Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Birthweight

  • infant birthweight
  • low birthweight
  • lower birthweight
  • mean birthweight
  • median birthweight
  • normal birthweight
  • offspring birthweight
  • very low birthweight

  • Terms modified by Birthweight

  • birthweight centile
  • birthweight child
  • birthweight difference
  • birthweight infant

  • Selected Abstracts

    Childhood body mass index (BMI), breastfeeding and risk of Type 1 diabetes: findings from a longitudinal national birth cohort

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 9 2008
    R. M. Viner
    Abstract Aims To perform a longitudinal analysis of the association between childhood body mass index (BMI) and later risk of Type 1 diabetes, controlling for socio-economic status, birthweight, height in early and late childhood, breastfeeding history and pubertal status. Methods Analysis of the 1970 British Birth Cohort, followed up at age 5, 10 and 30 years (n = 11 261). Data were available on birthweight, breastfeeding; height, weight, pubertal status, socio-economic status at age 10 years; self-report data on history of diabetes (type, age at onset) at age 30 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine relations of childhood growth, socio-economic status and breastfeeding history to the incidence of Type 1 diabetes between 10 and 30 years of age. Results Sixty-one subjects (0.5%) reported Type 1 diabetes at 30 years of age; 47 (77%) reported onset , age 10 years. Higher BMI z -score at 10 years predicted higher risk of subsequent Type 1 diabetes (hazard ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.8, P = 0.01) when adjusted for birthweight, pubertal status, breastfeeding history and socio-economic status. Repeating the model for childhood obesity, the hazard ratio was 3.1 (1.0, 9.3; P = 0.05). Birthweight, breastfeeding, height growth and pubertal timing were not associated with incidence of Type 1 diabetes. Conclusions Higher BMI in childhood independently increased the risk of later Type 1 diabetes, supporting suggestions that obesity may provide a link between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. This supports observations of a rise in Type 1 diabetes prevalence. Reduction in childhood obesity may reduce the incidence of Type 1 as well as Type 2 diabetes. [source]

    Birthweight and stature, body mass index and fat distribution of 14-year-old Polish adolescents

    S Kozie
    Objectives: The relationships between intra-uterine growth retardation and stature, relative weight and fat distribution at adolescence have not been comprehensively established. The aim of this report is to assess the effect of low birthweight on stature, relative weight and fat distribution in 14-year-old boys and girls from Wroclaw, Poland. Methodology: Cross-sectional measurements of 1197 boys and 819 post-menarcheal girls aged 13.50,14.49 years were performed during medical examinations in 1997. Stature, body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR) were used in the present study. A cut-off value of the 10th percentile of birthweight for particular gestational weeks was used in order to define subjects born small for gestational age (SGA) or appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Two-way ANOVA was used to evaluate the effect of birthweight on anthropometric variables of 14-year-old adolescents, allowing for socioeconomic status (determined by the level of the mother's education). Results: Birthweight affected stature in boys and girls (P < 0.001), BMI in boys (P < 0.05) and WHR and WTR in girls (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). At the age of 14 years, both SGA boys and girls were shorter than their AGA peers. The SGA boys had lower BMI, whereas SGA girls accumulated more centralized fat compared with their AGA counterparts. Conclusion: Fetal growth retardation has a long-lasting adverse effect on later physical growth. Polish SGA children do not catch up with their peers in terms of stature by adolescence. Moreover, central fat distribution, as observed among SGA girls, constitutes a significant risk for several adult degenerative diseases. [source]

    Effects of calcium supplementation on fetal growth in mothers with deficient calcium intake: a randomised controlled trial

