Blinded Fashion (blinded + fashion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The effects of antibody clone and pretreatment method on the results of HER2 immunostaining in cytologic samples of metastatic breast cancer: A query and a review of the literature,,§

Patricia A. Fetsch M.T. (ASCP)
Abstract The standardization and use of heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) is particularly important with immunohistochemical markers that direct the course of cancer treatment, such as Herceptin therapy. Increasingly, many laboratories are performing immunohistochemical analysis using various antibodies and methodologies for HER2/neu. We attempted to determine the effects of antibody clone and pretreatment methods on the interpretation of HER-2/neu staining in cytologic samples. Cell block sections from 54 cases of metastatic breast cancer (24 FNAs, 30 effusions) were analyzed for HER2 expression using antibodies to CB-11, TAB250, and A0485. Antibodies were analyzed with and without HIER. One pathologist using the FDA-approved scoring system for the HercepTest reviewed all slides in a blinded fashion. Five of fifty-four cases (9%) using CB-11 showed a significant increase in HER2 immunoreactivity using HIER (i.e. from 0/1+ to 2,3+). However, in twenty-nine of fifty-four cases (54%), the cytoplasmic background was significantly higher after HIER. With the A0485 antibody, two of fifty four cases (4%) showed a significant increase in immunoreactivity using HIER, while seventeen of fifty-four cases (31%) exhibited only more pronounced cytoplasmic staining. HIER pretreatment did not increase HER2 staining in any TAB250 stained sample, rather four of fifty-four cases (7%) showed a significant decrease in staining with HIER. We conclude that HIER may enhance membrane staining with the CB-11 and A0485 antibodies, but also increases cytoplasmic background. Loss of antigenicity is seen when HIER is used with TAB250. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2007;35:319,328. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Endoscopic classification of chronic gastritis based on a pilot study by the research society for gastritis

Michio Kaminishi
Background:,Various types of classification of gastritis have been proposed, but no plausible classification has been available until now. The Research Society for Gastritis performed a pilot study to establish an endoscopic classification, taking into consideration the following: (i) ease of use; (ii) permitting everyone the common image; and (iii) presence of histopathological evidence. Methods:,One hundred and fifty-five patients were enrolled and underwent gastroscopy. Eight basic endoscopic and histological types of gastritis (superficial, hemorrhagic, erosive, verrucous, atrophic, metaplastic, hyperplastic and special types) were defined. Gastritis was endoscopically diagnosed according to the definition of the endoscopic types of gastritis. Four or more biopsy specimens were obtained from the lesser and the greater curvatures of the antrum and the corpus of each patient, and the histological findings of gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection were assessed. The histological diagnosis of gastritis was made according to the definition of histology types of gastritis. The endoscopic and the histological diagnoses were then compared in a blinded fashion. Results:,Endoscopic diagnosis was 62% as sensitive as histological diagnosis for erosive gastritis, 67% for verrucous gastritis and 84% for atrophic gastritis in the antrum. In superficial gastritis, sensitivity was approximately 25% in the corpus, but only 8% in the antrum. Metaplastic and hyperplastic gastritis were correctly diagnosed only in severe cases. Conclusion:,Five basic types of gastritis (superficial, erosive, verrucous, atrophic and special types) should be employed for the new endoscopic gastritis classification. Metaplastic and hyperplastic gastritis are considered to be subtypes of atrophic gastritis and they should be excluded from the basic endoscopic classification. A new definition of gastritis in the antrum accompanied by redness still remains to be investigated. [source]

Fundal gastritis as a potential cause of reflux oesophagitis

M. Newton
The transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations which allow reflux may be due to altered afferent pathways from the fundus. We aimed to determine whether fundal inflammation is the underlying cause. Two endoscopic biopsies were taken from each of the gastric antrum and fundus in 25 asymptomatic controls with a normal endoscopy (median age 54 range 13,83 years), and 33 patients with erosive oesophagitis (median age 52, 11,78 years). No patient had taken acid suppression therapy or antibiotics for at least 1 month. Sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa stain and examined in a blinded fashion by one pathologist for the presence of gastritis (Sydney classification) and Helicobacter pylori. Chronic gastritis was common in both groups, but was usually mild. In Helicobacter pylori -negative subjects, there was significantly less chronic gastritis in the antrum and the fundus in oesophagitis patients than in controls (p < 0.05). When present, gastric atrophy was usually antral and mild in severity. There was no difference in the incidence of gastric atrophy in patients with oesophagitis compared with controls (24% compared with 40%; p > 0.05). Chronic gastritis is not more common in patients with oesophagitis, and is unlikely to play a part in the pathogenesis of this disease. [source]

