Biochemical Parameters (biochemical + parameter)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Biochemical Parameters

  • serum biochemical parameter
  • various biochemical parameter

  • Selected Abstracts


    JOURNAL OF RENAL CARE, Issue 1 2008
    Sevel Dogan RN
    SUMMARY The relation of various demographic, clinical and biochemical parameters of peritoneal dialysis patients with peritonitis and other infections was evaluated. The age, gender, peritoneal dialysis (PD) period, educational status, peritonitis, exit site score, serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and triglyceride levels at the beginning and the last visit were recorded. Mean age of 32 patients was 45.1 years; PD period was 13.1 months. Albumin level was inversely proportional to the frequency of peritonitis. Patients with peritonitis had albumin levels that were lower at the last visit, and were independent of the CRP values at the start of PD and during follow-up. Significant correlation was detected between females and exit site scores. There was significant correlation between educational status and peritonitis. Albumin level at first visit was a factor that reduced the likelihood of peritonitis, and low levels obtained during follow-up constituted a risk for peritonitis. It was also shown that peritonitis risk tended to decrease inversely with education level. [source]

    Assessment of Growth, Physiological and Biochemical Parameters and Activities of Antioxidative Enzymes in Salinity Tolerant and Sensitive Basmati Rice Varieties

    M. P. Singh
    Abstract This investigation was undertaken to compare the level of salinity tolerance of the newly bred CSR-30 basmati rice variety with that of the salinity sensitive HBC-19 and Pokkali rice varieties. Twenty-one-day-old hydroponically raised seedlings at 6 and 12 dS m,1 were investigated for growth, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) activity, relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI), lipid peroxidation, Na/K ratio and activities and gene expression of various isoforms of antioxidative enzymes. Salinity stress led to reduction in shoot length, leaf area, dry weight, RWC, MSI, rate of photosynthesis, chlorophyll content and Rubisco activity in all the three rice varieties. The levels of reduction in these parameters were maximal in HBC-19 followed by those in CSR-30 and Pokkali respectively. Cumulative superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased in Pokkali and CSR-30 in consonance with increase in salinity stress while it decreased in HBC-19. The Mn-SOD activity however, was enhanced in all three varieties in the presence of salinity stress while the activities of Fe-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD and ascorbate peroxidase were decreased in HBC-19 when compared with CSR-30 and Pokkali. The activity of catalase (CAT) was higher in HBC-19 when compared with its activity in CSR-30 and Pokkali. The levels of gene expressions of the three isoforms of SOD ascertained by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were not necessarily indicative of the activities of the corresponding enzymes. Thus, despite the maximal enhancement in gene expression of Fe-SOD in HBC-19 in response to salinity stress, the activity of this enzyme in HBC-19 remained low. Similarly, despite a marginal increase in gene expression of Cu-Zn SOD in the three varieties, its activity was significantly higher in Pokkali and CSR-30 when compared with that in HBC-19. A significant enhancement in the activity of CAT at 12 dS m,1 in HBC-19 when compared with CSR-30 and Pokkali might confer a degree of tolerance to H2O2 stress in this variety in the presence of higher levels of NaCl at the seedling stage. [source]

    Hormonal and Biochemical Parameters and Osteoporotic Fractures in Elderly Men

    Dr. Jacqueline R. Center
    Abstract Low testosterone has been associated with hip fracture in men in some studies. However, data on other hormonal parameters and fracture outcome in men is minimal. This study examined the association between free testosterone (free T) estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], parathyroid hormone (PTH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and fracture in 437 elderly community-dwelling men. Age, height, weight, quadriceps strength, femoral neck bone mineral density (FN BMD), and fracture data (1989,1997) also were obtained. Fractures were classified as major (hip, pelvis, proximal tibia, multiple rib, vertebral, and proximal humerus) or minor (remaining distal upper and lower limb fractures). Fifty-four subjects had a fracture (24 major and 30 minor). There was no association between minor fractures and any hormonal parameter. Risk of major fracture was increased 2-fold for each SD increase in age, decrease in weight and height, and increase in SHBG, and risk of major fracture was increased 3-fold for each SD decrease in quadriceps strength, FN BMD, and 25(OH)D (univariate logistic regression). Independent predictors of major fracture were FN BMD, 2.7 (1.5,4.7; odds ratio [OR]) and 95% confidence interval [CI]); 25(OH)D, 2.8 (1.5,5.3); and SHBG, 1.7 (1.2,2.4). An abnormal value for three factors resulted in a 30-fold increase in risk but only affected 2% of the population. It is not immediately apparent how 25(OH)D and SHBG, largely independently of BMD, may contribute to fracture risk. They may be markers for biological age or health status not measured by methods that are more traditional and as such may be useful in identifying those at high risk of fracture. [source]