    Edgardo Abalos
    Summary Abalos E, Merialdi M, Wojdyla D, Carroli G, Campodónico L, Yao S-E, Gonzalez R, Deter R, Villar J, Van Look P. Effects of calcium supplementation on fetal growth in mothers with deficient calcium intake: a randomised controlled trial. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2010; 24: 53,62. Calcium supplementation in mothers with low calcium intake has been of interest recently because of its association with optimal fetal growth and improved pre-eclampsia-related outcomes. While the effects of calcium supplementation have demonstrated benefits in prolonging gestation and subsequently improving birthweight, no specific studies have identified the longitudinal effects of supplementation on fetal growth in utero. Data were analysed in the context of the World Health Organization trial of calcium supplementation in calcium-deficient women. Five hundred and ten healthy, primiparous pregnant Argentinean women were randomised (at <20 weeks gestation) to either placebo (n = 230) or calcium supplements (1500 mg calcium/day in 3 divided doses; n = 231). Growth parameters in utero were assessed with serial ultrasound scans. Birthweight, length, head, abdominal and thigh circumferences were recorded at delivery. No differences were found in fetal biometric measurements recorded at 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36 weeks gestation between fetuses of women who were supplemented with calcium and those who were not. Similarly, neonatal characteristics and anthropometric measurements recorded at delivery were comparable in both groups. We conclude that calcium supplementation of 1500 mg calcium/day in pregnant women with low calcium intake does not appear to impact on fetal somatic or skeletal growth. [source]

    Cord blood lipid profile and associated factors: baseline data of a birth cohort study

    Roya Kelishadi
    Summary The cord blood lipid profile may be associated with lifelong changes in the metabolic functions of the individual. The aim of the present study was for the first time in Iran to assess the cord blood lipid profile of neonates, as well as some of its environmental influencing factors. The subjects were 442 (218 boys and 224 girls) normal vaginal delivery newborns. Overall, 14.4% of neonates were preterm and the rest were full-term. In total, 9.2% (n = 35) of the full-term newborns were small-for-gestational-age (SGA), of which 16 had a ponderal index (PI) below the 10th percentile (SGA I) and 19 had a PI above the 10th percentile (SGA II), 5.5% (n = 21) were large-for-gestational-age (LGA), and the remainder were appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA). Before becoming pregnant, 6.9% of mothers were underweight, 49.3% had normal body mass index (BMI), 39.4% were overweight and 4.4% were obese. Total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in girls were significantly higher than in boys (80.3 ± 33.3 and 31.1 ± 9.9 vs. 73.3 ± 23.1 and 28.8 ± 8.7 mg/dL, respectively, P < 0.05). The mean apolipoprotein A (apoA) of neonates with underweight mothers was significantly lower, and the mean apoB level of those with overweight mothers was significantly higher than other neonates. The mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C and apoA of the LGA newborns were significantly lower, and their apoB was significantly higher compared with AGA and SGA neonates. The SGA I neonates had significantly lower total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and apoA, as well as higher triglycerides, lipoprotein a and apoB than the SGA II group. The mean cord blood triglycerides of full-term neonates was significantly higher than preterm neonates (69.4 ± 11.9 vs. 61.4 ± 12.7 mg/dL, respectively, P = 0.04). A preconception maternal BMI of ,25 kg/m2 correlated significantly with the cord triglycerides (OR = 1.3, [95% CI 1.07, 1.5]) and with apoB (OR = 1.4, [95% CI 1.1, 1.5]). The BMI <18 of mothers before pregnancy correlated with low HDL-C (OR = 1.3, [95% CI 1.04, 1.7]). Birthweight correlated with high cord triglyceride level (SGA: OR = 1.4, [95% CI 1.1, 1.7]; LGA: OR = 1.6, [95% CI 1.3, 1.7] compared with AGA). These associations remained significant even after adjusting for the preconception BMI of mothers. Our findings reflect the possible interaction of environmental factors and fetal growth and the in utero lipid metabolism. Long-term longitudinal studies in different ethnicities would help to elucidate the relationship. [source]

    Changing patterns of inequality in birthweight and its determinants: a population-based study, Scotland 1980,2000