The Pocket Echocardiograph: Validation and Feasibility

Benjamin C. Culp M.D.
Background: A new, miniaturized ultrasound device, the pocket echocardiograph (PE), is highly portable and can be carried inside a lab-coat pocket. Studies of this device are limited and have not examined the use by novice echocardiographers. We hypothesize that a novice echocardiographer can use PE to produce interpretable cardiac images, and that both novice and expert echocardiographers can use PE to accurately quantify ejection fraction. Methods: Unselected subjects (n = 40) in an echocardiography laboratory underwent blinded formal transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and PE (Acuson P10, Siemens, Mountain View, CA, USA). A cardiology fellow with 2 months of echocardiography training acquired PE images. The fellow and an experienced echocardiographer interpreted the PE studies offline in a blinded fashion. To assess adequacy, studies were graded as technically adequate, limited, or inadequate. A visual estimation of ejection fraction was made. Comparisons were made to the formal reported TTE. Results: Subjects were heterogeneous, 43% male; age 64 ± 17 years, and ejection fraction 52.4%± 12.3%. All PE studies were interpretable, and the vast majority of PE and TTE images were considered technically adequate (77.5% and 85% respectively; P = 0.32). Ejection fraction showed a good correlation, bias, and limits of agreement for the fellow's interpretation (r = 0.78, ,5.9%, ±16.6%) with stronger association for the experienced echocardiographer (r = 0.88, ,0.8%, ±11.4%). Conclusion: Novice echocardiographers using the PE can produce adequate quality images. Both expert and novice echocardiographers can use PE to quantify ejection fraction over a broad range of patients. The device's low cost and portability may greatly expand the availability of bedside echocardiography for routine or urgent cardiovascular assessment. (Echocardiography 2010;27:759-764) [source]

Variability in agreement between physicians and nurses when measuring the Glasgow Coma Scale in the emergency department limits its clinical usefulness

Anna Holdgate
Abstract Objective:, To assess the interrater reliability of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) between nurses and senior doctors in the ED. Methods:, This was a prospective observational study with a convenience sample of patients aged 18 or above who presented with a decreased level of consciousness to a tertiary hospital ED. A senior ED doctor (emergency physicians and trainees) and registered nurse each independently scored the patient's GCS in blinded fashion within 15 min of each other. The data were then analysed to determine interrater reliability using the weighted kappa statistic and the size and directions of differences between paired scores were examined. Results:, A total of 108 eligible patients were enrolled, with GCS scores ranging from 3 to 14. Interrater agreement was excellent (weighted kappa > 0.75) for verbal scores and total GCS scores, and intermediate (weighted kappa 0.4,0.75) for motor and eye scores. Total GCS scores differed by more than two points in 10 of the 108 patients. Interrater agreement did not vary substantially across the range of actual numeric GCS scores. Conclusions:, Although the level of agreement for GCS scores was generally high, a significant proportion of patients had GCS scores which differed by two or more points. This degree of disagreement indicates that clinical decisions should not be based solely on single GCS scores. [source]

Routine use of Xeomin® in patients previously treated with Botox®: long term results

D. Dressler
Background and purpose:, Based upon large and carefully performed studies Xeomin® was first registered in 2005. However, its real potential can only be assessed, when it is used outside of study design restrictions, in an independent setting, in off-label indications and during continued use. Methods and results:, Two hundred and sixty-three patients (91 with dystonia, 84 with spasticity, 17 with hemifacial spasm and re-innervation synkinesias, 64 with hyperhidrosis, 7 with hypersalivation), who were previously treated with Botox® for at least 1 year under stable conditions, were converted in a blinded fashion to Xeomin® using a 1:1 conversion ratio and identical treatment parameters. Therapeutic outcome and adverse effects were monitored by neurological examination and structuralised interviews. In 223 patients (all except those with axillary hyperhidrosis) Xeomin® was used continuously throughout a 3 year period. Altogether 1050 injection series were performed. Patients with dystonia received 261.5 ± 141.0 MU Botox®/Xeomin®, patients with spasticity 450.5 ± 177.1 MU, patients with hemifacial spasm and reinnervation synkinesias 44.7 ± 19.5 MU and patients with hyperhidrosis 286.9 ± 141.6 MU. The maximum botulinum toxin dose applied was 840 MU. There were no subjective or objective differences between Botox® and Xeomin® treatments with respect to onset latency, maximum and duration of their therapeutic effects and their adverse effect profiles. Long-term use did not reveal additional safety relevant aspects. None of the patients lost therapeutic efficacy during the observation period. Conclusions:, Xeomin® can be used safely in doses of up to 840 MU. Even when applied in high doses it did not produce secondary therapy failure. There were no diffusion differences between Botox® and Xeomin®. Using a conversion ratio of 1:1 Xeomin® and Botox® can easily be exchanged in a continued treatment. [source]

