Biliary Complications (biliary + complications)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


The Impact of Hepatitis C and Biliary Complications on Patient and Graft Survival Following Liver Transplantation

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 6 2009
E. C. Verna
Recurrent hepatitis C (HCV) and biliary complications (BC) are major causes of post liver transplant morbidity and mortality. The impact of these complications may be additive or synergistic. We performed a retrospective cohort study to analyze the effects of HCV and BC on all patients transplanted at two institutions over 6 years. BC was defined by imaging findings in the setting of abnormal liver function tests that required intervention. The primary outcomes were graft and patient survival over a mean 3.4 years. 709 patients (619 deceased, 90 living donor) were included, 337 with HCV and 372 without. BC was diagnosed more frequently in patients with HCV, 26% versus 18% (p = 0.008). One-year and overall patient and graft survival were significantly lower in patients with HCV, but BC impacted only 1-year graft survival. The combination of BC and HCV had no additional impact on survival or fibrosis rates on 1-year protocol biopsies. Multivariate analysis revealed HCV (HR 2.1) and HCC (HR 1.9) to be independent predictors of mortality. Since BC are diagnosed more frequently in HCV patients and only affect early graft loss, it is likely that recurrent HCV rather than BC accounts for the majority of adverse graft outcomes. [source]


Biliary reconstruction using non-penetrating, tissue everting clips versus conventional sewn biliary anastomosis in liver transplantation

HPB, Issue 2 2006
K. Tyson Thomas
Background. Biliary complications occur following approximately 25% of liver transplantations. Efforts to decrease biliary complications include methods designed to diminish tissue ischemia. Previously, we reported excellent short-term results and decreased biliary anastomosis time in a porcine liver transplant model using non-penetrating, tissue everting clips (NTEC), specifically VCS® clips. Methods. We examined the incidence of biliary anastomotic complications in a group of patients in whom orthotopic liver transplantation was performed with biliary reconstruction using NTEC and compared that group to a matched group treated with biliary reconstruction via conventional end-to-end sewn choledochocholedochostomy. Patients were matched in a 1:2 fashion by age at transplantation, disease etiology, Child-Turcot-Pugh scores, MELD score or UNOS status (prior to 1998), cold and warm ischemia times, organ donor age, and date of transplantation. Results. Seventeen patients had clipped anastomosis and 34 comparison patients had conventional sewn anastomosis. There were no differences between groups in terms of baseline clinical or demographic data. The median time from completion of the hepatic artery anastomosis to completion of clipped versus conventional sewn biliary anastomosis was 45 (interquartile range = 20 min) versus 47 min (interquartile range = 23 min), respectively (p=0.12). Patients were followed for a mean of 29 months. Biliary anastomotic complications, including leak or anastomotic stricture, were observed in 18% of the clipped group and 24% of the conventional sewn group. Conclusions. Biliary reconstruction can be performed clinically using NTEC as an alternative to conventional sewn biliary anastomoses with good results. [source]


Does middle hepatic vein omission in a right split graft affect the outcome of liver transplantation?

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 6 2007
A comparative study of right split livers with, without the middle hepatic vein
Preservation of the middle hepatic vein (MHV) for a right split liver transplantation (SLT) in an adult recipient is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the graft and patient outcomes after liver transplantation (LT) using a right split graft, according to the type of venous drainage. From February 2000 to May 2006, 33 patients received 34 cadaveric right split liver grafts. According to the type of recipient pairs (adult/adult or adult/child), the right liver graft was deprived of the MHV or not. The first group (GI, n = 15) included grafts with only the right hepatic vein (RHV) outflow, the second (GII, n = 18) included grafts with both right and MHV outflows. The 2 groups were similar for patient demographics, initial liver disease, and donor characteristics. In GI and GII, graft-to-recipient-weight ratio (GRWR) was 1.2 ± 0% and 1.6 ± 0.3% (P < 0.05), and cold ischemia time was 10 hours 55 minutes ± 2 hours 49 minutes and 10 hours 47 minutes ± 3 hours 32 minutes, respectively (P = not significant). Postoperative death occurred in 1 patient in each group. Vascular complications included anastomotic strictures: 2 portal vein (PV), 1 hepatic artery (HA), and 1 RHV anastomotic strictures; all in GI. Biliary complications occurred in 20% and 22% of the patients, in GI and GII, respectively (P = not significant). There were no differences between both groups regarding postoperative outcome and blood tests at day 1-15 except for a significantly higher cholestasis in GI. At 1 and 3 yr, patient survival was 94% for both groups and graft survival was 93% for GI and 90% for GII (P = not significant). In conclusion, our results suggest that adult right SLT without the MHV is safe and associated with similar long-term results as compared with those of the right graft including the MHV, despite that early liver function recovered more slowly. Technical refinements in outflow drainage should be evaluated in selected cases. Liver Transpl 13:829,837, 2007. © 2007 AASLD. [source]


Biliary complications after paediatric liver transplantation

PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 3 2010
Patricia Oliveira
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Hepatic Resection in Liver Transplant Recipients: Single Center Experience and Review of the Literature

