Biological Strategies (biological + strategy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Heterogeneity of V2-derived interneurons in the adult mouse spinal cord

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 11 2007
A. Al-Mosawie
Abstract Spinal neurons and networks that generate rhythmic locomotor activity remain incompletely defined, prompting the use of molecular biological strategies to label populations of neurons in the postnatal mouse. During spinal cord development, expression of Lhx3 in the absence of Isl1 specifies a V2 interneuronal fate. In this study, postnatal V2-derived interneurons were identified by yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) expression in the double-transgenic offspring of Lhx3Cre/+ thy1-loxP-stop-loxP-YFP mice. While some motoneurons were labelled, several populations of interneurons predominantly located in lamina VII could also be distinguished. Small interneurons were located throughout the spinal cord whereas larger interneurons were concentrated in the lumbar enlargement. Some V2-derived interneurons were propriospinal, with axons that bifurcated in the lateral funiculus. V2-derived interneurons gave rise to populations of both excitatory and inhibitory interneurons in approximately equal proportions, as demonstrated by in situ hybridization with VGLUT2 mRNA. Immunohistochemical studies revealed YFP+ boutons throughout the spinal cord. Both glutamatergic and glycinergic YFP+ boutons were observed in lamina IX where many apposed motoneuron somata. GABAergic YFP+ boutons were also observed in lamina IX, and they did not form P-boutons. At P0, more than half of the YFP+ interneurons expressed Chx10 and thus were derived from the V2a subclass. In adult mice, there was an increase in Fos expression in V2-derived interneurons following locomotion, indicating that these neurons are active during this behaviour. The heterogeneity of V2-derived interneurons in adult mice indicates that physiologically distinct subpopulations, including last-order interneurons, arise from these embryonically defined neurons. [source]


Coevolution of metal availability and nitrogen assimilation in cyanobacteria and algae

GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
J. B. GLASS
Marine primary producers adapted over eons to the changing chemistry of the oceans. Because a number of metalloenzymes are necessary for N assimilation, changes in the availability of transition metals posed a particular challenge to the supply of this critical nutrient that regulates marine biomass and productivity. Integrating recently developed geochemical, biochemical, and genetic evidence, we infer that the use of metals in N assimilation , particularly Fe and Mo , can be understood in terms of the history of metal availability through time. Anoxic, Fe-rich Archean oceans were conducive to the evolution of Fe-using enzymes that assimilate abiogenic and The N demands of an expanding biosphere were satisfied by the evolution of biological N2 fixation, possibly utilizing only Fe. Trace O2 in late Archean environments, and the eventual ,Great Oxidation Event'c. 2.3 Ga, mobilized metals such as Mo, enabling the evolution of Mo (or V)-based N2 fixation and the Mo-dependent enzymes for assimilation and denitrification by prokaryotes. However, the subsequent onset of deep-sea euxinia, an increasingly-accepted idea, may have kept ocean Mo inventories low and depressed Fe, limiting the rate of N2 fixation and the supply of fixed N. Eukaryotic ecosystems may have been particularly disadvantaged by N scarcity and the high Mo requirement of eukaryotic assimilation. Thorough ocean oxygenation in the Neoproterozoic led to Mo-rich oceans, possibly contributing to the proliferation of eukaryotes and thus the Cambrian explosion of metazoan life. These ideas can be tested by more intensive study of the metal requirements in N assimilation and the biological strategies for metal uptake, regulation, and storage. [source]


WS10 Development of CALUX bioassay-based systems as instruments to detect hormones and contaminants

JOURNAL OF VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 2006
A. BROUWER
Objective Tremendous progress has been made in the ability to measure particular contaminants or veterinary drugs at very low concentrations. However, rare or previously unknown compounds, metabolites and mixtures are still presenting considerable analytical challenges, while this category in particular might be relevant in terms of food safety. In addition, the need for higher throughput screening strategies at lower costs also demands for methods in addition to chemical analysis. There is considerable development in methodology based on the interaction with bio-macromolecules or living cells or on a biological response in the exposed animal. The aim of this workshop is to provide an up-o-date and practical overview of the various analytical and biological strategies that are available to screen or detect (prior) exposure to drugs, contaminants and pollutants. [source]


WS11 Comprehensive investigation of the transcriptome

JOURNAL OF VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 2006
T. PINEAU
Objective Tremendous progress has been made in the ability to measure particular contaminants or veterinary drugs at very low concentrations. However, rare or previously unknown compounds, metabolites and mixtures are still presenting considerable analytical challenges, while this category in particular might be relevant in terms of food safety. In addition, the need for higher throughput screening strategies at lower costs also demands for methods in addition to chemical analysis. There is considerable development in methodology based on the interaction with bio-macromolecules or living cells or on a biological response in the exposed animal. The aim of this workshop is to provide an up-o-date and practical overview of the various analytical and biological strategies that are available to screen or detect (prior) exposure to drugs, contaminants and pollutants. [source]


