Biotechnology Industry (biotechnology + industry)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Alliance-Driven Governance: Applying a Global Commodity Chains Approach to the U.K. Biotechnology Industry

Kean Birch
Abstract As the economy has globalized, it has also regionalized, which has led to the integration of different spaces across different scales. A number of theories contend that the endogenous assets of these locations provide them with the means to compete in this globalizing economy, especially in relation to knowledge-based sectors like biotechnology. Among these theories, the cluster concept stands out. However, there is little support for the arguments that local linkages are the central contributors to innovation. Extralocal linkages have also been highlighted, suggesting that other theories that account for these linkages may prove useful in the discussion of knowledge-based sectors, in general, and biotechnology, in particular. One such theory is the concept of global commodity chains, which explicitly concerns the interconnections within and across different geographic scales. As yet it has seldom been applied to the biotechnology industry. This article uses the approach to explore the U.K. biotechnology industry. [source]

Market Orientation and R&D Effectiveness in High-Technology Firms: An Empirical Investigation in the Biotechnology Industry,

Luigi M. De Luca
There seems to be lack of consensus among informed scholars about the importance a of market orientation for high-technology firms. This paper gives a comprehensive review of existing empirical studies on the relationship between market orientation and innovation performance and pinpoints two limitations in this research stream that might be at the origin of such controversy. First, extant research often overlooked key innovation outcomes for high-technology firms, such as those related to research and development (R&D) performance. Second, organizational conditions that can ensure an optimal integration of market knowledge in the innovation process have been less analyzed in the case of these firms. Against this background, the present study contributes to the literature by providing a test of the effect of market orientation on R&D effectiveness and the moderating role of knowledge integration in this relationship, using a sample of Italian biotechnology firms. The study's objectives are addressed in two steps. The first one consists of an in-depth qualitative study based on semistructured interviews in five biotechnology firms. The second step consists of a follow-up survey of 50 biotechnology firms. Results from hierarchical multiple regression analysis show that the different dimensions of a market orientation have diverse effects on R&D effectiveness of high-technology firms: whereas interfunctional coordination has a positive main effect, the effect of customer orientation is moderated by knowledge integration, and competitor orientation has no effect on R&D effectiveness. Post hoc analyses also show two additional results involving a broader set of dependent variables. First, R&D effectiveness mediates the effects of customer orientation and interfunctional coordination on organizational performance. Second, market orientation does not appear to significantly affect R&D efficiency. The present study contributes to current literature in two main respects. First, it adds to previous work on market orientation and innovation by proposing a new dependent variable,R&D effectiveness,which offers a better perspective to understand the impact of market orientation on innovation performance in high-technology contexts. Second, while part of the current debate on the role of market orientation in high-tech markets seems to be polarized by positions that sustain its potential drawbacks or, on the contrary, its advantages, this study's findings on the moderating role of knowledge integration shed light on important contingency factors, such as organizational capabilities. The authors discuss the study's limitations and provide directions for future research. [source]


ABSTRACT The global value of the biotechnology industry is now estimated at 17 billion dollars, with over 1300 firms involved as of the year 2000.2 It has been said that ,What we are witnessing is nothing less than a new kind of gold rush, and the territory is the body.' As in previous gold rushes, prospectors are flooding into unexplored and ,wide open' territories from all over the world, with possible ramifications for exploitation of Third World populations. These territories are also the Wild West of bioethics insofar as the law has very little hold on them: existing medical and patent law, such as the Moore and Chakrabarty cases, exert little control over powerful economic interests in both the United States and Europe. In the absence of a unified and consistent law on property in the body, the focus is increasingly on refining the consent approach to rights in human tissue and the human genome, with sensitive and promising developments from the Human Genetics Commission and the Department for International Development consultation on intellectual property. These developments incorporate the views of vulnerable genetic communities such as Native Americans or some Third World populations, and should be welcomed because they recognise the power imbalance between such groups and First World researchers or firms. However, they also highlight the continued tension about what is really wrong with commodifying human tissue or the human genome. Where's the injustice, and can it be solved by a more sophisticated consent procedure? [source]