    Lesley Fairley
    Summary Birthweight is used as an indicator of individual and population health and is known to be strongly correlated with adult cardiovascular disease. This paper uses routinely collected maternity discharge data from Scotland between 1980 and 2000 to look at birthweight trends and the changes in the distribution of maternal risk factors for birthweight. We also examine the contributions of each of the risk factors to birthweight trends and investigate whether there has been a reduction in inequality in birthweight over time. Data from 1 282 172 singleton live births were used in the analysis. Both mean birthweight and low birthweight (LBW: <,2500 g) were used as outcomes. The risk factors studied were maternal age, parity, maternal height, marital status and occupational social class of the father. The slope and relative indices of inequality were used to measure the change in inequalities over time. Mean birthweight increased from 3320 g in 1980 to 3410 g in 2000, while the percentage LBW decreased slightly from 5.7% in 1980 to 5.4% in 2000. The prevalence of many risk factors changed; there has been an increase in the proportion of older mothers, single mothers, taller mothers and mothers with undetermined social class. Although most risk factors had a significant change in effect over time, the inequalities in birthweight between groups did not appear to diminish over time. Both the slope and relative index of inequality had a quadratic relationship over time, with the inequalities in birthweight being greatest in the early 1980s and late 1990s. [source]

    Birthweight and paternal involvement predict early reproduction in British women: Evidence from the National Child Development Study

    Daniel Nettle
    There is considerable interest in the mechanisms maintaining early reproduction in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in developed countries. Previous research has suggested that differential exposure to early-life factors such as low birthweight and lack of paternal involvement during childhood may be relevant. Here, we used longitudinal data on the female cohort members from the UK National Child Development Study (n = 3,014,4,482 depending upon variables analyzed) to investigate predictors of early reproduction. Our main outcome measures were having a child by age 20, and stating at age 16 an intended age of reproduction of 20 years or lower. Low paternal involvement during childhood was associated with increased likelihood of early reproduction (O.R. 1.79,2.25) and increased likelihood of early intended reproduction (O.R. 1.38,2.50). Low birthweight for gestational age also increased the odds of early reproduction (O.R. for each additional s.d. 0.88) and early intended reproduction (O.R. for each additional s.d. 0.81). Intended early reproduction strongly predicted actual early reproduction (O.R. 5.39, 95% CI 3.71,7.83). The results suggest that early-life factors such as low birthweight for gestational age, and low paternal involvement during childhood, may affect women's reproductive development, leading to earlier target and achieved ages for reproduction. Differential exposure to these factors may be part of the reason that early fertility persists in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. We discuss our results with respect to the kinds of interventions likely to affect the rate of teen pregnancy. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Fetal origins of developmental plasticity: Are fetal cues reliable predictors of future nutritional environments?

    Christopher W. Kuzawa
    Evidence that fetal nutrition triggers permanent adjustments in a wide range of systems and health outcomes is stimulating interest in the evolutionary significance of these responses. This review evaluates the postnatal adaptive significance of fetal developmental plasticity from the perspective of life history theory and evolutionary models of energy partitioning. Birthweight is positively related to multiple metabolically costly postnatal functions, suggesting that the fetus has the capacity to distribute the burden of energy insufficiency when faced with a nutritionally challenging environment. Lowering total requirements may reduce the risk of negative energy balance, which disproportionately impacts functions that are not essential for survival but that are crucial for reproductive success. The long-term benefit of these metabolic adjustments is contingent upon the fetus having access to a cue that is predictive of its future nutritional environment, a problem complicated in a long-lived species by short-term ecologic fluctuations like seasonality. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that the flow of nutrients reaching the fetus provides an integrated signal of nutrition as experienced by recent matrilineal ancestors, which effectively limits the responsiveness to short-term ecologic fluctuations during any given pregnancy. This capacity for fetal nutrition to minimize the growth response to transient ecologic fluctuations is defined here as intergenerational "phenotypic inertia," and is hypothesized to allow the fetus to cut through the "noise" of seasonal or other stochastic influences to read the "signal" of longer-term ecologic trends. As a mode of adaptation, phenotypic inertia may help the organism cope with ecologic trends too gradual to be tracked by conventional developmental plasticity, but too rapid to be tracked by natural selection. From an applied perspective, if a trait like fetal growth is designed to minimize the effects of short-term fluctuations by integrating information across generations, public health interventions may be most effective if focused not on the individual but on the matriline. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 17:5,21, 2005. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Impact of a diabetes midwifery educator on the diabetes in pregnancy service at Middlemore Hospital