,Smart' delivery systems for biomolecular therapeutics

ORTHODONTICS & CRANIOFACIAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2005
PS Stayton
Structured Abstract Authors ,, Stayton PS, El-Sayed MEH, Murthy N, Bulmus V, Lackey C, Cheung C, Hoffman AS Objective ,, There is a strong need for drug delivery systems that can deliver biological signals from biomaterials and tissue engineering scaffolds, and a particular need for new delivery systems that can efficiently deliver biomolecules to intracellular targets. Viruses and pathogens have evolved potent molecular machinery that sense the lowered pH gradient of the endosomal compartment and become activated to destabilize the endosomal membrane, thereby enhancing protein or DNA transport to the cytoplasmic compartment. A key feature of many of these biological delivery systems is that they are reversible, so that the delivery systems are not directly toxic. These delivery systems have the ability to change their structural and functional properties and thus display remarkable ,smart' material properties. The objective of this presentation is to review the initial development of smart polymeric carriers that mimic these biological delivery systems and combine similar pH-sensitive, membrane-destabilizing activity for the delivery of therapeutic biomolecules. Design ,, We have developed new ,smart' polymeric carriers to more effectively deliver and broaden the available types of biomolecular therapeutics. The polymers are hydrophilic and stealth-like at physiological pH, but become membrane-destabilizing after uptake into the endosomal compartment where they enhance the release of therapeutic cargo into the cytoplasm. They can be designed to provide a range of pH profiles and membrane-destabilizing activities, allowing their molecular properties to be matched to specific drugs and loading ranges. A versatile set of linker chemistries is available to provide degradable conjugation sites for proteins, nucleic acids, and/or targeting moieties. Results ,, The physical properties of several pH-responsive polymers were examined. The activity and pH profile can be manipulated by controlling the length of hydrophobic alkyl segments. The delivery of poly(propyl acrylic acid) (PPAA)-containing lipoplexes significantly enhanced wound healing through the interconnected effects of altered extracellular matrix organization and greater vascularization. PPAA has also been shown to enhance cytoplasmic delivery of a model protein therapeutic. Polymeric carriers displaying pH-sensitive, membrane-destabilizing activity were also examined. The pH profile is controlled by the choice of the alkylacrylic acid monomer and by the ratio of the carboxylate-containing alkylacrylic acid monomer to alkylacrylate monomer. The membrane destabilizing activity is controlled by the lengths of the alkyl segment on the alkylacrylic acid monomer and the alkylacrylate monomer, as well as by their ratio in the final polymer chains. Conclusion ,, The molecular mechanisms that proteins use to sense and destabilize provide interesting paradigms for the development of new polymeric delivery systems that mimic biological strategies for promoting the intracellular delivery of biomolecular drugs. The key feature of these polymers is their ability to directly enhance the intracellular delivery of proteins and DNA, by destabilizing biological membranes in response to vesicular compartment pH changes. The ability to deliver a wide variety of protein and nucleic acid drugs to intracellular compartments from tissue engineering and regenerative scaffolds could greatly enhance control of important processes such as inflammation, angiogenesis, and biomineralization. [source]


Living Yeast Cells as a Controllable Biosynthesizer for Fluorescent Quantum Dots

ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 15 2009
Ran Cui
Abstract There are currently some problems in the field of chemical synthesis, such as environmental impact, energy loss, and safety, that need to be tackled urgently. An interdisciplinary approach, based on different backgrounds, may succeed in solving these problems. Organisms can be chosen as potential platforms for materials fabrication, since biosystems are natural and highly efficient. Here, an example of how to solve some of these chemical problems through biology, namely, through a novel biological strategy of coupling intracellular irrelated biochemical reactions for controllable synthesis of multicolor CdSe quantum dots (QDs) using living yeast cells as a biosynthesizer, is demonstrated. The unique fluorescence properties of CdSe QDs can be utilized to directly and visually judge the biosynthesis phase to fully demonstrate this strategy. By such a method, CdSe QDs, emitting at a variety of single fluorescence wavelengths, can be intracellularly, controllably synthesized at just 30C instead of at 300C with combustible, explosive, and toxic organic reagents. This green biosynthetic route is a novel strategy of coupling, with biochemical reactions taking place irrelatedly, both in time and space. It involves a remarkable decrease in reaction temperature, from around 300 C to 30 C and excellent color controllability of CdSe photoluminescence. It is well known that to control the size of nanocrystals is a mojor challenge in the biosynthesis of high-quality nanomaterials. The present work demonstrates clearly that biological systems can be creatively utilized to realize controllable unnatural biosynthesis that normally does not exist, offering new insights for sustainable chemistry. [source]