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 10 2005
Olaf Guckelberger
Biliary complications such as ischemic (type) biliary lesions frequently develop following liver transplantation, requiring costly medical and endoscopic treatment. If conservative approaches fail, re-transplantation is most often an inevitable sequel. Because of an increasing donor organ shortage and unfavorable outcomes in hepatic re-transplantation, efforts to prolong graft survival become of particular interest. From a series of 1685 liver transplants, we herein report on three patients who underwent partial hepatic graft resection for (ischemic type) biliary lesions. In all cases, left hepatectomy (Couinaud's segments II, III and IV) was performed without Pringle maneuver or mobilization of the right liver. All patients fully recovered postoperatively, but biliary leakage required surgical revision twice in one patient. At last follow-up, two patients presented alive and well. The other patient with persistent hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT), however, demonstrated progression of disease in the right liver remnant and required re-transplantation 13 months after hepatic graft resection. Including our own patients, review of the literature identified 24 adult patients who underwent hepatic graft resection. In conclusion, partial graft hepatectomy can be considered a safe and beneficial procedure in selected liver transplant recipients with anatomical limited biliary injury, thereby, preserving scarce donor organs. [source]


All-comers policy for laparoscopic exploration of the common bile duct

BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 12 2002
Mr M. H. Thompson
Background: Laparoscopic exploration of the common bile duct is associated with substantial variation in results suggesting that different patient populations are being reported. This report observes the results in a defined population and on an intention-to-treat basis. Methods: All patients with suspected bile duct stones who were fit for surgery from April 1994 were offered laparoscopic bile duct exploration. There were 224 patients of mean age 56 years, of whom 174 were women. Endoscopic sphincterotomy was used in 149 patients deemed unfit for surgery. All data were recorded prospectively and checked at the time of discharge. Patients were followed up after 6 months and beyond after the operation. Results: Stones were removed transcystically in 56 patients, transductally in 158 and by flushing in nine. The duct clearance rate was 96 per cent overall, 98 per cent for transcystic and 94 per cent for transductal exploration. Intracorporeal lithotripsy safely reduced the failure rate of exploration from seven of the first 28 to four of the subsequent 196 procedures. Biliary complications occurred in 16 per cent of procedures in which a T tube was used but only 4 per cent if the duct was closed by suturing. Conversion to open operation for severe gallbladder inflammation was necessary in 6 per cent of patients. There were no deaths, bile duct injuries or pancreatitis but complications occurred in 19 per cent, associated with use of T tubes and advancing age. Laparoscopic duct exploration succeeded in seven patients after previous cholecystectomy. Conclusion: Laparoscopic bile duct exploration is effective and safe when used for all patients. For young and fit patients it should replace endoscopic sphincterotomy. © 2002 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd [source]


MR cholangiography in orthotopic liver transplantation: sensitivity and specificity in detecting biliary complications

CLINICAL TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 4 2010
Piero Boraschi
Boraschi P, Donati F, Gigoni R, Volpi A, Salemi S, Filipponi F, Falaschi F. MR cholangiography in orthotopic liver transplantation: sensitivity and specificity in detecting biliary complications. Clin Transplant 2010: 24: E82,E87. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract:, Background:, To assess the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) when evaluating biliary complications in a large series of liver transplants. Methods:, One hundred and twenty-nine patients prospectively underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR cholangiography at 1.5-T device after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). After the preliminary acquisition of axial T1- and T2-weighted images, MRC involved respiratory-triggered, thin-slab (2 mm), heavily T2-weighted fast spin-echo and breath-hold, thick-slab (10,50 mm), single-shot T2-weighted sequences. MR images were blindly evaluated by two experienced readers in conference to determine the biliary anatomy and the presence of complications, whose final diagnosis was based on endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, percutaneous trans-hepatic cholangiography, and by integrating clinical follow-up with ultrasound and/or MR findings. Results:, Biliary complications were found in 60 patients (46.5%) and were represented by ischemic-type biliary lesions (n = 21); anastomotic strictures (n = 13); non-anastomotic strictures (n = 5); anastomotic strictures associated to lithiasis (n = 6); lithiasis (n = 6); papillary dysfunctions (n = 9). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the reviewers for the detection of all types of biliary complications in patients with OLT were 98%, 94%, 94%, and 98%, respectively. Conclusions:, MRC is a reliable technique for detecting post-OLT biliary complications and should be recommended before planning therapeutic interventions. [source]


Spatulated end-to-end bile duct reconstruction in orthotopic liver transplantation

CLINICAL TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 1 2007
Andrzej K Buczkowski
Abstract:, Biliary complications continue to be a major source of morbidity following orthotopic liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and management of biliary complications related to the technique of bile duct reconstruction. The patients were stratified into two groups: group I (n = 39) had bile duct reconstruction performed by an end-to-end single interrupted suture choledochocholedochostomy (EE-CDCD) and group II (n = 38) had a spatulated end-to-end CDCD (spEE-CDCD) reconstruction; both groups had an intraductal stent. The groups were similar in age, gender, liver transplant indications and Pugh score. Ten biliary complications (26%), including five bile leaks (13%) and five biliary strictures (13%), were observed in the EE-CDCD group, while one biliary stricture (2.6%) occurred in the spEE-CDCD group (p < 0.05). Subsequent imaging studies and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography were performed less often in patients undergoing spEE-CDCD reconstruction (p < 0.05). The technique of a spatulated end-to-end bile duct reconstruction provides a significant improvement in lowering biliary complication rates in liver transplant patients. Despite the modest number of cases in this study this technique shows promise and has become the technique of choice in our institution. [source]