Monoclonal antibodies: a morphing landscape for therapeutics

Nicholas C. Nicolaides
Abstract The concept of using antibodies as therapeutics to cure human diseases was postulated nearly 100 years ago by Paul Ehrlich and subsequently enabled by the discovery of hybridoma technology by Kohler and Milstein in 1975. While the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as drugs that can specifically target a disease-associated antigen is compelling, it has taken a quarter century for these molecules to be adopted as bona fide therapeutic agents. Despite their slow pursuit in drug development during the pioneering years, it is now estimated that there are nearly 500 mAb-based therapies in development. Major factors that have influenced the acceptance of monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics include their drug safety profiles, technological advancements for facilitating mAb discovery and development, and market success. Early on, it was demonstrated that antibodies could elicit clinical benefit by antagonizing a specific antigen without the common side effects that are prevalent with small chemical entities due to their nonspecific effects on homeostatic biochemical pathways. In addition, the significant technological advances that the biotechnology industry has established for developing and producing monoclonal antibodies at commercial scale in a more efficient and cost-effective manner has broadly enabled their use as therapeutics. However, despite the beneficial pharmacologic advantages and technological advances, it has been the sheer market success that monoclonal antibody products have achieved over the past few years that has propelled their vast pursuit by the biopharmaceutical industry in light of their value-creating potential. Here we provide an overview of the monoclonal antibody industry and discuss evolving technologies and strategies that are being pursued to overcome challenges in the changing marketplace. Drug Dev. Res. 67:781,789, 2006. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Alliance-Driven Governance: Applying a Global Commodity Chains Approach to the U.K. Biotechnology Industry

Kean Birch
Abstract As the economy has globalized, it has also regionalized, which has led to the integration of different spaces across different scales. A number of theories contend that the endogenous assets of these locations provide them with the means to compete in this globalizing economy, especially in relation to knowledge-based sectors like biotechnology. Among these theories, the cluster concept stands out. However, there is little support for the arguments that local linkages are the central contributors to innovation. Extralocal linkages have also been highlighted, suggesting that other theories that account for these linkages may prove useful in the discussion of knowledge-based sectors, in general, and biotechnology, in particular. One such theory is the concept of global commodity chains, which explicitly concerns the interconnections within and across different geographic scales. As yet it has seldom been applied to the biotechnology industry. This article uses the approach to explore the U.K. biotechnology industry. [source]

Improved sample preparation method for glycan analysis of glycoproteins by CE-LIF and CE-MS

Zoltan Szabo
Abstract CE is a high-resolution separation technique broadly used in the biotechnology industry for carbohydrate analysis. The standard sample preparation protocol for CE analysis of glycans released from glycoproteins generally requires derivatization times of overnight at 37C, using ,100 fold excess of fluorophore reagent, 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic-acid, if the sample is unknown, or it is a regulated biotherapeutic product, possibly containing terminal sialic acid(s). In this paper, we report on significant improvements for the standard CE sample preparation method of glycan analysis. By replacing the conventionally used acetic acid catalyst with citric acid, as low as 1:10 glycan to fluorophore molar ratio (versus the typical 1:,100 ratio) maintained the >95% derivatization yield at 55C with only 50,min reaction time. Terminal sialic acid loss was negligible at 55C during the derivatization process, and indicating that the kinetics of labeling at 55C was faster than the loss of sialic acid from the glycan. The reduced relative level of 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic-acid simplified the removal of excess reagent, important in both CE-LIF (electrokinetic injection bias) and CE-MS (ion suppression). Coupling CE- ESI-MS confirmed that the individual peaks separated by CE corresponded to single glycans and increased the confidence of structural assignment based on glucose unit values. [source]

Earnings and Equity Valuation in the Biotech Industry: Theory and Evidence

Philip Joos
We examine how the price-earnings relation varies with the uncertainty about and the quality of a firm's investments. We develop a real option valuation framework to capture investment and abandonment options in the research-intensive biotechnology industry. We hypothesize that the price-earnings relation will be V-shaped and change over the firm's life cycle. We also show how nonfinancial information affects the pricing of earnings. Our empirical findings are based on a sample of 301 biotechnology firms that made IPOs between 1980 and 2000, and are generally consistent with our predictions. [source]

Modelling the spatial configuration of refuges for a sustainable control of pests: a case study of Bt cotton