    Enhanced weight loss with protein-enriched meal replacements in subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    Marion Flechtner-Mors
    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a protein-rich diet in comparison with a conventional protein diet on weight loss, weight maintenance, and body composition in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Methods Obese subjects received instructions for an energy-restricted diet with a calorie deficit of 500 kcal/day and were randomly assigned to either high-protein (1.34 g/kg body weight) or conventional protein (0.8 g/kg body weight) diets for 12 months. Protein-enriched meal replacements were used to enrich one arm of the diet with protein throughout the study. In all, 67% of the participants completed the 1-year study. Results Subjects following the high-protein diet lost more body weight and more fat mass compared with those on the conventional protein diet, whereas the loss of fat-free mass was similar in both diet groups. Biochemical parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome improved in both diet groups. Improvements were modestly greater in subjects with the high-protein diet. After 12 months of treatment, 64.5% of the subjects in the high-protein diet group and 34.8% of the subjects in the conventional diet group no longer met three or more of the criteria for having the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Individuals with the metabolic syndrome achieved significant weight loss while preserving fat-free mass when treated with an energy-restricted, high-protein diet that included nutrient-dense meal replacements, as compared with the results for conventional protein intake. An intervention with a protein-enriched diet may have advantages for the management of the metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Single dose intravenous thioacetamide administration as a model of acute liver damage in rats

    Tse-Min Chen
    Summary Thioacetamide (TAA) has been used extensively in the development of animal models of acute liver injury. Frequently, TAA is administered intraperitoneally to induce liver damage under anaesthesia. However, it is rarely administered by intravenous injection in conscious rats. The experiments in this study were designed to induce acute liver damage by single intravenous injection of TAA (0, 70 and 280 mg/kg) in unrestrained rats. Biochemical parameters and cytokines measured during the 60-h period following TAA administration, included white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobulin (Hb), platelet, aspartate transferase (GOT), alanine transferase (GPT), total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBI), albumin, ammonia (NH3), r-glutamyl transpeptidase (r-GT), tumour necrosis factor-, (TNF-,) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Rats were sacrificed by decapitation 60 h after TAA administration and livers were removed immediately for pathology and immunohistochemical (IHC) examination. Another group of rats were sacrificed by decapitation 1, 6 and 24 h after TAA administration and livers were removed immediately for time course change of pathology and IHC examination. TAA significantly increased blood WBC, GOT, GPT, TBIL, DBIL, NH3, r-GT, TNF-, and IL-6 levels but decreased the blood Hb, platelet and albumin level. The levels of histopathological damage in the liver after intravenous TAA administration were also increased with a dose-dependent trend and more increased at 60 h after TAA administration. The levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-,B (NF-,B) detected by IHC in the liver after intravenous TAA administration were also increased with a dose-dependent trend and more increased at 1 h after TAA administration. Single intravenous TAA administration without anaesthesia is a restorable animal model which may be used to investigate acute liver damage. [source]

    Identification of five novel variants in the thiazide-sensitive NaCl co-transporter gene in Chinese patients with Gitelman syndrome

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    SUMMARY Aim: Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubulopathy characterized by hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis, significant hypomagnesemia, low urinary calcium, secondary aldosteronism and normal blood pressure. GS is caused by inactivating variants in the SLC12A3 gene, which encodes the thiazide-sensitive NaCl co-transporter. So far, more than 100 variants have been described in the SLC12A3 gene in Gitelman syndrome. Methods: Biochemical parameters in blood and urine were measured and documented. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of all patients. Variants were screened for the SLC12A3 and CLCNKB gene by sequencing directly. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and complementary DNA sequence analysis were performed to confirm deletion or splicing variants. Results: We identified 13 variants in the SLC12A3 gene in 13 Chinese patients, including 10 missense substitutions, two splicing variants, and one deletion/insertion variant. Five novel variants were identified for the first time in patients with Gitelman syndrome. We did not find any variants in the CLCNKB gene. A homozygous Thr60Met carrier suffered from hypothyroidism and received thyroxine replacement therapy. Conclusion: We have identified 13 variants, including five novel variants in the SLC12A3 gene in 13 patients with Gitelman syndrome. T60M is the most frequent variant in our patients. There was no significant correlation between genotype and phenotype in our patients. [source]

    Sequential Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on the Histomorphology, Cell Density and Antioxidative Status of the Lens Epithelium,An In Vivo Study ,

    S. R. Kaid Johar
    ABSTRACT In vivo progressive effects of UV irradiation on the lens epithelium were studied using various histomorphological and biochemical parameters. Fifteen day old rat pups were exposed to 600 mW/m2 of radiation, including UV-A and UV-B, 12 h daily for 90, 120, 150 and 180 days. Biochemical parameters such as protein-bound and non,protein-bound sulfhydryl groups in both soluble and insoluble fractions and enzymes, which play an important role in combating the oxidative stress, were studied. Decreased cell density of lens epithelial cells (LEC) was observed in all three zones along with the decrease in the levels of soluble sulfhydryls (S-SH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT). On the other hand, an increase in insoluble sulfhydryls was observed. Because of the decrease in S-SH and GR activities, the LEC became vulnerable to oxidative stress. Decreased activities of SOD, GPx and CAT suggest elevated oxidative stress. This effect of UV radiation may lead to cell death that may be responsible for the observed decrease in the cell density in all three zones of the lens epithelium. [source]

    Pharmacodynamic interaction of captopril with garlic in isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage in rat

    Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq
    Abstract It is known that various preparations of garlic and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor such as captopril (CAP) have beneficial effects on the left ventricular function and cardiovascular events after myocardial infarction (MI) when used individually. There is no reported interaction between garlic homogenate (GH) and CAP during and after acute MI. Thus the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the possible pharmacodynamic interaction of GH with CAP on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial damage in rat. Female Wistar albino rats were treated with GH at three different doses of 125; 250 and 500,mg/kg orally for 30 days and CAP (30,mg/kg, p.o.) was incorporated in the interactive groups during the last seven days of GH treatment. Myocardial damage was induced by administration of ISO (150,mg/kg, s.c.) for two consecutive days. Biochemical parameters were studied in serum and heart tissue homogenate of all animals. The GH 250,mg/kg was found to dislodge the effect of ISO on superoxide dismutase and catalase and retained the activities of LDH and CK-MB. Incorporation of CAP during GH treatment provided further protection to myocardium from injury. However, higher dose of GH alone or with CAP failed to prevent damaging effect of ISO. Histopathological determinations confirmed biochemical findings. Thus it is concluded that the combination needs to be used carefully when garlic is consumed at high doses. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Biochemical parameters of blood plasma and content of microcystins in tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from a hypertrophic pond with cyanobacterial water bloom

    Radovan Kopp
    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of the blood plasma parameters and the content of microcystins in the tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in relation to the toxic cyanobacterial water bloom. Fish (average body mass 2176±697 g) in the hypertrophic pond were exposed to natural water bloom (dominated by Planktothrix agardhii, Pseudanabaena limnetica and Limnothrix redekei), which contained microcystins (concentration in biomass 20,181 ,g g,1 dry wt, concentration in water 0.3,9.5 ,g L,1). Biochemical parameters in fish blood plasma were analysed in 89 fish at 14-day intervals during the whole season (nine sampling periods). Our results demonstrated high variability and fluctuations in the investigated parameters. The content of microcystins and density of cyanobacterial cells correlated with some haematological indices as lipase, alanine,aminotransferase, albumin, magnesium and chlorides. The concentrations of microcystins in the muscle and liver of the fish (determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometer) were below the limit of detection during the monitored period [0.31 ng g,1 fresh weight (f.w.) for the liver and 0.13 ng g,1 f.w. for muscle]. Our study demonstrates that although known cyanobacterial toxin microcystins were not detected in the fish tissues, several biochemical parameters important for the fish physiology were modulated by natural cyanobacterial bloom. [source]

    Decrease of adenosine deaminase activity and increase of the lipid peroxidation after acute methotrexate treatment in young rats: protective effects of grape seed extract

    F. V. Pinheiro
    Abstract The methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-folate used to treat cancer and some inflammatory diseases. The efficacy of MTX is often limited by its severe toxicity. The present study was undertaken to determine whether Grape seed (Cabernet Sauvignon) extract (GSE) could ameliorate the MTX-induced oxidative injury and the effect on adenosine deaminase activity (ADA) in rats. The rats were pretreated with 50,mg/kg of GSE, i.p., prior to MTX administration (10,mg/kg, i.p.) with a second dose given 4,h and a third dose 16,h after MTX administration. Biochemical parameters were investigated 48,h after the last MTX administration. The administration of MTX increased thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels in hippocampus, kidney and liver, whereas induced a significant decreased in the ADA activity in the cerebral cortex, kidney and liver tissues. MTX administration significantly increased the activity of ALT(alanine aminotransferase) and urea levels and decreased uric acid levels in the serum. Urinary uric acid levels decreased in the MTX group when compared to those of the control group. The GSE along with MTX-administration significantly reversed these parameters toward to near normal. These results indicated that GSE could reduce hepatic and nephritic damage induced by MTX-treatment in young rats therefore having free radical scavenging. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Clinical aspects on neonatal cholestasis based on observations at a Swedish tertiary referral centre

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2 2001
    B Fischler
    The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical aspects of neonatal cholestasis. The medical records of 85 cholestatic infants were retrospectively reviewed. A majority of the patients were referred from other parts of the country. The most common diagnoses were extrahepatic biliary atresia (n= 30 patients), ,1 -antitrypsin deficiency (n=11) and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (n= 11). On presentation, the biliary atresia group had higher mean serum values of bilirubin, G-GT and cholesterol than the patients with intrahepatic cholestasis, with no significant differences noticed for any other biochemical parameter. A lack of excretion on hepatobiliary scintigraphy was noticed in all investigated patients with biliary atresia, but also in 9 of 34 patients with intrahepatic neonatal cholestasis. There was no statistical correlation between the age at portoenterostomy and the outcome in patients with biliary atresia. However, both the detection of a partial flow on perioperative cholangiogram and the establishment of a non-icteric phase within 6 mo after the portoenterostomy correlated to a good outcome. Eight of 11 patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis were treated with a biliary diversion procedure, five of eight experienced a sustained cholestatic remission. Conclusions: Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis may be a more common cause of neonatal cholestasis in Sweden than reported elsewhere and that the experience with biliary diversion is positive. While early referral in patients with extrahepatic biliary atresia remains important, a portoenterostomy should be attempted also in patients referred after 3 mo of age. [source]