Microelectronic DNA chip for hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome, a model for large-scale analysis of disorders of iron metabolism,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 2 2006
Francesca Ferrari
Abstract Hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome (HHCS) is caused by mutations in the regulatory iron responsive element (IRE) in the 5,UTR of the L-ferritin transcript that reduce binding affinity to the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) and lead to a constitutive upregulation of the protein in tissue and serum. Twenty-nine mutations have been reported within the L-ferritin (FTL) IRE sequence, 21 of which were available to us. In addition, we included in this study three new mutations. Thus, we analyzed 24 mutations spanning over a DNA stretch of 48 nucleotides, including four deletions 2,29 nucleotides long and 20 substitutions, seven of which were conservative transversions. With this unique experimental model we developed a microchip diagnostic platform for identifying known molecular defects in the L-ferritin IRE structure with a microelectronic array approach, which we optimized after studying the effects of various parameters. The system enables electronic deposition of biotinylated amplicons to selected pads. Under optimized conditions, no cross-hybridization was found, even for mutations that affected the same or adjacent nucleotide positions. The same cartridge could be serially hybridized with all the 24 reporter probe sets, which allowed correct genotyping right up until the end of the analysis. Extensive validation on 200 samples in a blinded fashion gave total concordance of results. This pilot study represents a first step toward developing a diagnostic microchip for large-scale analyses for epidemiological studies and screening of mutations associated with iron disorders. Hum Mutat 27(2), 201,208, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis: a randomized-controlled clinical trial

ALLERGY, Issue 9 2004
B. Brinkhaus
Background:, Patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) increasingly use complementary medicine. The aim of this study was to determine whether traditional Chinese therapy is efficacious in patients suffering from seasonal AR. Methods:, Fifty-two patients between the ages of 20 and 58 who had typical symptoms of seasonal AR were assigned randomly and in a blinded fashion to (i) an active treatment group which received a semi-standardized treatment of acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine, and (ii) a control group which received acupuncture applied to non-acupuncture points in addition to a non-specific Chinese herbal formula. All patients received acupuncture treatment once per week and the respective Chinese herbal formula as a decoction three times daily for a total of 6 weeks. Assessments were performed before, during, and 1 week after treatment. The change in severity of hay fever symptoms was the primary outcome measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results:, Compared with patients in the control group, patients in the active treatment group showed a significant after-treatment improvement on the VAS (P = 0.006) and Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (P = 0.015). Improvement on the Global Assessment of Change Scale was noted in 85% of active treatment group participants vs 40% in the control group (P = 0.048). No differences between the two groups could be detected with the Allergic Rhinitis Symptom Questionnaire. Both treatments were well-tolerated. Conclusions:, The results of this study suggest that traditional Chinese therapy may be an efficacious and safe treatment option for patients with seasonal AR. [source]

SIC Task Force appraisal of clinical diagnostic criteria for parkinsonian disorders

Irene Litvan MD
Abstract As there are no biological markers for the antemortem diagnosis of degenerative parkinsonian disorders, diagnosis currently relies upon the presence and progression of clinical features and confirmation depends on neuropathology. Clinicopathologic studies have shown significant false-positive and false-negative rates for diagnosing these disorders, and misdiagnosis is especially common during the early stages of these diseases. It is important to establish a set of widely accepted diagnostic criteria for these disorders that may be applied and reproduced in a blinded fashion. This review summarizes the findings of the SIC Task Force for the study of diagnostic criteria for parkinsonian disorders in the areas of Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, and corticobasal degeneration. In each of these areas, diagnosis continues to rest on clinical findings and the judicious use of ancillary studies. © 2003 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Attenuation of radiation- and chemoradiation-induced mucositis using gamma- d -glutamyl- l -tryptophan (SCV-07)