L/I-8 Adult living donor liver transplants: biliary morbidity

CLINICAL TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 2006
A. Giacomoni
Introduction:, Biliary problems are very common complications in adult living donor liver transplants (ALDLTs), with a reported negative incidence of 22% to 64%. Patients and methods:, From March 2001 through February 2006, we performed 27 ALDLTs, grafting segments V-VIII without the middle hepatic vein. Biliary anatomy was investigated using intraoperative cholangiography in the first 5 patients and with magnetic resonance cholangiography alone in the remaining 22. In 15 patients, we found a single right biliary duct (55.55%) and in 12 we found multiple biliary ducts (44.45%). We performed single biliary anastomoses in 20 patients (74.07%) and multiple anastomoses in the remaining 7 (25.93%). Results:, With a mean follow-up of 675 days (range, 8 to 1,804 days), patient and graft survival rates were 85% and 74%. The following biliary complications were observed: 4 biliary leaks from the cut surface, 3 anastomotic leaks, 6 late anastomotic strictures, and 1 early kinking of the choledochus. These 14 biliary complications (51.85%) occurred in 11 patients (40.74%). Conclusion:, Biliary complications affected our series of ALDLTs at a high percentage, but none of the grafts transplanted was lost due to biliary problems. Magnetic resonance cholangiography seems to be a reliable instrument to investigate biliary anatomy. Multiple biliary reconstructions are strongly associated with a high risk of complications. [source]


Recurrent hepatitis C virus disease after liver transplantation and concurrent biliary tract complications: poor outcome

CLINICAL TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 4 2006
Lior H. Katz
Abstract:, Recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is particularly aggressive in the post-liver transplantation setting, with rapid progression of liver fibrosis. Biliary complications remain a significant cause of morbidity following liver transplantation. Post-cholecystectomy biliary strictures are associated with advanced hepatic fibrosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether the presence of biliary complications affects survival in liver transplant recipients with recurrent HCV disease. The files of liver transplant recipients (53.7% male; mean age 52.7 ± 10.3 yr) were reviewed for incidence, type and treatment of biliary complications, and findings were compared between those who developed recurrent HCV disease (n = 47, 83.9%) and those who did not (n = 9). Twenty-one biliary complications developed in 12 patients with recurrent HCV (25.5%). Treatment with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with balloon dilatation and stent placement or surgical revision was successful in nine (75%). Three biliary complications developed in three patients with no recurrence (p = NS). There was no statistically significant association between recurrent HCV disease and biliary complications. However, among those with recurrent disease, the recurrence was severe in nine of 12 recipients with biliary complications (75%) but in only nine of 35 without biliary complications (26%) (p = 0.001). Death was documented in eight patients with severe recurrence (44.4%), including three (37.5%) with biliary complications and two (7%) with non-severe recurrence, neither of whom had biliary complications (p = 0.003). Antiviral treatment was successful in nine of 25 patients (36%) who received it. On multivariate analysis, biliary complications were a significant predictor of severe recurrence (OR 27.0, 95% confidence interval 2.07,351.4) (p = 0.012). Fibrosis stage in the second biopsy was significantly correlated with serum alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.01) and with duration of biliary obstruction (p = 0.07). In conclusion, biliary complications of liver transplantation strongly affect outcome in patients with recurrent HCV disease despite attempts to relieve the biliary obstruction and to treat the recurrent HCV disease. [source]


RISK FACTORS FOR RECURRENT BILE DUCT STONES AFTER ENDOSCOPIC PAPILLARY BALLOON DILATION: LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP STUDY

DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 2 2009
Akira Ohashi
Background:, Little is known about the long-term results of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) for bile duct stones. Methods:, Between 1995 and 2000, 204 patients with bile duct stones successfully underwent EPBD and stone removal. Complete stone clearance was confirmed using balloon cholangiography and intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS). Long-term outcomes of EPBD were investigated retrospectively in the year 2007, and risk factors for stone recurrence were multivariately analyzed. Results:, Long-term information was available in 182 cases (89.2%), with a mean overall follow-up duration of 9.3 years. Late biliary complications occurred in 22 patients (12.1%), stone recurrence in 13 (7.1%), cholangitis in 10 (5.5%), cholecystitis in four, and gallstone pancreatitis in one. In 11 of 13 patients (84.6%), stone recurrence developed within 3 years after EPBD. All recurrent stones were bilirubinate. Multivariate analysis identified three risk factors for stone recurrence: dilated bile duct (>15 mm), previous cholecystectomy, and no confirmation of clean duct using IDUS. Conclusion:, Approximately 7% of patients develop stone recurrence after EPBD; however, retreatment with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is effective. Careful follow up is necessary in patients with dilated bile duct or previous cholecystectomy. IDUS is useful for reducing stone recurrence after EPBD. [source]


Biliary reconstruction using non-penetrating, tissue everting clips versus conventional sewn biliary anastomosis in liver transplantation