    D. Simmons Professor of Rural Health
    Abstract We have assessed the effectiveness of a diabetes midwifery educator within a diabetes-in-pregnancy service serving a predominantly Polynesian population. A retrospective audit was undertaken of the charts of all women seen by the diabetes-in-pregnancy service at Middlemore Hospital, South Auckland for 8 months prior to introduction (n=76) and the same 8 months the following year (n=93). The women were well matched for age, ethnicity and past obstetric history. Previously known diabetes was present in 10%. After introduction of the role, insulin therapy (65% versus 50%. p<0.05), and maternal mean laboratory 2 hour post prandial glucose concentration (6.3±1.3 versus 5.7±1.0,mmol/l, p<0.01) were reduced and the proportion starting insulin as outpatients was increased (14% versus 89%, p<0.001). Birthweight and proportion receiving Caesarean delivery were non-significantly lower. Total antenatal length of stay (7.5±6.6 vs 3.0±3.3 per patient, p<0.001) was reduced. The proportion receiving a post natal oral glucose tolerance test remained low but increased after the introduction of the follow up role (10% versus 29%, p<0.01). The introduction of the diabetes midwifery educator was associated with substantial reductions in resource utilisation with an improvement in glycaemic control and postnatal follow up. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Fetal size charts for the Italian population.

    PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, Issue 6 2005
    Normative curves of head, abdomen, long bones
    Abstract Objective To describe size charts developed from fetuses of Italian couples. Method Prospective cross-sectional investigation conducted in three referral centers for prenatal diagnosis. The population of the study included fetuses between the 16th and the 40th week of gestation recruited prospectively and examined only once for the purpose of this study. Exclusion criteria comprised all maternal and/or fetal conditions possibly affecting fetal biometry. The following biometric variables were measured: biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur, tibia, humerus, ulna and radio length. The statistical procedure recommended for analyzing this type of data set was employed to derive normal ranges and percentiles. Birthweight was also recorded. Our centiles were then compared with results from other studies. Results The best-fitted regression model to describe the relationships between head circumference and abdominal circumference and gestational age was a cubic one, whereas a simple quadratic model fitted BPD, and length of long bones. Models fitting the SD were straight lines or quadratic curves. Neither the use of fractional polynomials (the greatest power of the polynomials being 3) nor the logarithmic transformation improved the fitting of the curves. Conclusion We have established size charts for fetuses from Italian couples using the recommended statistical approach. Since the mean birthweight in this study is not statistically different from the official birthweight reported for the Italian population, these reference intervals, developed according to the currently approved statistical methodology, can be employed during second- and third-trimester obstetric ultrasound of fetuses from Italian couples. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The relationship between dietary supplement use in late pregnancy and birth outcomes: a cohort study in British women

