORRO, F.J., et al.: Opposite Effects of Myocardial Stretch And Verapamil on The Complexity of The Ventricular Fibrillatory Pattern: An Experimental Study. An experimental model is used to analyze the effects of ventricular stretching and verapamil on the activation patterns during VF. Ten Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were used to record VF activity with an epicardial multiple electrode before, during, and after stretching with an intraventricular balloon, under both control conditions and during verapamil (Vp) infusion (0.4,0.8 ,mol). The analyzed parameters were dominant frequency (FrD) spectral analysis, the median (MN) of the VF intervals, and the type of activation maps during VF (I = one wavelet without block lines, II = two simultaneous wavelets with block lines, III = three or more wavelets with block lines). Stretch accelerates VF (FrD: 22.8 6.4 vs 15.2 1.0 Hz, P < 0.01; MN: 48 13 vs 68 6 ms, P < 0.01). On fitting the FrD time changes to an exponential model after applying and suppressing stretch, the time constants (stretch: 101.2 19.6 s; stretch suppression: 97.8 33.2 s) do not differ significantly. Stretching induces a significant variation in the complexity of the VF activation maps with type III increments and type I and II decrements (control: I = 17.5%, II = 50.5%, III = 32%; stretch: I = 7%, II = 36.5%, III = 56.5%, P < 0.001). Vp accelerates VF (FrD: 20.9 1.9 Hz, P < 0.001 vs control; MN: 50 5 ms, P < 0.001 vs control) and diminishes activation maps complexity (I = 25.5%, II = 60.5%, III = 14%, P < 0.001 vs control). On applying stretch during Vp perfusion, the fibrillatory process is not accelerated to any greater degree. However, type I and II map decrements and type III increments are recorded, though reaching percentages similar to control (I = 16.5%, II = 53%, III = 30.5%, NS vs control). The following conclusions were found: (1) myocardial stretching accelerates VF and increases the complexity of the VF activation pattern; (2) time changes in the FrD of VF during and upon suppressing stretch fit an exponential model with similar time constants; and (3) although stretching and verapamil accelerate the VF process, they exert opposite effects upon the complexity of the fibrillatory pattern. [source]

Phenotyping approaches for physiological breeding and gene discovery in wheat

M. Reynolds
Abstract Conceptual models of drought-adaptive traits have been used in breeding to accumulate complementary physiological traits (PT) in selected progeny, resulting in distribution of advanced lines to rain-fed environments worldwide by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Key steps in PT breeding at CIMMYT include characterisation of crossing block lines for stress adaptive mechanisms, strategic crossing among parents that encompass as many target traits as possible and early generation selection (EGS) of bulks for canopy temperature (CT). The approach has been successful using both elite elite crosses as well as three way crosses involving stress adapted landraces. Other EGS techniques that are amenable to high throughput include measurement of spectral reflectance indices and stomatal aperture-related traits. Their genetic- and cost-effectiveness are supported by realisation of genetic yield gains in response to trait selection, and by economic analysis, respectively. Continual reselection within restricted gene pools is likely to lead to diminishing returns, however, exotic parents can be used to introduce new allelic diversity. Examples include landraces from the primary gene pool, and products of inter-specific hybridisation with the secondary gene pool consisting of closely related wheat genomes. Both approaches have been successful in introducing stress-adaptive traits. The main problem with knowing which genetic resource to use in wide-crossing is the uncertainty with which phenotypic expression can be extrapolated from one genome/genepool to another because of their unimproved or undomesticated genetic backgrounds. Nonetheless, their PT expression can be measured and used as a basis for investing in crossing or wide crossing. Discovering the genetic basis of PT is highly complex because putative QTLs may interact with environment and genetic background, including genes of major effect. Detection of QTLs was improved in mapping populations where flowering time was controlled, while new mapping populations have been designed by screening potential parents that do not contrast in the Rht, Ppd and Vrn alleles. Association genetics mapping is another approach that can be employed for gene discovery using exclusively agronomically improved material, thereby minimising the probability of identifying yield QTLs whose alleles have been already improved by conventional breeding. [source]