Biochemical Contents (biochemical + content)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ modulation increases the tensile properties of developing engineered articular cartilage

Roman M. Natoli
Objective Significant collagen content and tensile properties are difficult to achieve in tissue-engineered articular cartilage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether treating developing tissue-engineered cartilage constructs with modulators of intracellular Na+ or Ca2+ could increase collagen concentration and construct tensile properties. Methods Inhibitors of Na+ ion transporters and stimulators of intracellular Ca2+ were investigated for their ability to affect articular cartilage development in a scaffoldless, 3-dimensional chondrocyte culture. Using a systematic approach, we applied ouabain (Na+/K+ -ATPase inhibitor), bumetanide (Na+/K+/2Cl, tritransporter inhibitor), histamine (cAMP activator), and ionomycin (a Ca2+ ionophore) to tissue-engineered constructs for 1 hour daily on days 10,14 of culture and examined the constructs at 2 weeks or 4 weeks. The gross morphology, biochemical content, and compressive and tensile mechanical properties of the constructs were assayed. Results The results of these experiments showed that 20 ,M ouabain, 0.3 ,M ionomycin, or their combination increased the tensile modulus by 40,95% compared with untreated controls and resulted in an increased amount of collagen normalized to construct wet weight. In constructs exposed to ouabain, the increased percentage of collagen per construct wet weight was secondary to decreased glycosaminoglycan production on a per-cell basis. Treatment with 20 ,M ouabain also increased the ultimate tensile strength of neo-tissue by 56,86% at 4 weeks. Other construct properties, such as construct growth and type I collagen production, were affected differently by Na+ modulation with ouabain versus Ca2+ modulation with ionomycin. Conclusion These data are the first to show that treatments known to alter intracellular ion concentrations are a viable method for increasing the mechanical properties of engineered articular cartilage and identifying potentially important relationships to hydrostatic pressure mechanotransduction. Ouabain and ionomycin may be useful pharmacologic agents for increasing tensile integrity and directing construct maturation. [source]

Biochemical Changes in Leaf Tissues of Taro [Colocasia esculenta L. (Schott)] Infected with Phytophthora colocasiae

Manas Ranjan Sahoo
Abstract The changes in some biochemical parameters due to Phytophthora leaf blight infection were assessed in leaf tissues of one resistant (DP-25), two moderately resistant (Duradim and Jhankri) and one susceptible (N-118) genotypes of taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott]. Phytophthora spore suspension (15 000 spore/ml water) was sprayed onto the in vitro raised taro plantlets at 30 days after establishment in pots to induce disease. In comparison with the uninoculated leaves, blight infected leaves showed reduction in protein content and activity of nitrate reductase and increase in total soluble sugar, reducing sugar content and activities of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase among the studied genotypes. Changes in biochemical parameters under induced blight stress as compared with uninoculated control were less in resistant genotypes than that in susceptible genotype. The deviations in biochemical contents were highest in susceptible genotype N-118. Based on the variations of above parameters under stress and non-stress control among the four tested genotypes, the overall pattern of changes was N-118 > Duradim > Jhankri > DP-25, which is in accordance with the pattern of increasing resistance. The resistant genotypes could be used for commercial cultivation and genetic improvement programme to develop resistant varieties to Phytophthora leaf blight disease. [source]

Monthly assessments of proteins, fatty acids and amino acids in Artemia franciscana cultivated in ,Las Salinas de Hidalgo', state of San Luis Potosí, Mexico

Abstract This study presents the biochemical contents of Artemia biomass produced in a pond in ,Las Salinas de Hidalgo', State of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The culture was realized over a period of 1 year in an 80 × 50 × 0.65 m (200 m3) pond. The feed consisted of a mixture of four micro algae. Samples of 1 kg of Artemia biomass (wet basis) were taken monthly and total protein, total lipid, amino acids and fatty acids were assessed. The contents of total protein and lipids showed a similar tendency from July to December (maintained values of about 300 mg g,1 for protein and 90 mg g,1 for lipids). With the exception of methionine and arginine, other seven indispensable amino acids were detected in the monthly samples, having similar values during the period from July to December. The most common fatty acids determined were the C16, C18, C18:1 and C18:3n6. Both, C20:4n6 and C20:5n3, were observed occasionally, but in high quantities. The use of the four micro algae as food for the Artemia cultured extensively, improved the biochemical composition and allows using this crustacean as feed for several species of aquatic organisms used for ornamental or human consumption. [source]

Biochemical and technical observations supporting the use of copepods as live feed organisms in marine larviculture

Guillaume Drillet
Abstract The use of live prey is still necessary for a large number of raised fish species. Small sized rotifers are usually used as live preys during the first days of feeding in small mouth fish. An alternative to this is the use of copepods as prey for first feeding. In this study, the sizes, weight and biochemical contents of two copepods and one rotifer species raised on similar algal food conditions were compared. Rotifers contained a higher proportion of essential amino acids in the free amino acid (FAA) fraction (43%) than copepods (30,32%). However, rotifers had lower levels of important fatty acids like DHA (7% compared with 23,32% in copepods) and their DHA/EPA ratio was lower than that in copepods (0.54 compared with 1.35,1.63 in copepods). The FAA pattern of the preys tended to be species-specific and its implications from an aquaculture point of view is discussed. In contrast, the-protein bound amino acids tended to be very conservative among the studied organisms. The second part of the work is focused on ,the price' of hatching in Acartia tonsa eggs before or after cold storage at 3°C. The fatty acid contents in A. tonsa tended to decrease with the storage time. It also decreased with hatching of the nauplii, but its proportion compared with the dry weight remained constant. [source]