HPB, Issue 2 2006
K. Tyson Thomas
Background. Biliary complications occur following approximately 25% of liver transplantations. Efforts to decrease biliary complications include methods designed to diminish tissue ischemia. Previously, we reported excellent short-term results and decreased biliary anastomosis time in a porcine liver transplant model using non-penetrating, tissue everting clips (NTEC), specifically VCS® clips. Methods. We examined the incidence of biliary anastomotic complications in a group of patients in whom orthotopic liver transplantation was performed with biliary reconstruction using NTEC and compared that group to a matched group treated with biliary reconstruction via conventional end-to-end sewn choledochocholedochostomy. Patients were matched in a 1:2 fashion by age at transplantation, disease etiology, Child-Turcot-Pugh scores, MELD score or UNOS status (prior to 1998), cold and warm ischemia times, organ donor age, and date of transplantation. Results. Seventeen patients had clipped anastomosis and 34 comparison patients had conventional sewn anastomosis. There were no differences between groups in terms of baseline clinical or demographic data. The median time from completion of the hepatic artery anastomosis to completion of clipped versus conventional sewn biliary anastomosis was 45 (interquartile range = 20 min) versus 47 min (interquartile range = 23 min), respectively (p=0.12). Patients were followed for a mean of 29 months. Biliary anastomotic complications, including leak or anastomotic stricture, were observed in 18% of the clipped group and 24% of the conventional sewn group. Conclusions. Biliary reconstruction can be performed clinically using NTEC as an alternative to conventional sewn biliary anastomoses with good results. [source]


Handling of biliary complications following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the setting of Tripoli Central Hospital

HPB, Issue 3 2002
A Elhamel
Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has an increased incidence of bile duct injury and bile leak when compared with open cholecystectomy. This study reviews management of these complications in a general hospital setting. Data collected from patients diagnosed and treated in one surgical unit for biliary complications after LC between 1992 and 1996 were analysed. Method A total of 14 patients were examined. Diagnosis was defined mainly by Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and undetected choledocholitiasis was discovered in association with two of these complications. 43% of patients presented after LC with early postoperative bile leak or jaundice due to partial or complete bile duct excision or slippage of clips from the cystic duct. 57% presented with late biliary strictures. Thirteen patients were treated surgically, with biliary reconstruction (11 patients), direct repair (one) and cystic duct ligation in combination with clearance of bile duct from large multiple stones (one). One patient, who had clip displacement from cystic duct in combination with misplaced clip on right hepatic duct, was treated elsewhere. Postoperatively, one patient developed anastomotic leak and another died from sequellaie of bile duct transection requiring staged operations. Conclusions It is concluded that, in an environment similar to that where the authors had to work, LC should be performed in hospitals with facility to perform ERCP or when access for this technique is available in a nearby institution. Early recognition and immediate management of biliary injuries is dependent on individual resources and circumstances but, if required, consultation with colleagues or referral of patients with suspected or established biliary complications should not be delayed. [source]


Extended right liver grafts obtained by an ex situ split can be used safely for primary and secondary transplantation with acceptable biliary morbidity

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 7 2009
Atsushi Takebe
Split liver transplantation (SLT) is clearly beneficial for pediatric recipients. However, the increased risk of biliary complications in adult recipients of SLT in comparison with whole liver transplantation (WLT) remains controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and clinical outcome of biliary complications in an SLT group using split extended right grafts (ERGs) after ex situ splitting in comparison with WLT in adults. The retrospectively collected data for 80 consecutive liver transplants using ERGs after ex situ splitting between 1998 and 2007 were compared with the data for 80 liver transplants using whole liver grafts in a matched-pair analysis paired by the donor age, recipient age, indications, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, and high-urgency status. The cold ischemic time was significantly longer in the SLT group (P = 0.006). As expected, bile leakage from the transected surface occurred only in the SLT group (15%) without any mortality or graft loss. The incidence of all other early or late biliary complications (eg, anastomotic leakage and stenosis) was not different between SLT and WLT. The 1- and 5-year patient and graft survival rates showed no statistical difference between SLT and WLT [83.2% and 82.0% versus 88.5% and 79.8% (P = 0.92) and 70.8% and 67.5% versus 83.6% and 70.0% (P = 0.16), respectively]. In conclusion, ERGs can be used safely without any increased mortality and with acceptable morbidity, and they should also be considered for retransplantation. The significantly longer cold ischemic time in the SLT group indicates the potential for improved results and should thus be considered in the design of allocation policies. Liver Transpl 15:730,737, 2009. © 2009 AASLD. [source]


Technique and outcome of autologous portal Y-graft interposition for anomalous right portal veins in living donor liver transplantation

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 4 2009
Shin Hwang
This study was intended to describe in detail the surgical technique and long-term outcome of autologous portal vein (PV) Y-graft interposition for adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We assessed the outcome of 841 patients who underwent right lobe LDLT from January 2002 to December 2007 with respect to the reconstruction of double-graft PVs. PV anatomy of the donor livers was classified as type I in 796 patients (94.6%), type II in 15 patients (1.8%), and type III in 30 patients (3.6%). Seven type II grafts and all type III PV grafts had double PV orifices. Autologous PV Y-graft interposition was used in 31 patients, and complications occurred in only 1 patient during a median follow-up of 27 months. Overall, the 1- and 3-year graft survival rates were 87.5% and 80.6%, respectively. Use of a Y-graft was not a risk factor for biliary complications, but the liver anatomy of anomalous PV per se seems to be associated with a higher occurrence of biliary complications, especially during the early posttransplant period. The favorable outcome and technical feasibility of autologous portal Y-graft interposition imply that this technique could be the standard procedure for reconstruction of right lobe grafts with double PV orifices. Liver Transpl 15:427,434, 2009. © 2009 AASLD. [source]


Biliary reconstruction for infantile living donor liver transplantation: Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy or duct-to-duct choledochocholedochostomy?