C. Vacher
Abstract The ,high-dose-refuge' (HDR) strategy is widely recommended by the biotechnology industry and regulatory authorities to delay pest adaptation to transgenic crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. This involves cultivating nontoxic plants (refuges) in close proximity to crops producing a high dose of Bt toxin. The principal cost associated with this strategy is due to yield losses suffered by farmers growing unprotected, refuge plants. Using a population genetic model of selection in a spatially heterogeneous environment, we show the existence of an optimal spatial configuration of refuges that could prevent the evolution of resistance whilst reducing the use of costly refuges. In particular, the sustainable control of pests is achievable with the use of more aggregated distributions of nontransgenic plants and transgenic plants producing lower doses of toxin. The HDR strategy is thus suboptimal within the context of sustainable agricultural development. [source]

The pricing of innovations: An application to specialized corn traits

Corinne Alexander
One concern regarding the growing agricultural biotechnology industry is the potential for these firms to exercise market power when pricing their innovations, which would affect the magnitude and distribution of resulting welfare gains. We argue that competition across production systems limits the exercise of such market power by suppliers. In order to examine the demand for these innovations, we evaluate the producer's returns to planting patented seed innovations, using a calibrated optimization model of a south-central Iowa corn producer's adoption decision. Overall, our results suggest that patented seed innovations do not increase the market power of biotechnology firms in the relevant market for production systems. [EconLit subject codes: L190, O330, Q120] 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Characterization of N -palmitoylated human growth hormone by in situ liquid,liquid extraction and MALDI tandem mass spectrometry

Emmanuelle Sachon
Abstract Acylation is a common post-translational modification found in secreted proteins and membrane-associated proteins, including signal transducing and regulatory proteins. Acylation is also explored in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry to increase the stability and lifetime of protein-based products. The presence of acyl moieties in proteins and peptides affects the physico-chemical properties of these species, thereby modulating protein stability, function, localization and molecular interactions. Characterization of protein acylation is a challenging analytical task, which includes the precise definition of the acylation sites in proteins and determination of the identity and molecular heterogeneity of the acyl moiety at each individual site. In this study, we generated a chemically modified human growth hormone (hGH) by incorporation of a palmitoyl moiety on the N, group of a lysine residue. Monoacylation of the hGH protein was confirmed by determination of the intact molecular weight by mass spectrometry. Detailed analysis of protein acylation was achieved by analysis of peptides derived from hGH by protease treatment. However, peptide mass mapping by MALDI MS using trypsin and AspN proteases and standard sample preparation methods did not reveal any palmitoylated peptides. In contrast, in situ liquid,liquid extraction (LLE) performed directly on the MALDI MS metal target enabled detection of acylated peptide candidates by MALDI MS and demonstrated that hGH was N -palmitoylated at multiple lysine residues. MALDI MS and MS/MS analysis of the modified peptides mapped the N -palmitoylation sites to Lys158, Lys172 and Lys140 or Lys145. This study demonstrates the utility of LLE/MALDI MS/MS for mapping and characterization of acylation sites in proteins and peptides and the importance of optimizing sample preparation methods for mass spectrometry-based determination of substoichiometric, multi-site protein modifications. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Flocculation of biological cells: Experiment vs. theory

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 7 2003
Binbing Han
Flocculation of biological cells is important in the biotechnology industry, as it could lead to improved efficiencies for bioreactor harvesting operations such as microfiltration. Experimental studies for flocculation of yeast and CHO cells using cationic polyelectrolytes suggest the existence of a steady-state, self-similar floc size distribution. The experimentally determined floc size distributions were modeled using a population balance approach. For flocculated yeast suspensions, the variation of the floc volume fraction with dimensionless particle diameter is predicted by the population balance model assuming a binary breakage distribution function. However, the variation of floc number fraction with dimensionless particle diameter is better predicted assuming a log normal fragment distribution function probably due to the presence of submicron-sized yeast cell debris. For CHO cell flocs, the floc volume and number fractions are predicted using a log normal fragment distribution function. CHO cells are far more fragile than yeast cells. Thus, individual CHO cells in a CHO cell floc can lyse leading to the formation of a number of small particles. [source]

The microarray revolution: Perspectives from educators

Jay L. Brewster
Abstract In recent years, microarray analysis has become a key experimental tool, enabling the analysis of genome-wide patterns of gene expression. This review approaches the microarray revolution with a focus upon four topics: 1) the early development of this technology and its application to cancer diagnostics; 2) a primer of microarray research, designed to guide the beginner; 3) a highlight of the Genome Consortium for Active Teaching (GCAT), a worldwide consortium of faculty who are integrating microarrays into the undergraduate teaching laboratory; and 4) the use of microarrays in the biotechnology industry with a look forward to future applications. A central theme within this review is the profound relevance of new, bioinformatics-based, technologies to undergraduate students within the biosciences. [source]

For the biotechnology industry, the penny drops (at last): genes are not autonomous agents but function within networks!