    Peroxidatic activity in heart effluent: a biochemical parameter for the assessment of experimental ischemia-reperfusion injury

    M.V. Leabu
    Abstract Peroxidatic activity in heart effluent was defined as a new biochemical parameter for the experimental study of myocardial ischemia. The peroxidatic reaction was determined by dot blot analysis with 3,3,-diaminobenzidine as hydrogen donor. After ischemia, the level of peroxidatic activity in heart effluent was 2-3 times higher than before. The effects in experimental modulation of ischemia, such as nicorandil or aprikalim protection, and the reversibility of protection by glibenclamide, could accurately be noted using the level of peroxidatic activity in heart effluent as a biochemical parameter. The results were in good agreement with those obtained for other enzymes used as biochemical parameters in experimental heart ischemia-reperfusion studies. [source]

    Lack of association between serum adiponectin levels and the Pro12Ala polymorphism in Asian Indians

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 4 2007
    V. Radha
    Abstract Aims, The aim of the study was to investigate the association of serum adiponectin levels with the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-, (PPARG) gene in Asian Indians. Methods, We selected 400 diabetic subjects, 200 with the Pro12Pro genotype (100 male and 100 female) and 200 with the Pro12Ala genotype (100 male and 100 female) and 400 age- and sex-matched normal glucose tolerance subjects with similar genotype profiles from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Fasting serum adiponection levels were measured using radioimmunoassay. The Pro12Ala polymorphism was genotyped by PCR,restriction fragment length polymorphism using BstUI. Results, All clinical and biochemical parameters were similar in the subjects with the Pro12Pro and Pro12Ala genotypes. There was no significant difference in serum adiponectin values between subjects with the Pro12Pro and Pro12Ala genotypes (males 5.4 vs. 5.8 µg/ml, P = 0.546; females 6.9 vs. 7.2 µg/ml, P = 0.748). Adiponectin values did not differ among these two genotypes even when categorized based on their diabetes status (normal glucose tolerance Pro12Pro 7.9 vs. Pro12Ala 7.7 µg/ml, P = 0.994; diabetes Pro12Pro 4.7 vs. Pro12Ala 5.4 µg/ml, P = 0.622). Conclusion, The Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARG gene is not associated with serum adiponectin levels in Asian Indians. [source]

    The accuracy of cystatin C and commonly used creatinine-based methods for detecting moderate and mild chronic kidney disease in diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 4 2007
    R. J. MacIsaac
    Abstract Background, The accuracy of measuring serum cystatin C levels for detecting various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in diabetes is still unclear. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 251 subjects, a reference glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured using 99cTc-DTPA plasma clearance (iGFR). Multivariate analysis was used to identify independent clinical and biochemical associations with serum cystatin C and iGFR levels. The diagnostic accuracy of cystatin C and commonly used creatinine-based methods of measuring renal function (serum creatinine, the MDRD four-variable and Cockcroft,Gault formulae) for detecting mild and moderate CKD was also compared. Results, In the entire study population the same five variables, age, urinary albumin excretion rates, haemoglobin, history of macrovascular disease and triglyceride levels were independently associated with both cystatin C and iGFR levels. A serum cystatin C level cut-off > 82.1 nmol/l (1.10 mg/l) had the best test characteristics as a screening tool for detecting moderate CKD (< 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) when compared with creatinine-based methods. At the upper threshold for mild CKD (< 90 ml/min per 1.73 m2), cystatin C also had greater diagnostic accuracy than creatinine, but had similar diagnostic accuracy when compared with creatinine-based formulae for predicting renal function. Conclusions, This study suggests that the clinical and biochemical parameters associated with serum cystatin C levels are closely linked to those associated with GFR and highlights the potential usefulness of screening for moderate or mild CKD in subjects with diabetes by simply measuring serum cystatin C levels. [source]

    Insights into the acute cerebral metabolic changes associated with childhood diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 5 2005
    F. J. Cameron
    Abstract Aims Type 1 diabetes is a prevalent chronic disease in childhood with the commonest single cause of death being cerebral oedema in the context of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The nature of the alterations in cerebral metabolism that may result in vulnerability to neuronal injury remains unknown. The aim of this study was to analyse the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain data from eight children with diabetes following acute presentation with hyperglycaemia with or without ketoacidosis, to determine the nature and timing of any alterations in cerebral structure and metabolism. Methods This study used MRI and MRS to investigate regional cerebral abnormalities in a small series of diabetic patients with and without DKA. Changes were compared with the clinical and biochemical features of the patients studied. Results Our small series of patients all demonstrated abnormal signal changes in the frontal region on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging, suggestive of oedema, and spectroscopic abnormalities of increased taurine, myoinositol and glucose levels. The MR abnormalities varied in severity but did not correlate with any clinical or biochemical parameters. Conclusions These changes indicate that many diabetic children, particularly at presentation, may have alterations in cerebral metabolism with implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of the cerebral complications of DKA. In addition, our findings suggest that increased taurine may be one of the important differentiating factors in the response of the brain of diabetic children to DKA that may reflect an increase in their vulnerability to cerebral oedema compared with diabetic adults. [source]

