Bioinformatics Tools (bioinformatics + tool)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A suite of tools to analyse and publish 2-DE data

Christine Hoogland Dr.
Abstract Bioinformatics tools may assist scientists in all steps of a typical 2-DE gel analysis workflow, that is, from the description of the sample preparation protocols, going through the gel image analysis and protein identification, to the publication of Internet-ready 2-DE gel databases. This short communication highlights in a single and summarised view, this workflow and the current bioinformatics solutions developed by the Proteome Informatics Group at the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. [source]

Proteome informatics for cancer research: From molecules to clinic

Vladimir Brusic Dr.
Abstract Proteomics offers the most direct approach to understand disease and its molecular biomarkers. Biomarkers denote the biological states of tissues, cells, or body fluids that are useful for disease detection and classification. Clinical proteomics is used for early disease detection, molecular diagnosis of disease, identification and formulation of therapies, and disease monitoring and prognostics. Bioinformatics tools are essential for converting raw proteomics data into knowledge and subsequently into useful applications. These tools are used for the collection, processing, analysis, and interpretation of the vast amounts of proteomics data. Management, analysis, and interpretation of large quantities of raw and processed data require a combination of various informatics technologies such as databases, sequence comparison, predictive models, and statistical tools. We have demonstrated the utility of bioinformatics in clinical proteomics through the analysis of the cancer antigen survivin and its suitability as a target for cancer immunotherapy. [source]

Proteome informatics I: Bioinformatics tools for processing experimental data

Patricia M. Palagi Dr.
Abstract Bioinformatics tools for proteomics, also called proteome informatics tools, span today a large panel of very diverse applications ranging from simple tools to compare protein amino acid compositions to sophisticated software for large-scale protein structure determination. This review considers the available and ready to use tools that can help end-users to interpret, validate and generate biological information from their experimental data. It concentrates on bioinformatics tools for 2-DE analysis, for LC followed by MS analysis, for protein identification by PMF, by peptide fragment fingerprinting and by de,novo sequencing and for data quantitation with MS data. It also discloses initiatives that propose to automate the processes of MS analysis and enhance the quality of the obtained results. [source]

A bioinformatic tool for analysis of EST transcript abundance during infection-related development by Magnaporthe grisea

SUMMARY Information regarding the levels of mRNA transcript abundance under different conditions, or in specific tissue types, can be obtained by analysis of the frequency of EST sequences in randomly sequenced cDNA libraries. Here we report a bioinformatics tool, which provides a means of identifying genes that are differentially expressed during pathogenesis-related development by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. A total of 31 534 M. grisea ESTs were obtained from dbEST at NCBI, clustered into 8821 unique sequences (unisequences) and manually annotated. Transcript profiles were then calculated for 958 unigenes identified from eight different cDNA libraries. The data were integrated into the Consortium for Functional Genomics of Microbial Eukaryotes (COGEME) database ( and a web-based front end was designed to allow users to access and interrogate the generated datasets. [source]

Neuromyelitis optica/Devic's disease: Gene expression profiling of brain lesions

Jun-ichi Satoh
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), also known as Devic's disease, is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that affects selectively the optic nerves and the spinal cord, possibly mediated by an immune mechanism distinct from that of multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent studies indicate that NMO also involves the brain. Here, we studied gene expression profile of brain lesions of a patient with NMO by using DNA microarray, along with gene expression profile of the brains of Parkinson disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. We identified more than 200 genes up-regulated in NMO brain lesions. The top 20 genes were composed of the molecules closely associated with immune regulation, among which marked up-regulation of interferon gamma-inducible protein 30 (IFI30), CD163, and secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, osteopontin) was validated by real time RT-PCR, Northern blot and Western blot analysis. Pathologically, CD68+ macrophages and microglia expressed intense immunoreactivities for IFI30 and CD163 in NMO lesions, consisting of inflammatory demyelination, axonal loss, necrosis, cavity formation, and vascular fibrosis. KeyMolnet, a bioinformatics tool for analyzing molecular interaction on the curated knowledge database, suggested that the molecular network of up-regulated genes in NMO brain lesions involves transcriptional regulation by the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-,B) and B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1). These results suggest that profound activation of the macrophage-mediated proinflammatory immune mechanism plays a pivotal role in development of NMO brain lesions. [source]

Systematic evaluation of the effect of common SNPs on pre-mRNA splicing,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 4 2009
Abdou ElSharawy
Abstract The evolutionary and biomedical importance of differential mRNA splicing is well established. Numerous studies have assessed patterns of differential splicing in different genes and correlated these patterns to the genotypes for adjacent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Here, we have chosen a reverse approach and screened dbSNP for common SNPs at either canonical splice sites or exonic splice enhancers (ESEs) that would be classified as putatively splicing-relevant by bioinformatic tools. The 223 candidate SNPs retrieved from dbSNP were experimentally tested using a previously established panel of 92 matching DNAs and cDNAs. For each SNP, 16 cDNAs providing a balanced representation of the genotypes at the respective SNP were investigated by nested RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing. Putative allele-dependent splicing was verified by the cloning of PCR products. The positive predictive value of the bioinformatics tools turned out to be low, ranging from 0% for ESEfinder to 9% (in the case of acceptor-site SNPs) for a recently reported neural network. The results highlight the need for a better understanding of the sequence characteristics of functional splice-sites to improve our ability to predict in silico the splicing relevance of empirically observed DNA sequence variants. Hum Mutat 0, 1,9, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tissue profiling of secretoneurin in the nucleus accumbens shell from cocaine-sensitized rats

