Biochemical Level (biochemical + level)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


dTrf2 is required for transcriptional and developmental responses to ecdysone during Drosophila metamorphosis

DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 11 2007
Arash Bashirullah
Abstract The TATA box-binding protein (TBP) related factor 2 (TRF2) has been well characterized at a biochemical level and in cultured cells. Relatively little, however, is known about how TRF2 functions in specific biological pathways during development. Here, we show that Drosophila TRF2 (dTRF2) plays an essential role in responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone during the onset of metamorphosis. Hypomorphic dTrf2 mutations lead to developmental arrest during prepupal and early pupal stages with defects in major ecdysone-triggered biological responses, including puparium formation, anterior spiracle eversion, gas bubble translocation, adult head eversion, and larval salivary gland cell death. The transcription of key ecdysone-regulated target genes is delayed and reduced in dTrf2 mutants. dTrf2 appears to be required for the proper timing and levels of ecdysone-regulated gene expression required for entry into metamorphosis. Developmental Dynamics 236:3173,3179, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Cataracts in experimentally diabetic mouse: morphological and apoptotic changes

DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Issue 2 2005
K. R. Hegde
Aim:, The objective of these investigations was to extend our earlier study on the induction of cataracts in diabetic mice, a low aldose reductase (AR) animal model at morphological level. Previous studies were done primarily at biochemical level. Methods:, Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin. The lenses isolated after the establishment of diabetes were then subjected to histologic and electron microscopic studies. Results:, Morphological alterations were characterized by shrinkage, elongation and lobulization of the nuclei of the epithelial cells. This was associated with chromatin condensation and its margination. Similar structural aberrations were also observed in a significant number of the subepithelial fibre cells representing defect in fibre maturation. More interestingly, unlike that in other common animal models of diabetic cataract, such abnormally nucleated cells were also found to be prevalent in the posterior subcapsular region, a finding common in human diabetics also. Conclusion:, The present studies further affirm the suitability of the mouse model for a study of cataractogenesis induced by diabetes. Because of the findings reported herein, as well as the known biochemical similarity between the lenses of the mice and humans in respect of AR deficiency, contrary to the rat model where it is very high, use of this species is considered more useful towards understanding the basic aetiology as well as for evaluating the efficacy of various referred nutritional and metabolic antioxidants against such cataracts. [source]


Integrated condition indices as a measure of whole effluent toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2002
Roel Smolders
Abstract Toxic exposure of organisms interferes with organismal integrity at the biochemical level and ultimately gives rise to effects at the individual level. These effects may result in reductions in ecologically relevant characteristics such as growth, reproduction, and survival. A chronic toxicity test with zebrafish (Danio rerio) was conducted where fish were exposed to 50, 75, and 100% effluent for 28 d under flow-through conditions. Effects of effluent exposure were determined using endpoints of physiological (respiration during swimming), growth (condition, length, and weight), and reproductive (spawning and hatching) processes within the same population. Results clearly indicate that the condition and growth of zebrafish is depressed by exposure to the effluent. Also, increased oxygen consumption was found after 14, 21, and 28 d of exposure. Reproduction proved to correlate well with the condition of the motherfish in the control, and spawning and hatching were significantly depressed by effluent exposure. These results indicate that the evaluation of endpoints describing different ecologically relevant processes provides a rational assessment of the cause,effect relationships of effluent toxicity. This approach can quantify effects on different biological processes and can determine the interactions that occur between these different processes. [source]


Ethanol Potentiation of Glycine Receptors Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes Antagonized by Increased Atmospheric Pressure

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2003
Daryl L. Davies
Background: Behavioral and biochemical studies indicate that exposure to 12 times normal atmospheric pressure (12 ATA) of helium-oxygen gas (heliox) is a direct, selective ethanol antagonist. The current study begins to test the hypothesis that ethanol acts by a common mechanism on ligand-gated ion channels by expanding previous hyperbaric investigations on ,-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors (GABAARs) at the biochemical level to ,1glycine (GlyRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Methods: Oocytes expressing wild-type ,1 homomeric GlyRs were voltage-clamped (,70 mV) and tested in the presence of glycine (EC2) ethanol (50,200 mM) under 1 ATA control and 3 to 12 ATA heliox conditions. Glycine concentration response curves, strychnine/glycine interactions, and zinc (Zn2+) modulation of GlyR function was also tested. Results: Pressure reversibly antagonized the action of ethanol. The degree of antagonism increased as pressure increased. Pressure did not significantly alter the effects of glycine, strychnine, or Zn2+, indicating that ethanol antagonism by pressure cannot be attributed to alterations by pressure of normal GlyR function. The antagonism did not reflect tolerance to ethanol, receptor desensitization, or receptor rundown. Conclusion: This is the first use of hyperbarics to investigate the mechanism of action of ethanol in recombinant receptors. The findings indicate that pressure directly and selectively antagonizes ethanol potentiation of ,1GlyR function in a reversible and concentration- and pressure-dependent manner. The sensitivity of ethanol potentiation of GlyR function to pressure antagonism indicates that ethanol acts by a common, pressure-antagonism,sensitive mechanism in GlyRs and GABAARs. The findings also support the hypothesis that ethanol potentiation of GlyR function plays a role in mediating the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol. [source]


In vivo acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to mice after intraperitioneal injection