    Nutrigenomics: a case study in the measurement of insect response to nutritional quality

    Thomas A. Coudron
    Abstract Recent developments in the area of nutrigenomics hold the promise of providing valuable information about the impact of nutrition on a wide range of biochemical parameters by investigating how nutrition alters global gene expression patterns. Our goal is to use a nutrigenomics approach to identify insect molecular markers that could be used as early indicators of insect responses to different nutritional sources. Such molecular markers could be chosen for degree of expression and evaluated for suitability as nutritional biomarkers by examining developmental and generational expression. Ideal markers would be highly expressed, manifested in the first generation within one developmental stage, and consistent over many generations. Our objective for the current study was to illustrate the potential discovery of molecular markers using Perillus bioculatus (F.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), when reared on an optimal vs. suboptimal diet, and analyze the presence of differentially expressed genes resulting from those treatments. In this paper we present preliminary results of microarray and subtractive hybridization experiments that represent the feasibility of using nutrigenomics to assist in analyzing insect responses to nutritional changes and dietary quality with the intent of stimulating further studies in this area. [source]

    Mouse toxicity of Anabaena flos-aquae from Lake Dianchi, China

    Xiaojie Pan
    Abstract Some species of the genera Anabaena can produce various kinds of cyanotoxins, which may pose risks to environment and human health. Anabaena has frequently been observed in eutrophic freshwater of China in recent years, but its toxicity has been reported only in a few studies. In the present study, the toxicity of an Anabaena flos-aquae strain isolated from Lake Dianchi was investigated. Acute toxicity testing was performed by mouse bioassay using crude extracts from the lyophilized cultures. The mice exposed to crude extracts showed visible symptoms of toxicity and died within 10,24 h of the injection. Serum biochemical parameters were evaluated by the use of commercial diagnostic kits. Significant alterations were found in the serum biochemical parameters: alkaline phosphatase (AKP), ,-glutamyl transpeptidase (,-GT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), AST/ALT ratio, total protein content, albumin content, albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Ssr), and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC). Histopathological observations were carried out with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stain under light microscope. Severe lesions were seen in the livers, kidneys, and lungs of the mice injected with crude extracts. The alterations of biochemical parameters were in a dose-dependent manner, and the severities of histological lesions were in the same manner. Based on biochemical and histological studies, this research firstly shows the presence of toxin-producing Anabaena species in Lake Dianchi and the toxic effects of its crude extracts on mammals. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2009. [source]

    Bone turnover markers and sex hormones in men with idiopathic osteoporosis

    P. Pietschmann
    Background In contrast to osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, osteoporosis in men has received much less attention. Patients and We determined various biochemical parameters of bone metabolism and sex hormones in 31 men with idiopathic osteoporosis and 35 age matched control subjects. Results In the men with osteoporosis, a significantly increased urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline (5·3 ± 0·2 vs. 4·6 ± 0·2 nmol mmol,1 creatinine; P = 0·033) in addition to increased serum levels of the c-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (2677 ± 230 vs. 2058 ± 153 pmol; P = 0·037) were found. While parameters of bone formation were not significantly different in the patients and controls, serum bone sialoprotein levels were significantly decreased in the patients (3·7 ± 0·8 vs. 12·4 ± 4·0 ng mL,1; P = 0·021). Moreover, in men with idiopathic osteoporosis, lower levels of estradiol (91·3 ± 5·8 vs. 114·6 ± 7·8 pmol L,1; P = 0·044), higher levels of sex hormone binding globulin (31·5 ± 3·1 vs. 24·2 ± 1·4 nmol L,1; P = 0·034) and a decreased free androgen index (42·6 ± 5·2 vs. 56·4 ± 5·9; P = 0·016) were seen. Serum estradiol levels correlated negatively with several parameters of bone resorption. Conclusions In men with idiopathic osteoporosis, bone resorption is increased and exceeds bone formation. The excessive bone resorption seen in idiopathic male osteoporosis may be due to decreased estradiol levels and low levels of bioavailable testosterone. [source]

    Hematology and coagulation parameters predict outcome in Taiwanese patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    H.-Y. Fang
    Volume of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, peripheral edema around the hematoma, and hydrocephalus are good predictors of mortality in patients with spontaneous ICH from western countries. However, the significance of hematologic and biochemical parameters associated with spontaneous ICH has not been extensively studied. This study was designed to determine prognostic factors for spontaneous ICH in Taiwanese patients. We prospectively studied 109 consecutive patients with spontaneous ICH admitted to Changhua Christian Medical Center. Clinical and laboratory data were collected and analyzed. Mean age was 62.3 years. There were 63 men (58%) and 46 women (42%). Differences in GCS score, ICH score, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score between the survival and non-survival groups were statistically significant. Laboratory data were statistically different using multivariate analysis for platelet count, prothrombin time, and white cell count. This is the first study providing information on predictors of spontaneous ICH mortality in Taiwanese patients. The prothrombin time and platelet count on the first day were good early predictors of mortality. This finding in ethnically Chinese patients appears to be different from the profile for patients from western countries. [source]