Joachim D. Uys
Abstract Proteins in the nucleus accumbens mediate many cocaine-induced behaviors. In an effort to measure changes in nucleus accumbens protein expression as potential biomarkers for addiction, coronal tissue sections were obtained from rats that developed behavioral sensitization after daily administration of cocaine, or from daily saline-treated controls. The tissue sections were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) profiling and tissue imaging. For profiling experiments, brain sections were manually spotted with matrix over the nucleus accumbens, a brain region known to regulate cocaine sensitization. Summed mass spectra (10 000 laser shots, grid) were acquired and spectra were aligned to reference peaks. Using bioinformatics tools, eight spectral features were found to be altered by cocaine treatment. Based on additional sequencing experiments with MALDI tandem MS and database searches of measured masses, secretoneurin (m/z 3653) was identified as having an increased expression. In addition, the distribution of m/z 3653 in the nucleus accumbens was determined by MALDI tissue imaging, and the increased expression of its precursor protein, secretogranin II, was verified by immunoblotting. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

High-sensitivity analysis of specific peptides in complex samples by selected MS/MS ion monitoring and linear ion trap mass spectrometry: Application to biological studies

Inmaculada Jorge
Abstract Mass spectrometry (MS) is a technique of paramount importance in Proteomics, and developments in this field have been possible owing to novel MS instrumentation, experimental strategies, and bioinformatics tools. Today it is possible to identify and determine relative expression levels of thousands of proteins in a biological system by MS analysis of peptides produced by proteolytic digestion. In some situations, however, the precise characterization of a particular peptide species in a very complex peptide mixture is needed. While single-fragment ion-based scanning modes such as selected ion reaction monitoring (SIRM) or consecutive reaction monitoring (CRM) may be highly sensitive, they do not produce MS/MS information and their actual specificity must be determined in advance, a prerequisite that is not usually met in a basic research context. In such cases, the MS detector may be programmed to perform continuous MS/MS spectra on the peptide ion of interest in order to obtain structural information. This selected MS/MS ion monitoring (SMIM) mode has a number of advantages that are fully exploited by MS detectors that, like the linear ion trap, are characterized by high scanning speeds. In this work, we show some applications of this technique in the context of biological studies. These results were obtained by selecting an appropriate combination of scans according to the purpose of each one of these research scenarios. They include highly specific identification of proteins present in low amounts, characterization and relative quantification of post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and S -nitrosylation and species-specific peptide identification. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Proteome informatics I: Bioinformatics tools for processing experimental data

Patricia M. Palagi Dr.
Abstract Bioinformatics tools for proteomics, also called proteome informatics tools, span today a large panel of very diverse applications ranging from simple tools to compare protein amino acid compositions to sophisticated software for large-scale protein structure determination. This review considers the available and ready to use tools that can help end-users to interpret, validate and generate biological information from their experimental data. It concentrates on bioinformatics tools for 2-DE analysis, for LC followed by MS analysis, for protein identification by PMF, by peptide fragment fingerprinting and by de,novo sequencing and for data quantitation with MS data. It also discloses initiatives that propose to automate the processes of MS analysis and enhance the quality of the obtained results. [source]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Identification of Toll-Like Receptors in the Rat (Rattus norvegicus): Messenger RNA Expression in the Male Reproductive Tract Under Conditions of Androgen Variation

Barnali Biswas
Problem, Although the majority of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are reported in many species, some of them are not yet described in the rat. Further, factors that govern Tlr expression in the male reproductive tract have received little attention. We attempt to identify and characterize Tlrs in the rat and determine the expression profile under conditions that affect male reproductive tract gene expression. Method of study, Rat Tlr5, Tlr10, and Tlr11 transcript sequences were submitted to GenBank and in silico characterization carried out using bioinformatics tools. RT-PCR analyses using gene specific primers for rat Tlr1,13 were carried out with RNA isolated from reproductive tract tissues of various experimental groups. Results,Tlr5, Tlr10, and Tlr11 identified in this study share features that are characteristic of the known TLRs. Abundant Tlr expression was observed in the male reproductive tract of adult and developing rats. Further, Tlr expression was also observed in the epididymides of androgen ablated rats. Conclusion,Tlr5, Tlr10, and Tlr11 are ubiquitously expressed in the rat. Tlrs seem to be expressed during male reproductive tract development and under conditions of androgen ablation, suggesting the preparedness of the male reproductive tract to detect an infection under all conditions of androgen status. [source]