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 7 2010
B Watkins
Oral Diseases (2010) 16, 655,660 Objective:, To evaluate the efficacy of a novel immunomodulating peptide (SCV-07) in attenuating the course of radiation-induced mucositis in an established animal model of oral mucositis (OM). Material and Methods:, In three separate experiments, golden Syrian hamsters received either an acute radiation challenge to the buccal mucosa of eight fractionated doses of 7.5 Gy of radiation over a 2-week-period, or a combination of acute radiation and cisplatin. In each experiment, animals were treated with varying doses or schedules of SCV-07 or placebo. OM was scored in a blinded fashion using digital images obtained during the experimental period. Results:, We found that SCV-07 reduced the severity and duration of both acute and fractionated radiation-induced OM. Similarly, when radiation and chemotherapy were used to induce OM, treatment with SCV-07 significantly reduced the duration of ulcerative OM. The therapeutic benefit was dependent on both dose and schedule of administration. Conclusion:, Taken together, we found SCV-07 was able to modify the duration and severity of oral mucositis and was dependent on schedule and dose. [source]

A randomized, controlled trial of aprotinin in neonates undergoing open-heart surgery

Summary Background:, Neonates undergoing open-heart surgery are especially at risk for massive bleeding and pronounced inflammation. The efficacy of aprotinin, a serine protease inhibitor, at ameliorating these adverse effects of cardiopulmonary bypass has not been clearly demonstrated in neonates. Methods:, Term neonates were enrolled and randomly assigned in a blinded fashion to receive saline (group P, placebo) or high-dose aprotinin (group A). Intraoperative management was standardized: surgeon, anesthesia, cardiopulmonary bypass and hemostasis therapy. Patients were admitted postoperatively to a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit. Primary outcome measure of efficacy was duration of the postoperative mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcome measures were total volume and units of blood products transfused intraoperatively and for 24 h after surgery, duration of chest tube in situ, and intensive care and hospital stays after surgery. Results:, Twenty-six neonates were enrolled; 13 received aprotinin and 13 received placebo. The study was halted prematurely because of US Food and Drug Administation's concerns about aprotinin's safety. Baseline patient, surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass characteristics were similar between groups. No outcome variables differed between groups (P > 0.05). Duration of postoperative ventilation was 115 ± 139 h (group A); 126 ± 82 h (group P); P = 0.29, and total blood product exposure was 8.2 ± 2.6 U (group A); 8.8 ± 1.4 U (group P); P = 0.1. Postoperative blood creatinine values did not differ between groups. In-hospital mortality rate was 4%. Conclusions:, Aprotinin was not shown to be efficacious in neonates undergoing open-heart surgery. It is unclear whether adult aprotinin safety data are relevant to neonates undergoing open-heart surgery. [source]

The efficacy of a subhypnotic dose of propofol in preventing laryngospasm following tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children

Summary Background:, Laryngospasm is a well-known problem typically occurring immediately following tracheal extubation. Propofol is known to inhibit airway reflexes. In this study, we sought to assess whether the empiric use of a subhypnotic dose of propofol prior to emergence will decrease the occurrence of laryngospasm following extubation in children. Methods:, After approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee and informed parental consent, we enrolled 120 children ASA physical status I and II, aged 3,14 years who were scheduled to undergo elective tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy under standard general anesthesia. Before extubation, the patients were randomized and received in a blinded fashion either propofol 0.5 mg·kg,1 or saline (control) intravenously. Tracheal extubation was performed 60 s after administration of study drug, when the child was breathing regularly and reacting to the tracheal tube. Results:, Laryngospasm was seen in 20% (n = 12) of the 60 children in the control group and in only 6.6% (n = 4) of 60 children in the propofol group (P < 0.05). Conclusions:, During emergence from inhalational anesthesia, propofol in a subhypnotic dose (0.5 mg·kg,1) decreases the likelihood of laryngospasm upon tracheal extubation in children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy. [source]

Auditory Brainstem Response versus Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Evaluation of Asymmetric Sensorineural Hearing Loss,