    Comparison of hematologic or biochemical parameters among elderly hospital patients, institution-dwelling residents, and health check-up examinees

    Ryuichi Yamamoto
    Background: The purpose of the present paper was to examine the differences in the levels of hematological or biochemical parameters among elderly hospital patients, nursing home residents, and mass health check-up recipients. Methods: One hundred and 44 geriatric inpatients (aged , 65 years), 237 outpatients, 146 nursing home residents, 120 aged examinees from mass health check-ups, and 512 younger health check-up examinees (controls) were included in the present study. They were divided into five male and five female subgroups, respectively. The levels of hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cells (WBC), serum albumin (Alb), Ca, albumin-corrected Ca, Na, creatinine (Cr), and total cholesterol (TC) were determined and compared. Results: There were significantly lower levels of Hb, Alb, Ca, Na, and TC in inpatients than in other groups in both sexes. In contrast, higher levels of WBC and Cr were found in inpatients. Among women there was no difference in the level of any parameter between nursing home residents, health check-up examinees, and controls. Conclusion: The data indicate that the levels of these parameters are affected to a greater extent in inpatients, and that female nursing home residents and health check-up examinees show values similar to those of controls. [source]

    The effect of sexual hormone abnormalities on proximal femur bone mineral density in hemodialysis patients and the possible role of RANKL

    Konstantinos K. DOUMOUCHTSIS
    Abstract Sexual hormone concentrations are commonly affected in chronic renal failure. The contribution of sex steroids to bone turnover regulation implies that sex steroid's dysfunction may be implicated in the emergence of renal osteodystrophy. This study was conducted to evaluate sex steroids and gonadotrophins in hemodialysis (HD) patients and to investigate their role in bone homeostasis in concert with other hormones and cytokines. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the proximal femur and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), osteoprotegerin, soluble receptor activator of NF-,B ligand (sRANKL), prolactin, total testosterone, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured in serum samples in 42 patients, 21 men and 21 women, on maintenance HD therapy. Possible associations between clinical characteristics, biochemical parameters, and BMD values were investigated. In male HD patients, the testosterone concentration declined significantly with aging, whereas the estradiol level increased with longer duration of HD. Concurrently, testosterone correlated negatively with sRANKL concentrations (r=,0.520, p=0.016). Luteinizing hormone levels in male patients demonstrated statistically significant negative correlations with BMD values of the proximal femur. In the entire cohort of patients, FSH and LH were negatively associated with absolute values of proximal femur BMD. Gonadotrophin and sexual hormone concentrations in HD patients are associated with bone mineral status and consequently their derangements appear to contribute to the development of bone composition abnormalities in different types of renal osteodystrophy. Furthermore, testosterone's association with sRANKL levels in male HD patients suggests that RANKL may mediate the effect of testosterone on bone metabolism in these patients. [source]

    Long slow night hemodialysis and quality of life

    P. Hakkarainen
    Background:,Long slow hemodialysis (LS-HD) improves many biochemical parameters compared with conventional HD. However, its influences on quality of life are less well known. Aims:,The objective of this study was to examine the quality of life of patients on LS-HD performed overnight compared to the patients on standard hemodialysis. This extends the previous study, conducted in 2001, which examined the LS-HD patients, quality of life. Patients and methods:,We sent questionnaires to 12 LS-HD (overnight, treatment time 8 h × 3/wk) patients and 15 day HD (4.5 h × 3/wk) patients, all being treated using the limited care method. Data was collected using two different structured questionnaires. One was constructed for a previous study (2001) and the other one was a standardized set of questionnaires (RAND-36). Research material was collected from patient documents, such as the essential biochemical parameters, blood pressure, weight gain, and weekly EPO doses were recorded. Ten of the LS-HD patients (83%) and 13/15 (87%) of day HD patients returned the questionnaires. Three day hemodialysis patients returned empty questionnaires, which were disqualified. Results:,Based on the medical facts, the results showed that the patients of LS-HD felt better than the patients in another group. Patients on the LS-HD had higher Kt/V (2.623 vs. 1.577) and Hb (118 vs. 111) and lower Pi (1.36 vs. 1.63) and EPO dose (epoietin-beta 2667 ky/week vs. 5833 ky/week; darbepoetin 16 ky/week vs. 37 ky/week). However, their predialysis BP as well as the weight gain between treatments and salt and fluid balances caused problems furthermore. The experiences of the therapy of the LS-HD patients were more positive than of the control group: they felt their medical condition was better than of the patients on day HD. However we didn't observe significant differences in the replies showing physical or psychosocial conditions between the two groups. Conclusions:,The study suggests that when patients can themselves make the choice between treatment modalities, it improves the quality of life of the patients. Control of anemia is improved in LS-HD overnight patients with lower doses of EPO. The LS-HD gives the patients more freedom of diet. However, more attention must be paid to salt and fluid restriction. The LS-HD makes it possible for many patients to work normally. [source]

    Oxidative stress and hippocampus in a low-grade hepatic encephalopathy model: protective effects of curcumin

