Biomedical Analysis (biomedical + analysis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Synthesis of pathological and nonpathological human exon 1 huntingtin

David Singer
Abstract Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects approximately 1 in 10 000 individuals. The underlying gene mutation was identified as a CAG-triplet repeat expansion in the gene huntingtin. The CAG sequence codes for glutamine, and in HD, an expansion of the polyglutamine (poly-Q) stretch above 35 glutamine residues results in pathogenicity. It has been demonstrated in various animal models that only the expression of exon 1 huntingtin, a 67-amino acid-long polypeptide plus a variable poly-Q stretch, is sufficient to cause full HD-like pathology. Therefore, a deeper understanding of exon 1 huntingtin, its structure, aggregation mechanism and interaction with other proteins is crucial for a better understanding of the disease. Here, we describe the synthesis of a 109-amino acid-long exon 1 huntingtin peptide including a poly-Q stretch of 42 glutamines. This microwave-assisted solid phase peptide synthesis resulted in milligram amounts of peptide with high purity. We also synthesized a nonpathogenic version of exon 1 huntingtin (90-amino acid long including a poly-Q stretch of 23 glutamine residues) using the same strategy. In circular dichroism spectroscopy, both polypeptides showed weak alpha-helical properties with the longer peptide showing a higher helical degree. These model peptides have great potential for further biomedical analyses, e.g. for large-scale pre-screenings for aggregation inhibitors, further structural analyses as well as protein,protein interaction studies. Copyright 2010 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Autofocusing in computer microscopy: Selecting the optimal focus algorithm

Yu Sun
Abstract Autofocusing is a fundamental technology for automated biological and biomedical analyses and is indispensable for routine use of microscopes on a large scale. This article presents a comprehensive comparison study of 18 focus algorithms in which a total of 139,000 microscope images were analyzed. Six samples were used with three observation methods (brightfield, phase contrast, and differential interference contrast (DIC)) under two magnifications (100 and 400). A ranking methodology is proposed, based on which the 18 focus algorithms are ranked. Image preprocessing was also conducted to extensively reveal the performance and robustness of the focus algorithms. The presented guidelines allow for the selection of the optimal focus algorithm for different microscopy applications. Microsc. Res. Tech. 65:139,149, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Some remarks on characterization and application of stationary phases for RP-HPLC determination of biologically important compounds

Sylwia Kowalska
Abstract Biologically active compounds such as vitamins, steroids, nucleosides, peptides and proteins play a very important role in coordinating living organism functions. Determination of those substances is indispensable in pathogenesis. Their complex structure and physico-chemical properties cause many analytical problems. Chromatography is the most common technique used in pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. The interaction between analyte and stationary phase plays a major role in the separation process. The structure of the packing has a significant influence on the results of the separation process. Various types of spectroscopic techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy can be useful tools for the characterization of packings. Surface area measurements, elemental analysis, thermal analysis and microcalorimetric measurements are also helpful in this field. Part of the paper contains a description of chromatographic tests used for the determination of column properties. The description of the possibilities of surface characterization is not complete, but is focused on the most popular techniques and practical chromatographic tests. All the presented methods made possible the design and quality control of a new generation stationary phases, which are the future of high-performance liquid chromatography. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Chemiluminescence detection in HPLC and CE for pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis

Famei Li
Abstract The present paper reviews the developments and applications of chemiluminescence detection with HPLC and CE in pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. The chemiluminescence systems, chemiluminogenic reagents and derivatization reagents, improvements in instrumental design as well as their contributions to the practical applications, are all presented. The advantages and limitations of current detection methodology and future prospects for improvement are briefly discussed. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]