BIOESSAYS, Issue 12 2007
Adam S. Wilkins
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Phenotypic variation during cloning procedures: Analysis of the growth behavior of clonal cell lines

Louise M. Barnes
Abstract The production of recombinant protein from mammalian cells is a key feature of the biotechnology industry. However, the generation of recombinant mammalian cell lines is still largely performed on an empirical basis and there are many potential areas for enhancement. We have shown previously that despite two rounds of limiting dilution cloning (LDC) of recombinant cell lines, there remained a high degree of heterogeneity in the resulting cell lines. We suggested that a rapid phenotypic drift occurred with these cells. It was unclear if this was a consequence of the added burden of production of a recombinant protein, the selection procedures, or merely an inherent feature of cell growth in culture. To address this, we have subjected untransfected (parental) cells to three successive rounds of LDC and monitored the growth properties of the resultant cells. The results show that despite repeated rounds of cloning, it was not possible to obtain phenotypically similar cell lines. We also demonstated that this phenotypic drift is not due to gross changes in the protein p27, a key regulators of the cell cycle. Although cells with a range of growth properties were observed even after three rounds of cloning, the variation in growth patterns between cell lines decreased after cloning. Hence, we suggest that by cloning it may be possible to generate untransfected cells, which have particular growth properties. Starting with a well-defined population of parental cells may aid in the subsequent generation of tranfectants with desired growth properties. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

A mutant of the green alga Dunaliella salina constitutively accumulates zeaxanthin under all growth conditions

EonSeon Jin
Abstract A novel mutant (zea1) of the halotolerant unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina is impaired in the zeaxanthin epoxidation reaction, thereby lacking a number of the ,-branch xanthophylls. HPLC analysis revealed that the zea1 mutant lacks neoxanthin (N), violaxanthin (V) and antheraxanthin (A) but constitutively accumulates zeaxanthin (Z). Under low-light physiological growth conditions, the zea1 (6 mg Z per g dry weight or 8 10,16 mol Z/cell) had a substantially higher Z content than the wild type (0.2 mg Z per g dry weight or 0.5 10,16 mol Z/cell). Lack of N, V, and A did not affect photosynthesis or growth of the zea1 strain. Biochemical analyses suggested that Z constitutively and quantitatively substitutes for N, V, and A in the zea1 strain. This mutant is discussed in terms of its commercial value and potential utilization by the algal biotechnology industry for the production of zeaxanthin, a high-value bioproduct. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 81: 115,124, 2003. [source]

In this issue: Biotechnology Journal 11/2009

Article first published online: 13 NOV 200
Forensic identification on chips Choi and Seo et al., Biotechnol. J. 2009, 4, 1530,1541 Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis can be used for genetic fingerprinting of individuals as it is done for forensic human identification. However, the current state-of-the-art STR genotyping processes and instruments are labor intensive, expensive, time consuming, and lack portability. Micro-total-analysis systems or lab-on-a-chip platforms based on microfabrication technologies have the capability to miniaturize and integrate bioanalysis steps in a single format and have already been successfully applied for forensic STR typing. Researchers from Daejeon, Korea, highlight up-to-date work on advanced microdevices for high-throughput STR genotyping, and a portable integrated microsystem for on-site forensic DNA analysis. Surface plasmon resonance on chips Maynard et al., Biotechnol. J. 2009, 4, 1542,1558 Technologies based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have allowed rapid, label-free characterization of protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions. SPR has become the gold standard in industrial and academic settings, in which the interaction between a pair of soluble binding partners is characterized in detail or a library of molecules is screened for binding against a single soluble protein. In spite of these successes, SPR is only beginning to be adapted to the needs of membrane-bound proteins which are promising targets for drug and biomarker development. This team of authors from Austin, Minneapolis and Rochester (all USA) describe current SPR instrumentation and the potential for SPR nanopore arrays to enable quantitative, high-throughput screening of G-protein coupled receptor ligands and applications in cellular biology. Nucleotide immobilization on chips Sethi et al., Biotechnol. J. 2009, 4, 1513,1529 The development of oligonucleotide-based microarrays (biochips) is of major interest in science and biotechnology industry and has applications in a wide range of research areas including genomics, proteomics, computational biology and pharmaceuticals. Especially microarrays have proven to be a unique method for time and cost efficient analysis of thousands of genes at one. Authors from Delhi and Lucknow, India discuss currently used chemical strategies for immobilization of oligonucleotides and put a special emphasis on post-synthetic immobilization on glass surfaces. Recent advances on these synthesis pathways are presented in detail. [source]

