Biomass Samples (biomass + sample)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Which are the polyphosphate accumulating organisms in full-scale activated sludge enhanced biological phosphate removal systems in Australia?

M. Beer
Abstract Aims:, To see if the compositions of the microbial communities in full scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal activated sludge systems were the same as those from laboratory scale sequencing batch reactors fed a synthetic sewage. Methods:, Biomass samples taken from nine full scale enhanced biological phosphate removal (EBPR) activated sludge plants in the eastern states of Australia were analysed for their populations of polyphosphate (polyP)-accumulating organisms (PAO) using semi-quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in combination with DAPI (4,-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining for polyP. Results:, Very few betaproteobacterial Rhodocyclus related organisms could be detected by FISH in most of the plants examined, and even where present, not all these cells even within a single cluster, stained positively for polyP with DAPI. In some plants in samples from aerobic reactors the Actinobacteria dominated populations containing polyP. Conclusions:, The PAO populations in full-scale EBPR systems often differ to those seen in laboratory scale reactors fed artificial sewage, and Rhodocyclus related organisms, dominating these latter communities may not be as important in full-scale systems. Instead Actinobacteria may be the major PAO. Significance and Impact of the Study:, These findings illustrate how little is still known about the microbial ecology of EBPR processes and that more emphasis should now be placed on analysis of full-scale plants if microbiological methods are to be applied to monitoring their performances. [source]

Design and application of oligonucleotide probes for fluorescent in situ identification of the filamentous bacterial morphotype Nostocoida limicola in activated sludge

Jian Rong Liu
16S rRNA targeted probes, designed using sequence data from pure cultures of the three morphotypes of the filamentous bulking bacteria Nostocoida limicola I, II and III and their successful application to the in situ identification of these bacteria in activated sludge biomass samples are described here. Two probes were required to detect all the sequenced N. limicola II isolates. Results from fluorescent in situ hybridization suggest that the morphotypes N. limicola I and II contain at least two phylogenetically unrelated bacteria. The N. limicola II filaments that did not respond to the probes designed in this study fluoresced instead with the probes previously designed for the ,-Proteobacteria. The data also suggest that both N. limicola I and III can exist in activated sludge as single, paired or clumped cells and thus in a form not recognizable microscopically as this morphotype. Some N. limicola II filaments which responded to the probes designed here were much thinner than the filaments conventionally ,identified' as this morphotype and better fitted the descriptions often used in the literature for N. limicola I. [source]

Chemical reactivity of microbe and mineral surfaces in hydrous ferric oxide depositing hydrothermal springs

GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
ABSTRACT The hot springs in Yellowstone National Park, USA, provide concentrated microbial biomass and associated mineral crusts from which surface functional group (FG) concentrations and pKa distributions can be determined. To evaluate the importance of substratum surface reactivity for solute adsorption in a natural setting, samples of iron-rich sediment were collected from three different springs; two of the springs were acid-sulfate-chloride (ASC) in composition, while the third was neutral-chloride (NC). At one of the ASC springs, mats of Sº -rich Hydrogenobaculum -like streamers and green Cyanidia algae were also collected for comparison to the sediment. All samples were then titrated over a pH range of 3,11, and comparisons were made between the overall FG availability and the concentration of solutes bound to the samples under natural conditions. Sediments from ASC springs were composed of hydrous ferric oxides (HFO) that displayed surface FGs typical of synthetic HFO, while sediments from the NC spring were characterized by a lower functional group density, reflected by decreased excess charge over the titration range (i.e., lower surface reactivity). The latter also showed a lower apparent point of zero charge (PZC), likely due the presence of silica (up to 78 wt. %) in association with HFO. Variations in the overall HFO surface charge are manifest in the quantities and types of solutes complexed; the NC sediments bound more cations, while the ASC sediments retained significantly more arsenic, presumably in the form of arsenate (H2AsO4,). When the microbial biomass samples were analyzed, FG concentrations summed over the titratable range were found to be an order of magnitude lower for the Sº-rich mats, relative to the algal and HFO samples that displayed similar FG concentrations on a dry weight basis. A diffuse-layer surface complexation model was employed to further illustrate the importance of surface chemical parameters on adsorption reactions in complex natural systems. [source]

Thermal processing of biomass natural fibre wastes by pyrolysis

Anton R. Reed
Abstract Waste biomass material in the form of natural fibres used in the production of textile products were examined for their potential to produce activated carbon by physical activation. The five biomass types were hemp, flax, jute, coir and abaca. Each biomass was pyrolysed in a fixed bed reactor and the char characterized. The char was subsequently, activated with steam in a char activation reactor. The surface area and porosity of the derived activated carbon was determined. Surface areas of between 770 and 879 m2 g,1 were achieved. The yield of activated carbon was mostly less than 20 wt% of the original biomass. The five biomass samples were also pyrolysed in a thermogravimetric analyser. The thermal degradation of the biomas samples were discussed in terms of the thermal degradation of the main components of the biomass, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Application of the distributed activation energy model to biomass and biomass constituents devolatilization

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 10 2009
María V. Navarro
Abstract In this study, an investigation about the thermal behavior of four different woods was carried out. The distributed activation energy model was applied to study the effect of heating rate on the reaction of single solids. Results obtained were used in the curve prediction of fraction of mass remaining and rate of mass loss vs. temperature at more realistic heating rates. The possible calculation of biomass samples behavior in pyrolysis conditions as the summation of their constituents, lignin, cellulose, and hemi-cellulose is also explored. All the samples show a weak interaction between the constituents which produce slight differences between experimental and calculated behavior. However, differences between experimental and calculated data lower than 2% offer a robust test of the applicability of the model on kinetic studies of a wide range of biomass samples, heating rates, data input format and equipment layout. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]

Long-term after-effects of fertilisation on the restoration of calcareous grasslands

N.A.C. Smits
Question: What are the long-term implications of former fertilisation for the ecological restoration of calcareous grasslands? Location: Gerendal, Limburg, The Netherlands. Methods: In 1970, ten permanent plots were established in just abandoned agricultural calcareous grassland under a regime of annual mowing in August. From 1971 to 1979, two different fertiliser treatments were applied twice a year to a subset of the plots (artificial fertiliser with different proportions of nitrogen and phosphorus). The vegetation of the plots was recorded yearly and vegetation biomass samples were taken for peak standing crop and total amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Species composition and floristic diversity were analysed over the research period (1970,2006) and between the treatments, including the use of multivariate techniques (Detrended Correspondence Analysis). Results: In terms of species number, there is a clear optimum 10 to 20 years after fertilisation has been terminated. Afterwards, there is a slow decrease; no new species appear and species of more nutrient-rich conditions gradually disappear. For the fertilised plots that received a relatively high proportion of N, effects are found only in the first years, whereas, for the plots that received a relatively high proportion of P, long-term after-effects are found in species composition, peak standing crop, total amounts of phosphorus in biomass, and in soil phosphorus data. Conclusions: The effect of artificial fertiliser with a large amount of nitrogen disappears in less than ten years when mown in August, including removal of the hay. This is a promising result for restoration of N-enriched calcareous grasslands, as the applied dose of nitrogen in this experiment largely exceeds the extra input of nitrogen via atmospheric deposition. Application of fertiliser with a large amount of phosphorus, however, has effects even more than 25 years after the last addition. There are no prospects that this effect will become reduced in the near future under the current mowing management. [source]