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 12 2008
Yasumasa Shirouzu
Hepaticojejunostomy is a standard biliary reconstruction method for infantile living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), but choledochocholedochostomy for infants is not generally accepted yet. Ten pediatric recipients weighing no more than 10 kg underwent duct-to-duct choledochocholedochostomy (DD) for biliary reconstruction for LDLT. Patients were followed up for a median period of 26.8 months (range: 4.0,79.0 months). The incidence of posttransplant biliary complications for DD was compared with that for Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (RY). No DD patients and 1 RY patient (5%) developed biliary leakage (P > 0.05), and biliary stricture occurred in 1 DD patient (10%) and none of the RY patients (P > 0.05); none of the DD patients and 5 RY patients (25%) suffered from uncomplicated cholangitis after LDLT (P > 0.05), and 1 DD patient (10%) and 2 RY patients (10%) died of causes unrelated to biliary complications. In conclusion, both hepaticojejunostomy and choledochocholedochostomy resulted in satisfactory outcome in terms of biliary complications, including leakage and stricture, for recipients weighing no more than 10 kg. Liver Transpl 14:1761,1765, 2008. © 2008 AASLD. [source]


Rh blood group and liver transplantation

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 10 2007
James D. Perkins M.D. Special Section Editor
Background Cold ischemia time and the presence of postoperative hepatic arterial thrombosis have been associated with biliary complications (BC) after liver transplantation. An ABO-incompatible blood group has also been suggested as a factor for predisposal towards BC. However, the influence of Rh nonidentity has not been studied previously. Materials Three hundred fifty six liver transplants were performed from 1995 to 2000 at our hospital. BC incidence and risk factors were studied in 345 patients. Results Seventy patients (20%) presented BC after liver transplantation. Bile leakage (24/45%) and stenotic anastomosis (21/30%) were the most frequent complications. Presence of BC in Rh-nonidentical graft-host cases (23/76, 30%) was higher than in Rh-identical grafts (47/269, 17%) (P = 0.01). BC was also more frequent in grafts with arterial thrombosis (9/25, 36% vs 60/319, 19%; P = 0.03) and grafts with cold ischemia time longer than 430 min (26/174, 15% vs 44/171, 26%; P = 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that Rh graft-host nonidentical blood groups [RR = 2(1.1-3.6); P = 0.02], arterial thrombosis [RR = 2.6(1.1-6.4); P = 0.02] and cold ischemia time longer than 430 min [RR = 1.8(1-3.2); P = 0.02] were risk factors for presenting BC. Conclusion Liver transplantation using Rh graft-host nonidentical blood groups leads to a greater incidence of BC. [source]


Histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution vs.

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 8 2007
University of Wisconsin solution for liver transplantation: A systematic review
University of Wisconsin (UW) solution has been recognized as the gold standard in liver preservation, but its limitations are becoming obvious, such as risk of biliary complications and its high cost. Alternatively, the effects of histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK), such as improved biliary protection and low cost, have been observed. This systematic review is conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of these 2 solutions. Databases from 1966 to June 2006 were searched. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and cohort studies comparing HTK and UW solutions for liver transplantation were included. Ten articles including 11 comparisons (1,200 patients) met the inclusion criteria, containing 2 RCTs and 9 cohort studies. No marked differences existed between the 2 groups in patient and graft survival rates, acute rejection, primary nonfunction, primary dysfunction, delayed graft function, and ALT and AST levels after transplantation. The only positive result was observed in the bile production after deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT), which was statistically significantly higher in HTK group than that of UW group (95% confidence interval, 18.65-57.47; P = 0.0001). Although the difference in biliary complications between the 2 groups did not reach statistical significance, HTK was thought to be more effective for biliary tract flush and prevention of biliary complications in some studies. There was no statistically significant difference of effects (except bile production) between HTK and UW. But trends were documented in some studies for the superiority of HTK in biliary tract flush, prevention of biliary complications, and cost saving. Adequately powered RCTs with longer follow-up periods are required to evaluate the long-term effect of these 2 solutions. Liver Transpl 13:1125,1136, 2007. © 2007 AASLD. [source]


Development of pulmonary hypertension in 5 patients after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation: De novo or secondary?