Chemical strategies for immobilization of oligonucleotides

Dalip Sethi
Abstract The development of oligonucleotide-based microarrays (biochips) is a major thrust area in the rapidly growing biotechnology industry, which encompasses a diverse range of research areas including genomics, proteomics, computational biology, and pharmaceuticals, among other activities. Microarray experiments have proved to be unique in offering cost-effective and efficient analysis at the genomic level. In the last few years, biochips have gained increasing acceptance in the study of genetic and cellular processes. As the increase in experimental throughput has posed many challenges to the research community, considerable progress has been made in the advancement of microarray technology. In this review, chemical strategies for immobilization of oligonucleotides have been highlighted with special emphasis on post-synthetic immobilization of oligonucleotides on glass surface. The major objective of this article is to make the researchers acquainted with some most recent advances in this area. [source]

Performance Characteristics of Nanoporous Carbon Membranes for Protein Ultrafiltration

Tapan N. Shah
Nanoporous carbon membranes could be very attractive for applications of ultrafiltration in the biotechnology industry because of their greater mechanical strength and longer membrane life. The objective of this study was to obtain quantitative data on the performance characteristics of nanoporous carbon membranes formed within a stainless steel support that was first modified by deposition of silica particles within the macroporous support. The nanoporous carbon membrane effectively removed small solutes from a protein solution using diafiltration, with performance comparable to that of commercial polymeric membranes. Protein fouling was evident, although the nanoporous carbon membranes were easily regenerated; cleaning with 0.5 N NaOH at 50 C completely restored the water permeability for multiple cycles. The nanoporous carbon membranes were also compatible with steam sterilization. Significant increases in process flux could be obtained using periodic back-pulsing, with no evidence of any structural alterations in the membrane. These results clearly demonstrate the potential benefits and opportunities for using nanoporous carbon membranes for protein ultrafiltration. [source]

L -Lysine Monohydrochloride Syrup Concentration using a Membrane Hybrid Process of Ultrafiltration and Vacuum Membrane Distillation

O. Bakhtiari
Abstract The development of energy saving membrane separation processes is finding a unique position in process industries. One of the important areas where they are employed is the biotechnology industry. This industry has its own specifications and requirements, e.g., levels of diluteness, thermal, chemical and shear fragility. Membrane separation processes have the characteristics necessary to match these specifications and needs. In this research, the determination of the experimental concentration of L -Lysine monohydrochloride (L -lysine-HCl) syrup was investigated using ultrafiltration (UF) and vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) hybrid membrane processes. Four parameters that are known to have significant influence on the UF process were examined, i.e., pressure difference across the membrane, feed concentration of L -lysine-HCl, feed velocity on the membrane surface, and pH. For the VMD unit, pressure difference and pH were replaced with feed temperature and vacuum pressure on the permeate side of membrane. Each process was carried out separately and the results were used to design a bench-scale process. In order to save time and money, the Taguchi method of experimental design was employed. The effects of feed concentration, pressure difference across the membrane, feed velocity on the membrane surface, and pH on the target variable, i.e., the membrane flux, in the UF process were 39.93, 38.65, 9.36, and 9.59,%, respectively. For the VMD process, these values were 64.79, 22.16, 6.21, and 2.14,% for feed temperature, feed concentration, vacuum pressure on the permeate side, and feed velocity on the membrane surface, respectively. [source]