JOURNAL OF APPLIED TOXICOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
Jinyuan Chen
Abstract Because of its excellent optical performance and electrical properties, TiO2 has a wide range of applications in many fields. It is often considered to be physiologically inert to humans. However, some recent studies have reported that nano-sized TiO2 may generate potential harm to the environment and humans. In this paper the in vivo acute toxicity of nano-sized TiO2 particles to adult mice was investigated. Mice were injected with different dosages of nano-sized TiO2 (0, 324, 648, 972, 1296, 1944 or 2592 mg kg,1). The effects of particles on serum biochemical levels were evaluated at various time points (24 h, 48 h, 7 days and 14 days). Tissues (spleen, heart, lung, kidney and liver) were collected for titanium content analysis and histopathological examination. Treated mice showed signs of acute toxicity such as passive behavior, loss of appetite, tremor and lethargy. Slightly elevated levels of the enzymes alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were found from the biochemical tests of serum whereas blood urea nitrogen was not significantly affected (P <0.05). The accumulation of TiO2 was highest in spleen (P <0.05). TiO2 was also deposited in liver, kidney and lung. Histopathological examinations showed that some TiO2 particles had entered the spleen and caused the lesion of spleen. Thrombosis was found in the pulmonary vascular system, which could be induced by the blocking of blood vessels with TiO2 particles. Moreover, hepatocellular necrosis and apoptosis, hepatic fibrosis, renal glomerulus swelling and interstitial pneumonia associated with alveolar septal thickening were also observed in high-dose groups. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Enhanced Chondrogenesis and Wnt Signaling in PTH-Treated Fractures,

JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 12 2007
Sanjeev Kakar
Abstract Studies have shown that systemic PTH treatment enhanced the rate of bone repair in rodent models. However, the mechanisms through which PTH affects bone repair have not been elucidated. In these studies we show that PTH primarily enhanced the earliest stages of endochondral bone repair by increasing chondrocyte recruitment and rate of differentiation. In coordination with these cellular events, we observed an increased level of canonical Wnt-signaling in PTH-treated bones at multiple time-points across the time-course of fracture repair, supporting the conclusion that PTH responses are at least in part mediated through Wnt signaling. Introduction: Since FDA approval of PTH [PTH(1,34); Forteo] as a treatment for osteoporosis, there has been interest in its use in other musculoskeletal conditions. Fracture repair is one area in which PTH may have a significant clinical impact. Multiple animal studies have shown that systemic PTH treatment of healing fractures increased both callus volume and return of mechanical competence in models of fracture healing. Whereas the potential for PTH has been established, the mechanism(s) by which PTH produces these effects remain elusive. Materials and Methods: Closed femoral fractures were generated in 8-wk-old male C57Bl/6 mice followed by daily systemic injections of either saline (control) or 30 ,g/kg PTH(1,34) for 14 days after fracture. Bones were harvested at days 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 after fracture and analyzed at the tissue level by radiography and histomorphometry and at the molecular and biochemical levels level by RNase protection assay (RPA), real-time PCR, and Western blot analysis. Results: Quantitative ,CT analysis showed that PTH treatment induced a larger callus cross-sectional area, length, and total volume compared with controls. Molecular analysis of the expression of extracellular matrix genes associated with chondrogenesis and osteogenesis showed that PTH treated fractures displayed a 3-fold greater increase in chondrogenesis relative to osteogenesis over the course of the repair process. In addition, chondrocyte hypertrophy occurred earlier in the PTH-treated callus tissues. Analysis of the expression of potential mediators of PTH actions showed that PTH treatment significantly induced the expression of Wnts 4, 5a, 5b, and 10b and increased levels of unphosphorylated, nuclear localized ,-catenin protein, a central feature of canonical Wnt signaling. Conclusions: These results showed that the PTH-mediated enhancement of fracture repair is primarily associated with an amplification of chondrocyte recruitment and maturation in the early fracture callus. Associated with these cellular effects, we observed an increase in canonical Wnt signaling supporting the conclusion that PTH effects on bone repair are mediated at least in part through the activation of Wnt-signaling pathways. [source]


Crosstalk between Auxin, Cytokinins, and Sugars in the Plant Cell Cycle

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
K. Hartig
Abstract: Plant meristems are utilization sinks, in which cell division activity governs sink strength. However, the molecular mechanisms by which cell division activity and sink strength are adjusted to a plant's developmental program in its environmental setting are not well understood. Mitogenic hormonal as well as metabolic signals drive and modulate the cell cycle, but a coherent idea of how this is accomplished, is still missing. Auxin and cytokinins are known as endogenous mitogens whose concentrations and timing, however, can be externally affected. Although the sites and mechanisms of signal interaction in cell cycle control have not yet been unravelled, crosstalk of sugar and phytohormone signals could be localized to several biochemical levels. At the expression level of cell cycle control genes, like cyclins, Cdks, and others, synergistic but also antagonistic interactions could be demonstrated. Another level of crosstalk is that of signal generation or modulation. Cytokinins affect the activity of extracellular invertases and hexose-uptake carriers and thus impinge on an intracellular sugar signal. With tobacco BY-2 cells, a coordinated control of cell cycle activity at both regulatory levels could be shown. Comparison of the results obtained with the root cell-representing BY-2 cells with literature data from shoot tissues or green cell cultures of Arabidopsis and Chenopodium suggests opposed and tissue-specific regulatory patterns of mitogenic signals and signal crosstalk in root and shoot meristems. [source]