    HEPATOLOGY RESEARCH, Issue 11 2008
    Diego Martín Roselló
    Aim:, The present study was performed on prehepatic portal hypertensive rats, a model of low-grade hepatic encephalopathy, designed to evaluate whether oxidative stress was a possible pathway implicated in hippocampal damage and if so, the effect of an anti-oxidant to prevent it. Methods:, Prehepatic portal hypertension was induced by a regulated portal vein stricture. Oxidative stress was investigated by assessing related biochemical parameters in rat hippocampus. The effect of the anti-oxidant curcumin, administered in a single i.p. dose of 100 mg/kg on the seventh, ninth and eleventh days after surgery, was evaluated. Results:, Oxidative stress in the rat hippocampal area was documented. Curcumin significantly decreased tissue malondialdehyde levels and significantly increased glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in the hippocampal tissue of portal hypertensive rats. Conclusion:, Oxidative stress was found to be implicated in the hippocampal damage and curcumin protected against this oxidative stress in low-grade hepatic encephalopathic rats. These protective effects may be attributed to its anti-oxidant properties. [source]

    Oro-facial granulomatosis: Crohn's disease or a new inflammatory bowel disease?

    FRCP, Jeremy Sanderson MD
    Abstract Background: Oro-facial granulomatosis (OFG) is a rare chronic inflammatory disorder presenting characteristically with lip swelling but also affecting gingivae, buccal mucosa, floor of mouth, and a number of other sites in the oral cavity. Histologically, OFG resembles Crohn's disease (CD), and a number of patients with CD have oral involvement identical to OFG. However, the exact relationship between OFG and CD remains unknown. Methods: Thirty-five patients with OFG and no gut symptoms were identified from a combined oral medicine/gastroenterology clinic. All underwent a standardized assessment of the oral cavity and oral mucosal biopsy to characterize the number of sites affected and the type of inflammation involved. Hematological and biochemical parameters were also recorded. All 35 patients underwent ileocolonoscopy and biopsy to assess the presence of coexistent intestinal inflammation. Results: Ileal or colonic abnormalities were detected in 19/35 (54%) cases. From gut biopsies, granulomas were present in 13/19 cases (64%). An intestinal abnormality was significantly more likely if the age of OFG onset was less than 30 years (P = 0.01). Those with more severe oral inflammation were also more likely to have intestinal inflammation (P = 0.025), and there was also a correlation between the histologic severity of oral inflammation and the histologic severity of gut inflammation (P = 0.047). No relationship was found between any blood parameter and intestinal involvement. Conclusions: Endoscopic and histologic intestinal abnormalities are common in patients with OFG with no gastrointestinal symptoms. Younger patients with OFG are more likely to have concomitant intestinal involvement. In these patients, granulomas are more frequent in endoscopic biopsies than reported in patients with documented CD. OFG with associated intestinal inflammation may represent a separate entity in which granulomatous inflammation occurs throughout the gastrointestinal tract in response to an unknown antigen or antigens. [source]

    Production of Garcinia wine: changes in biochemical parameters, organic acids and free sugars during fermentation of Garcinia must

    Amit Kumar Rai
    Summary Garcinia wine was prepared by fermentation of ameliorated must of Garcinia xanthochymus using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The present studies focused on changes in biochemical parameters (brix, pH, aldehydes, esters and alcohols), organic acids (reduction of oxalic acid), free sugars and antioxidant activities on fermentation of Garcinia must. The wine had higher amount of residual sugars contributing to the calorific value. The aldehydes and esters content in the final wine were 0.034% and 0.26%, respectively. There was reduction of citric acid and oxalic acid (antinutritional factor) and synthesis of aspartic acid and glutamic acid. Garcinia beverage was accepted on sensory analysis with high score for desirable attributes and overall quality with alcohol content of 6.1%. There was increase in total phenolics (0.039% gallic acid equivalent) and reducing power on fermentation but decrease in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. [source]

    Renal damage in rats induced by myocardial ischemia/reperfusion: Role of nitric oxide

    Background: It has been demonstrated that myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) causes renal damage. However, the mechanism underlying this damage in kidneys during revascularization of myocardium is unclear. Direct renal ischemia/reperfusion has been implicated in the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that leads to increase production of nitric oxide (NO). Recently, excessive production of NO has been found to be involved in causing renal injury by formatting peroxinitrite (ONOO,). The aim of this study was to investigate whether NO has a role in this damage, using aminoguanidine (AMG), a known iNOS inhibitor and an antioxidant, in rats undergoing MI/R. Methods: Male Wistar rats were used for the experiments (n = 7 each group). In the MI/R group, the left coronary artery was occluded for 30 min and then reperfused for 120 min; the same procedure was used for the AMG group, with the additional step of AMG (200 mg/kg) administered 10 min prior to ischemia. A control group underwent sham operation. At the end of the reperfusion period, all rats were killed and their kidneys removed for biochemical determination and histopathological analysis. Results: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in the rat kidney was accompanied by a significant increase in malondialdehyde and NO production, and a decrease in glutathione content. Administration of AMG reduced malondialdehyde and NO production and prevented depletion of glutathione content. These beneficial changes in the biochemical parameters were also associated with parallel changes in histopathological appearance. Conclusion: These findings suggest that MI/R plays a causal role in kidney injury and AMG exerts renal-protective effects, probably by inhibiting NO production and antioxidant activities. [source]