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 5 2006
Yasumasa Shirouzu
The development of portopulmonary hypertension (PH) in a patient with end-stage liver disease is related to high cardiac output and hyperdynamic circulation. However, PH following liver transplantation is not fully understood. Of 617 pediatric patients receiving transplants between June 1990 and March 2004, 5 (median age 12 yr, median weight 24.5 kg) were revealed to have portopulmonary hypertension (PH) after living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), as confirmed by echocardiography and/or right heart catheterization. All children underwent LDLT for post-Kasai biliary atresia. In 2 patients with refractory biliary complications, PH developed following portal thrombosis; 2 with stable graft function, who had had intrapulmonary shunting (IPS) before LDLT, were found to have PH in spite of overcoming liver dysfunction due to hepatitis. PH developed shortly after distal splenorenal shunting in 1 patient, who suffered liver cirrhosis due to an intractable outflow blockage. The onset of PH ranged from 2.8 to 11 yr after LDLT, and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) estimated by echocardiography at the time of presentation ranged from 43 to 120 mmHg. Three of the 5 patients are alive under prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) treatment. Of these, 1 is prepared for retransplantation for an intractable complications of liver allograft, while the other 2 with satisfactory grafts are being considered for lung transplantation. Even after LDLT, PH can develop with portal hypertension. Periodic echocardiography is essential for early detection and treatment of PH especially in the recipients with portal hypertension not only preoperatively but also postoperatively. Liver Transpl 12:870,875, 2006. © 2006 AASLD. [source]


Balloon dilatation vs. balloon dilatation plus bile duct endoprostheses for treatment of anastomotic biliary strictures after liver transplantation

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 1 2006
Thomas Zoepf
Biliary strictures after liver transplantation are a therapeutic challenge for endoscopy. Anastomotic strictures occur in 10% of patients after liver transplantation, leading untreated to mortality and ultimately to graft failure. Despite of successful reports, to date, there is no defined endoscopic therapy regimen for these cases. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the most suitable concept for endoscopic treatment of post-liver transplant anastomotic strictures (PTAS). A total of 72 patients post-liver transplantation, who received endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) as a consequence of suspected biliary complications were retrospectively screened for the presence of PTAS. In all patients graft rejection or bile duct ischemia were excluded prior to ERC by liver biopsy or Doppler ultrasound respectively. We compared either balloon dilatation (BD) alone or dilatation plus placement of an increasing number of bile duct endoprostheses (BD + endoprostheses) in a retrospective analysis. A total of 25 of 75 patients showed PTAS. Overall, endoscopic therapy was successful in 22 of 25 patients (88%). BD was initially successful in 89% but showed recurrence in 62%. BD + endoprostheses was initially successful in 87%, and recurrence was observed only in 31%. All recurrences were successfully retreated by BD + endoprostheses. During 22 of 109 (20%) treatment sessions stone extraction was necessary. Complication rate was low with bacterial cholangitis in 8 of 109 (7.3%) sessions, mild pancreatitis in 10 of 109 (9%) sessions and minor bleeding in 2 of 25 (8%) sphincterotomies. Median follow-up after conclusion of endoscopic therapy is 6 months (range 1,43). In conclusion, our data confirm that endoscopic therapy of PTAS is highly effective and safe. As primarily successful BD shows a high rate of recurrence, we recommend a combination of BD followed by an increasing number and diameter of endoprostheses. Therapy sessions are effective at short intervals of every 2,3 months. Liver Transpl 12:88,94, 2006. © 2005 AASLD. [source]


Live donor/split liver grafts for adult recipients: When should we use them?

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue S2 2005
Peter Neuhaus
Key Points 1Split liver transplantation for a child and an adult recipient is standard today. Living donor liver transplantation for small children should only be necessary in exceptional situations in a country with a well-organized organ donation program. 2True split liver transplantation for two adults is still not very common. In the United States between April 2000 and May 2001, 89 surgical teams transplanted only 15 left lobes and 13 right lobes. Especially left lobes from deceased donors have a poor outcome; in Europe the ELTR shows a 1-year graft survival of 47%. 3While in Asia left lobes, right lateral segments, and dual left lateral segments are more frequently used, living donor liver transplantation for adults in Europe and the United States is predominantly performed with right lobes.7, 8 This carries a significant morbidity and mortality risk for the donor. Outcome compared to deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLTx) is similar with a trend towards more short-term and long-term biliary complications. 4Living donor and split liver transplantation should be used mainly in an elective situation. Candidates are tumor patients, patients with cholestatic liver disease, and elective patients with bile disease. 5Urgent liver transplantation is not a good option for living donor and split liver transplantation. Hepatic assist devices may change the picture in the future. 6Living donor liver transplantation for metabolic disorders like Alpha-1-Antitrypsin deficiency, Hyperoxaluria, and others cannot be recommended at present since the genetically related donor and the patient may carry an unknown risk. (Liver Transpl 2005;11:S6,S9.) [source]


Routine endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in the detection of early biliary complications after liver transplantation