Current Applications of Microarrays in Head and Neck Cancer Research

FRCS Eng, Giles C. Warner MSc
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: The objective was to introduce microarray technology and its applications in cancer research to the head and neck clinician. Study Design: Literature review combined with methodology and examples from the authors' experiences with microarray analysis of tumors of the head and neck. Methods: Search of literature and the authors' experience was made for technical details, alternative methods of data analysis, available bioinformatics tools, and applications of microarrays in cancer research. Results: Microarrays allow the simultaneous analysis of the expression of thousands of genes. The use of a well-developed microarray study design leads to informative results. There are various bioinformatics resources widely available to aid in the analysis of microarray data. However, there is not yet a gold standard for analysis because this methodology is still evolving. Conclusion: Microarray studies may allow researchers to identify genetic changes relevant to diagnosis and prognosis in patients with head and neck cancer. Although still relatively new, this powerful methodology has immense potential to aid in understanding of the genetic changes that are important in head and neck cancer. [source]

A Novel Point Variant in NTRK3, R645C, Suggests a Role of this Gene in the Pathogenesis of Hirschsprung Disease

R. M. Fernández
Summary Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a developmental disorder characterized by the absence of ganglion cells in the myenteric and submucosal plexuses due to a defect in the migration process of neural crest neuroblasts. Manifestation of the disease has been linked to the dysfunction of two principal signalling pathways involved in the enteric nervous system (ENS) formation: the RET-GDNF and the EDN3-EDNRB receptor systems. However, the NTF3/NTRK3 signalling pathway plays an essential role in the development of the ENS suggesting a potential role for those genes in the pathogenesis of HSCR. We have sought to evaluate the candidature of the NTRK3 gene, which encodes the TrkC receptor, as a susceptibility gene for Hirschsprung disease. Using dHPLC technology we have screened the NTRK3 coding region in 143 Spanish HSCR patients. A total of four previously described polymorphisms and 12 novel sequence variants were detected. Of note, the novel R645C mutation was detected in 2 affected siblings of a HSCR family also carrying a RET splicing mutation. Using bioinformatics tools we observed that the presence of an additional cysteine residue might implicate structural alterations in the mutated protein. We propose haploinsufficiency as the most probable mechanism for the NTRK3 R645C mutation. NTRK3 and RET mutations in this family only appear together in the HSCR patients, suggesting that they per se are necessary but not sufficient to produce the phenotype. In addition, it is quite probable that the contribution of other still unidentified modifier genes, may be responsible for the different phenotypes (length of aganglionosis) in the two affected members. [source]

Proteomics: Recent Applications and New Technologies

Mollisa M. Elrick
Proteomic analyses have recently been conducted on tissues, biofluids, subcellular components and enzymatic pathways as well as various disease and toxicological states, in both animal models and man. In addition, several recent studies have attempted to integrate proteomics data with genomics and/or metabonomics data in a systems biology approach. The translation of proteomic technology and bioinformatics tools to clinical samples, such as in the areas of disease and toxicity biomarkers, represents one of the major opportunities and challenges facing this field. An ongoing challenge in proteomics continues to be the analysis of the serum proteome due to the vast number and complexity of proteins estimated to be present in this biofluid. Aside from the removal of the most abundant proteins, a number of interesting approaches have recently been suggested that may help reduce the overall complexity of serum analysis. In keeping with the increasing interest in applications of proteomics, the tools available for proteomic analyses continue to improve and expand. For example, enhanced tools (such as software and labeling procedures) continue to be developed for the analysis of 2D gels and protein quantification. In addition, activity-based probes are now being used to tag, enrich and isolate distinct sets of proteins based on enzymatic activity. One of the most active areas of development involves microarrays. Antibody-based microarrays have recently been released as commercial products while numerous additional capture agents (e.g. aptamers) and many additional types of microarrays are being explored. [source]

Exploring protein function and evolution using free online bioinformatics tools

Todd Weaver
First page of article [source]

Strategic Selection of Hyperthermophilic Esterases for Resolution of 2-Arylpropionic Esters

Amitabh C. Sehgal
Homologues to Carboxylesterase NP and Candida rugosa lipase, used for the chiral separation of racemic mixtures of 2-arylpropionic methyl esters, were identified by BLAST searches of available genome sequences for hyperthermophilic microorganisms. Two potential candidates were identified: a putative lysophospholipase from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu-LPL) and a carboxylesterase from Sulfolobussolfataricus P1 (Sso-EST1). Although both enzymes showed hydrolytic preference toward the (S) methyl ester, only Sso-EST1 yielded highly optically pure (S) naproxen (%eep , 90) and was thus further investigated. Changes in pH or reaction time showed little improvement in %eep or E values with Sso-EST1. However, the addition of 25% methanol resulted in a 25% increase in E. The effect of various cosolvents on the enantiomeric ratio showed no correlation with the log P or dielectric constant values of the solvent. However, an inverse relationship between E and the denaturation capacity (DC) of the water miscible cosolvents was observed. This was attributed to an increase in enzyme flexibility with increasing solvent DC values leading to a concomitant reduction in the resolving power of Sso-EST1. The results here show that although bioinformatics tools can be used to select candidate biocatalysts for chiral resolution of 2-arylpropionic esters, biochemical characterization is needed to definitively determine functional characteristics. [source]