    NA Alwan
    Please cite this paper as: Alwan N, Greenwood D, Simpson N, McArdle H, Cade J. The relationship between dietary supplement use in late pregnancy and birth outcomes: a cohort study in British women. BJOG 2010;117:821,829. Objective, To examine the relationship between dietary supplement use during pregnancy and birth outcomes. Design, A prospective birth cohort. Setting, Leeds, UK. Sample, One thousand two hundred and seventy-four pregnant women aged 18,45 years. Methods, Dietary supplement intake was ascertained using three questionnaires for the first, second and third trimesters. Dietary intake was reported in a 24-hour dietary recall administered by a research midwife at 8,12 weeks of gestation. Information on delivery details and antenatal pregnancy complications was obtained from the hospital maternity records. Main outcome measures, Birthweight, birth centile and preterm birth. Results, Reported dietary supplement use declined from 82% of women in the first trimester of pregnancy to 22% in the second trimester and 33% in the third trimester. Folic acid was the most commonly reported supplement taken. Taking any type of daily supplement during any trimester was not significantly associated with size at birth taking into account known relevant confounders. Women taking multivitamin-mineral supplements in the third trimester were more likely to experience preterm birth (adjusted OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2, 9.6, P = 0.02). Conclusions, Regular multivitamin,mineral supplement use during pregnancy, in a developed country setting, is not associated with size at birth. However, it appears to be associated with preterm birth if taken daily in the third trimester. The mechanism for this is unclear and our study's findings need confirming by other cohorts and/or trials in developed countries. [source]

    Explaining differences in birthweight between ethnic populations.

    The Generation R Study
    Objective, To examine whether differences in birthweight of various ethnic groups residing in the Netherlands can be explained by determinants of birthweight. Design, Population-based birth cohort study. Setting, Data of pregnant women and their partners in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Population, We examined data of 6044 pregnant women with a Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, Capeverdean, Antillean, Surinamese-Creole, Surinamese-Hindustani and Surinamese-other ethnic background. Methods, Regression analyses were used to assess the impact of biomedical, socio-demographic and lifestyle-related determinants on birthweight differences. Main outcome measure, Birthweight was established immediately after delivery in grams. Results, Compared with mean birthweight of offspring of Dutch women (3485 g, SD 555), the mean birthweight was lower in all non-Dutch populations, except in Moroccans. Differences ranged from an 88-g lower birthweight in offspring of the Turkish women to a 424-g lower birthweight in offspring of Surinamese-Hindustani women. Differences in gestational age, maternal and paternal height largely explained the lower birthweight in the Turkish, Antillean, Surinamese-Creole and Surinamese-other populations. Differences in birthweight between the Dutch and the Capeverdean and Surinamese-Hindustani populations could only partly be explained by the studied determinants. Conclusions, These results confirm significant differences in birthweight between ethnic populations that can only partly be understood from established determinants of birthweight. The part that is understood points to the importance of determinants that cannot easily be modified, such as parental height. Further study is necessary to obtain a fuller understanding. [source]

    Relationship between dietary intake of cod liver oil in early pregnancy and birthweight

    Anna S. Olafsdottir
    Objective To investigate the possible association between birth outcome and marine food and cod liver oil intake of healthy women in early (prior to 15 weeks of gestation) pregnancy. Design An observational study. Setting Free-living conditions in a community with traditional fish and cod liver oil consumption. Population Four hundred and thirty-five healthy pregnant Icelandic women without antenatal and intrapartum complications. Methods Dietary intake of the women was estimated with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) covering food intake together with lifestyle factors for the previous three months. Questionnaires were filled out at between 11 and 15 weeks and between 34 and 37 weeks of gestation. The estimated intake of marine food and cod liver oil was compared with birthweight by linear and logistic regression controlling for potential confounding. Main outcome measures Birthweight, cod liver oil intake, lifestyle factors (alcohol, smoking). Results Fourteen percent of the study population used liquid cod liver oil in early pregnancy. Regression analysis shows that these women gave birth to heavier babies (P < 0.001), even after adjusting for the length of gestation and other confounding. Conclusions Maternal intake of liquid cod liver oil early in pregnancy was associated with a higher birthweight. Higher birthweight has been associated with a lower risk of diseases later in life and maternal cod liver oil intake might be one of the means for achieving higher birthweight. [source]

    Effects of vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy on maternal and child health