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 5 2002
Sudeep R. Shah
The value of routinely performing endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) to detect biliary complications in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) with duct-to-duct anastomosis without a T-tube is not known. Eighty-nine of 171 liver transplant recipients (61 men; mean age, 49.9 years) underwent ERC 14.5 ± 4.5 (SD) days after surgery between January 1997 and August 1999. Findings of ERC and need for intervention for biliary complications were noted. ERC was successful in 71of 89 patients (80%). Nineteen patients (21%) required intervention for biliary complications (stricture, 13 patients; bile leak, 6 patients). Protocol ERC detected eight of these complications (42%). In 4 patients, ERC failed, and 7 patients with a normal ERC result subsequently required intervention (2 patients in the same admission, and 5 patients after discharge). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for successful ERC in detecting early biliary complications were 80%, 98%, 89%, and 97%, whereas those for predicting the overall rate of biliary complications were 53%, 98%, 89%, and 89%, respectively. Although highly specific and moderately sensitive in detecting early biliary complications, ERC performed routinely has low sensitivity in predicting the overall risk for biliary complications in patients undergoing OLT with unsplinted duct-to-duct anastomosis. [source]


Right-lobe living donor liver transplantation

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 6B 2000
Amadeo Marcos M.D.
Key Points 1. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is currently performed at about 30 centers in the United States. 2. Careful and critical evaluation of donor and recipient is required for optimal outcome. 3. Right lobe donation is preferred over left lobe donation in adult LDLT. 4. There has been 1 donor death (<0.3%) in the US experiences. Donor biliary complications occur in approximately 4% of the cases. 5. Recipient survival after adult LDLT in the United States is approximately 88%. Hepatic artery thrombosis occurs in 3% and biliary complications in 18%. [source]


The technical pitfalls of duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction in pediatric living-donor left-lobe liver transplantation: The impact of stent placement

PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 6 2008
Seisuke Sakamoto
Abstract:, The feasibility of D-D biliary reconstruction in pediatric LDLT using a left-lobe graft is still controversial. The medical records of 19 pediatric patients (age: four months to 16 yr) were reviewed. The biliary reconstruction was performed in an end-to-end fashion using absorbable sutures. An external biliary tube was placed into the bile duct through the anastomotic site (n = 10) and not through the anastomotic site (n = 4). An external tube was not used in five patients. The median follow-up was 4.7 yr. Nine patients had 11 biliary complications (leakage, n = 2; stricture, n = 7; stricture with leakage, n = 2). Due to biliary complications, conversion to an R-Y was required in five patients, and four patients required radiological or endoscopic management. The patients younger than one yr of age required conversion to R-Y within one wk after LDLT. The analysis of factors related to biliary complications revealed that the use of a trans-anastomotic biliary tube was the only significant factor to avoid biliary complications. In conclusion, D-D biliary reconstruction in LDLT using a left-lobe graft is feasible in selected cases, though it remains challenging. The use of a trans-anastomotic biliary tube is important to avoid biliary complications. [source]


Clinical Outcomes for Saudi and Egyptian Patients Receiving Deceased Donor Liver Transplantation in China

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 8 2010
N. Allam
Long waiting list times in liver transplant programs in Saudi Arabia and unavailability of deceased donor transplantation in Egypt have led several patients to seek transplantation in China. All patients who received transplants in China and followed in three centers from January 2003,January 2007 were included. All patients' charts were reviewed. Mortality and morbidity were compared to those transplanted in King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre (KFSH&RC) during the same period. Seventy-four adult patients were included (46 Saudi nationals; 28 Egyptians). One-year and 3-year cumulative patient survival rates were 83% and 62%, respectively compared to 92% and 84% in KFSH&RC. One-year and 3-year cumulative graft survival rates were 81% and 59%, respectively compared to 90% and 84% in KFSH&RC. Compared to KFSH&RC, the incidence of complications was significantly higher especially biliary complications, sepsis, metastasis and acquired HBV infection posttransplant. Requirements of postoperative interventions and hospital admissions were also significantly greater. Our data show high mortality and morbidity rates in Saudi and Egyptian patients receiving transplants in China. This could be related to more liberal selection criteria, use of donation after cardiac death (DCD) donors or possibly more limited posttransplant care. [source]


Liver Transplantation with Grafts from Controlled Donors after Cardiac Death: A 20-Year Follow-up at a Single Center

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 3 2010
S. Yamamoto
The first liver transplantation (LTx) in Sweden was performed in 1984, but brain death as a legal death criterion was not accepted until 1988. Between November 1984 and May 1988, we performed 40 consecutive LTxs in 32 patients. Twenty-four grafts were from donors after cardiac death (DCD) and 16 grafts from heart-beating donors (HBD). Significantly, more hepatic artery thrombosis and biliary complications occurred in the DCD group (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Graft and patient survival did not differ between the groups. In the total group, there was a significant difference in graft survival between first-time LTx grafts and grafts used for retransplantation. There was better graft survival in nonmalignant than malignant patients, although this did not reach statistical significance. Multivariate analysis revealed cold ischemia time and post-LTx peak ALT to be independent predictive factors for graft survival in the DCD group. In the 11 livers surviving 20 years or more, follow-up biopsies were performed 18,20 years post-LTx (n = 10) and 6 years post-LTx (n = 1). Signs of chronic rejection were seen in three cases, with no difference between DCD and HBD. Our analysis with a 20-year follow-up suggests that controlled DCD liver grafts might be a feasible option to increase the donor pool. [source]


Improved Survival After Liver Transplantation in Patients with Hepatopulmonary Syndrome