    Preclinical Cushing's syndrome: Report of seven cases and a review of the literature

    Masaaki Morioka
    Abstract Background: Adrenal adenomas showing autonomous cortisol secretion without specific endocrine symptoms are sometimes discovered in patients with adrenal incidentalomas. This entity has been described as subclinical or preclinical Cushing's syndrome (PCS), but the endocrine data of reported cases have varied and the diagnostic criteria of PCS have been uncertain. Methods: We report seven Japanese cases of PCS due to a unilateral, solitary adrenal adenoma with examination of the endocrine data of these patients. The diagnostic parameters of subtle hypercortisolism and the risk of postoperative adrenal insufficiency and surgical indications are discussed and reviewed. Results: In the present cases, the most frequently found biochemical parameters of autonomous cortisol secretion were a low adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level (100%) and insufficient suppression of cortisol by low-dose dexamethasone (85.7%). Unilateral accumulation of radiopharmaceuticals in tumors was also frequently observed (100%). A postoperative hydrocortisone supplement was given to six of the seven patients for 5,122 days. It was not given to case 4, because a moderate response of 11-deoxycortisol to metyrapone was identified. Plasma ACTH levels and the diurnal rhythm of plasma cortisol rapidly recovered within 3 weeks postoperatively in six of the seven cases. Conclusion: This entity is heterogeneous and various degrees of cortisol excess have been observed. It should be diagnosed in the wide spectrum and the risk of adrenal insufficiency after surgery should be evaluated by dynamic tests such as the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) test. Based on the results of the present study and a review of the literature, PCS patients may not require hydrocortisone supplement therapy for a long period. [source]

    Metabolic Markers of Cobalamin Deficiency and Cognitive Function in Normal Older Adults

    Angeles A. Garcia MD, FRCPC
    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between metabolic markers of cobalamin deficiency and cognitive function in normal older adults. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Queen's University and St. Mary's of the Lake Hospital, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Participants: Two hundred eighty-one cognitively normal, community-dwelling participants aged 65 and older. Measurements: Serum cobalamin, red blood cell folate, methylcitric acid, homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid were determined. Cognitive instruments included the California Verbal Learning Test, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and the Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Inventory (Stroop). Results: Serum levels of methylcitric acid had a significant negative correlation with recall, learning, and discriminability (factor 1) of the California Verbal Learning Test after adjusting for age and sex (,=,0.138, P=.019). Subjects with elevated methylcitric acid had significantly lower scores (factor 1) than subjects with normal methylcitric acid (P<.01). Bivariate analysis showed significant correlations between levels of homocysteine and the Stroop score and between cobalamin, methylmalonic acid, and homocysteine and some scores of the California Verbal Learning Test, but these relationships did not remain significant after multivariate analysis. Subjects with high homocysteine (tHcy) had lower Stroop scores than subjects with normal tHcy (P<.05). No biochemical parameters were associated with the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale scores. Conclusion: This study indicates that, in normal elderly subjects, some cognitive scores are related to serum methylcitric acid and possibly homocysteine. [source]

    Influence of high levels of vitamin E on semen parameters of cocks

    S. Danikowski
    Summary This study was an attempt to find whether the reproductive performance of cocks would be influenced by oral administration of different amounts of dietary vitamin E over a long period of time. For that purpose 60 cocks were divided into five dietary groups of 12 animals each, and supplemented with 0 (control group), 100, 1000, 10 000 or 20 000 IU ,-tocopherol/kg diet, respectively, over a period of 12 months. The effect on semen parameters and biochemical parameters measured in pooled semen samples and the weight of the testes were determined. The weight of testes decreased with increasing amounts of supplemented vitamin E. Volume, pH, colour, consistency and motility were not influenced by the diets, but density of ejaculate (sperm/,l), total amount of spermatozoa and morphology of sperm were significantly lowered by increasing amounts of supplemented vitamin E. The ,-tocopherol concentration in ejaculates increased significantly in relation to the diet whereas phospholipid content and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) of the semen samples decreased significantly with increasing vitamin E supplementation. The reproductive performance of cocks was negatively influenced by high doses of vitamin E although decreased TBARS indicated rising oxidative defence. [source]

    Characterization of a broad pH range protease of Candida caseinolytica

    M. Poza
    Aims:,The study of a protease secreted by Candida caseinolytica for use in future industrial applications. Methods and Results:,Growth of Candida caseinolytica on a medium containing milk induced a rapid production of an extracellular enzyme able to hydrolyse casein. The crude extract was applied to both Sephacryl S-200 and DEAE-Biogel A columns, obtaining one peak of activity showing a molecular mass of , 30 kDa and three active peaks, respectively. These four peaks showed the same biochemical parameters. In all cases, an extremely broad pH range of action was determined. Conclusions:,Candida caseinolytica secretes high levels of an extracellular protease when grown either in rotary shakers or in batch-fermenters. Significance and Impact of the Study:,The biochemical properties of this enzyme suggest its possible industrial application in the brewing industry, in the formulation of certain type of detergents and in the fur and leather industries, among others. [source]