Roberto A. Cueva MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: Auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are compared for the evaluation of patients with asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). MRI with gadolinium administration is the current gold standard for identifying retrocochlear lesions causing asymmetric SNHL. The study seeks to determine the sensitivity and specificity of ABR in screening for possible retrocochlear pathology. Most important among SNHL etiologies are neoplastic lesions such as vestibular schwannomas, cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumors, as well as multiple sclerosis, stroke, or other rare nonneoplastic causes. The study results will allow the author to recommend a screening algorithm for patients with asymmetric SNHL. Study Design: The study is a multi-institutional, institutional review board approved, prospective, nonrandomized comparison of ABR and MRI for the evaluation of patients with asymmetric SNHL. Methods: Three hundred twelve patients (between the ages of 18 and 87) with asymmetric SNHL completed the study. Asymmetric SNHL was defined as 15 dB or greater asymmetry in two or more frequencies or 15% or more asymmetry in speech discrimination scores (SDS). These patients prospectively underwent both ABR and MRI. The ABR and MRI were interpreted independently in a blinded fashion. In addition to the ABR and MRI results, a variety of clinical and demographic data were collected. Results: Thirty-one (9.94%) patients of the study population of 312 were found on MRI to have lesions causing their SNHL. Of the 31 patients with causative lesions on MRI there were 24 vestibular schwannomas, 2 glomus jugulare tumors, 2 ectatic basilar arteries with brainstem compression, 1 petrous apex cholesterol granuloma, 1 case of possible demyelinating disease, and 1 parietal lobe mass. Twenty-two of the 31 patients had abnormal ABRs, whereas 9 patients (7 with small vestibular schwannomas) had normal ABRs. This gives an overall false-negative rate for ABR of 29%. The false-positive rate was found to be 76.84%. Sensitivity of ABR as a screening test was 71%, and specificity was 74%. Conclusions: Ten percent of patients with asymmetric SNHL (by this study's criteria) are likely to have causative lesions found on MRI. Although the recently reported annual incidence of vestibular schwannoma in the general population is 0.00124%, for patients with asymmetric SNHL in this study, the incidence was 7.7% (nearly 4 orders of magnitude higher). ABR has been demonstrated to have low sensitivity and specificity in the evaluation of these patients and cannot be relied on as a screening test for patients with asymmetric SNHL. Keeping the use of MRI conditional on the results of ABR will annually result in missed or delayed diagnosis of causative lesions in 29 patients per 1,000 screened. The author recommends abandoning ABR as a screening test for asymmetric SNHL and adoption of a focused MRI protocol as the screening test of choice (within certain guidelines). [source]


A. Aly
Introduction Oesophagectomy for oesophageal carcinoma is a major undertaking with a definite morbidity and mortality. Long term survival rates are low and post operative quality of life becomes increasingly important. When the anastomosis is in the thorax, gastro-oesophageal reflux, particularly volume reflux symptoms are common and may significantly affect quality of life. It is proposed that a fundoplication at the anastomosis may help prevent reflux symptoms. Aims The aim of this study was to compare reflux after a fundoplication type anastomosis with a standard anastomosis in patients undergoing Ivor , Lewis Oesophagectomy. Study Design Prospective randomised trial utilising standardised symptom questionnaires applied in blinded fashion. Results The fundoplication anastomosis was associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of reflux (30% vs 70%) as well as reducing the incidence of severe reflux (7% vs 25%). A total fundoplication was more effective than a partial fundoplication in preventing severe reflux. Disturbance of sleep due to reflux was significantly reduced in the fundoplication group (18% vs 47%) as was the incidence of respiratory symptoms. The fundoplication anastomosis was not associated with an increase in dysphagia. Conclusion The fundoplication anastomosis protects patients from the symptoms of reflux after oesophagectomy and improves quality of life particularly with regard sleep disturbance. [source]

Prehospital Ultrasound by Paramedics: Results of Field Trial

William Heegaard MD
Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to determine if 9-1-1 paramedics trained in ultrasound (US) could adequately perform and interpret the Focused Assessment Sonography in Trauma (FAST) and the abdominal aortic (AA) exams in the prehospital care environment. Methods:, Paramedics at two emergency medical services (EMS) agencies received a 6-hour training program in US with ongoing refresher education. Paramedics collected US in the field using a prospective convenience methodology. All US were performed in the ambulance without scene delay. US exams were reviewed in a blinded fashion by an emergency sonographer physician overreader (PO). Results:, A total of 104 patients had an US performed between January 1, 2008, and January 1, 2009. Twenty AA exams were performed and all were interpreted as negative by the paramedics and the PO. Paramedics were unable to obtain adequate images in 7.7% (8/104) of the patients. Eighty-four patients had the FAST exam performed. Six exams (6/84, 7.1%) were read as positive for free intraperitoneal/pericardial fluid by both the paramedics and the PO. FAST and AA US exam interpretation by the paramedics had a 100% proportion of agreement with the PO. Conclusions:, This pilot study shows that with close supervision, paramedics can adequately obtain and interpret prehospital FAST and AA US images under protocol. These results support a growing body of literature that indicates US may be feasible and useful in the prehospital setting. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:624,630 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]