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 2 2010
S. Gupta
Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is present in 10,32% of chronic liver disease patients, carries a poor prognosis and is treatable by liver transplantation (LT). Previous reports have shown high LT mortality in HPS and severe HPS (arterial oxygen (PaO2) ,50 mmHg). We reviewed outcomes in HPS patients who received LT between 2002 and 2008 at two transplant centers supported by a dedicated HPS clinic. We assessed mortality, complications and gas exchange in 21 HPS patients (mean age 51 years, MELD score 14), including 11/21 (52%) with severe HPS and 5/21 (24%) with living donor LT (median follow-up 20.2 months after LT). Overall mortality was 1/21 (5%); mortality in severe HPS was 1/11 (9%). Peritransplant hypoxemic respiratory failure occurred in 5/21 (24%), biliary complications in 8/21 (38%) and bleeding or vascular complications in 6/21 (29%). Oxygenation improved in all 19 patients in whom PaO2 or SaO2 were recorded. PaO2 increased from 52.2 ± 13.2 to 90.3 ± 11.5 mmHg (room air) (p < 0.0001) (12 patients); a higher baseline macroaggregated albumin shunt fraction predicted a lower rate of postoperative improvement (p = 0.045) (7 patients). Liver transplant survival in HPS and severe HPS was higher than previously demonstrated. Severity of HPS should not be the basis for transplant refusal. [source]


Hypothermic Machine Preservation in Human Liver Transplantation: The First Clinical Series

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 2 2010
J. V. Guarrera
Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) is widely used to preserve kidneys for transplantation with improved results over cold storage (CS). To date, successful transplantation of livers preserved with HMP has been reported only in animal models. In this, the first prospective liver HMP study, 20 adults received HMP-preserved livers and were compared to a matched group transplanted with CS livers. HMP was performed for 3,7 h using centrifugal perfusion with Vasosol® solution at 4,6°C. There were no cases of primary nonfunction in either group. Early allograft dysfunction rates were 5% in the HMP group versus 25% in controls (p = 0.08). At 12 months, there were two deaths in each group, all unrelated to preservation or graft function. There were no vascular complications in HMP livers. Two biliary complications were observed in HMP livers compared with four in the CS group. Serum injury markers were significantly lower in the HMP group. Mean hospital stay was shorter in the HMP group (10.9 ± 4.7 days vs. 15.3 ± 4.9 days in the CS group, p = 0.006). HMP of donor livers provided safe and reliable preservation in this pilot case-controlled series. Further multicenter HMP trials are now warranted. [source]


Liver Graft Regeneration in Right Lobe Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 6 2009
Y.-F. Cheng
Optimal portal flow is one of the essentials in adequate liver function, graft regeneration and outcome of the graft after right lobe adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT). The relations among factors that cause sufficient liver graft regeneration are still unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential predisposing factors that encourage liver graft regeneration after ALDLT. The study population consisted of right lobe ALDLT recipients from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Taiwan. The records, preoperative images, postoperative Doppler ultrasound evaluation and computed tomography studies performed 6 months after transplant were reviewed. The volume of the graft 6 months after transplant divided by the standard liver volume was calculated as the regeneration ratio. The predisposing risk factors were compiled from statistical analyses and included age, recipient body weight, native liver disease, spleen size before transplant, patency of the hepatic venous graft, graft weight-to-recipient weight ratio (GRWR), posttransplant portal flow, vascular and biliary complications and rejection. One hundred forty-five recipients were enrolled in this study. The liver graft regeneration ratio was 91.2 ± 12.6% (range, 58,151). The size of the spleen (p = 0.00015), total portal flow and GRWR (p = 0.005) were linearly correlated with the regeneration rate. Patency of the hepatic venous tributary reconstructed was positively correlated to graft regeneration and was statistically significant (p = 0.017). Splenic artery ligation was advantageous to promote liver regeneration in specific cases but splenectomy did not show any positive advantage. Spleen size is a major factor contributing to portal flow and may directly trigger regeneration after transplant. Control of sufficient portal flow and adequate hepatic outflow are important factors in graft regeneration. [source]


The Impact of Hepatitis C and Biliary Complications on Patient and Graft Survival Following Liver Transplantation

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 6 2009
E. C. Verna
Recurrent hepatitis C (HCV) and biliary complications (BC) are major causes of post liver transplant morbidity and mortality. The impact of these complications may be additive or synergistic. We performed a retrospective cohort study to analyze the effects of HCV and BC on all patients transplanted at two institutions over 6 years. BC was defined by imaging findings in the setting of abnormal liver function tests that required intervention. The primary outcomes were graft and patient survival over a mean 3.4 years. 709 patients (619 deceased, 90 living donor) were included, 337 with HCV and 372 without. BC was diagnosed more frequently in patients with HCV, 26% versus 18% (p = 0.008). One-year and overall patient and graft survival were significantly lower in patients with HCV, but BC impacted only 1-year graft survival. The combination of BC and HCV had no additional impact on survival or fibrosis rates on 1-year protocol biopsies. Multivariate analysis revealed HCV (HR 2.1) and HCC (HR 1.9) to be independent predictors of mortality. Since BC are diagnosed more frequently in HCV patients and only affect early graft loss, it is likely that recurrent HCV rather than BC accounts for the majority of adverse graft outcomes. [source]