    M.S. Radhika
    Objective To examine the association between biochemical vitamin A deficiency in pregnancy and maternal and fetal health. Design A cross sectional clinical study. Setting Antenatal clinic of nutrition unit of Niloufer Hospital catering for a low socio-economic population, and a private nursing home (Swapna nursing home) catering for a high socio-economic population. Population 736 pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy belonging to low (n= 522) and high socio-economic groups (n= 214). Methods All the women were subjected to a detailed clinical, anthropometric and obstetric examination. Night blindness was assessed by administering the standard WHO questionnaire. Birthweight and gestational age of the infants, maternal anaemia and development of pregnancy-induced hypertension in the mother were recorded. Haemoglobin and serum retinol were estimated at the time of recruitment to the study. Main outcome measures Serum retinol levels, anaemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, birthweight and gestational age of the infant. Results Night blindness was observed in 2.9% of the women and subclincal vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol <20 ,g/dL with no clinical signs) in 27% of the women. Moderate to severe anaemia was observed in 41.2% of the women, and 15.8% of the women developed pregnancy-induced hypertension. Sixty-one (9.4%) women delivered preterm. Univariate analysis identified a significant association between serum retinol <20 ,g/dL and preterm delivery (OR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.03,2.96), maternal anaemia (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.28,2.60) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.02,2.83). After adjusting for the confounding variables (body mass index, parity, age and socio-economic status) in a multivariate analysis, the significant associations between serum retinol <20 ,g/dL and preterm delivery (P= 0.02) and anaemia (P= 0.003) persisted, while that for pregnancy-induced hypertension disappeared (P= 0.71). Conclusion The study suggests that subclinical vitamin A deficiency is a problem during the third trimester of pregnancy. Serum concentration of retinol <20 ,g/dL appears to indicate a deficient status, and is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery and maternal anaemia. [source]

    Epilepsy and pregnancy: effect of antiepileptic drugs and lifestyle on birthweight

    Christian Lodberg Hvas Research Fellow
    Objective To investigate the impact of epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs on length of gestation and anthropometric measures of the newborn. Design Cohort study based on questionnaires mailed to all pregnant women who attended for prenatal care at our department from August 1989 to January 1997. Setting Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Participants One hundred and ninety-three singleton pregnancies in women with epilepsy were compared with 24,094 singleton pregnancies in women without epilepsy. Main outcome measures Preterm delivery, small for gestational age, mean gestational age, gestational age-adjusted birthweight, head circumference, and body length. Results Children of women with epilepsy who smoked had lower gestational age and were at increased risk of preterm delivery (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.8,6.5), compared with children born by nonepileptic women who smoked. Birthweight adjusted for gestational age was reduced by 102 g (95% CI 40,164) in women with epilepsy, and the risk of delivering a child who was small for gestational age was increased (adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3,2.7), compared with women without epilepsy. Newborn babies of women with epilepsy treated by drugs had a reduced adjusted birthweight (208 g, 95% CI 116,300), head circumference (0.4 cm, 95% CI, and body length (0.5 cm, 95% CI 0.1,1.0), compared with the newborn infants of women without epilepsy. Conclusions Women with epilepsy who smoked were at increased risk of preterm delivery compared with healthy smokers. Children of women with drug treated epilepsy had lower birthweight, length, and head circumference than children of women without epilepsy. [source]

    Middle-School-Age Outcomes in Children with Very Low Birthweight

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 6 2000
    H. Gerry Taylor
    Most previous studies of children with birthweight <750 g have focused on early childhood sequelae. To evaluate later outcomes, a regional sample of 60 <750-g birthweight children was compared at middle school age (M= 11 years) to 55 children with birthweight 750 , 1,499 g and 49 term controls. The groups were matched on age, gender, and demographic variables at the time of an early-school-age assessment (mean age 7 years). The <750-g birthweight group fared less well at middle school age than the term group on measures of cognitive function, achievement, behavior, and academic performance. In many instances, outcomes were less favorable for the <750-g children than for the 750 to 1,499-g group. Children in the <750-g group who were free of neurosensory disorders and global cognitive impairment performed more poorly on several tests than their term counterparts. Group differences in this subsample on tests of motor skills, math, and the ability to copy and recall a complex drawing remained significant even after controlling for IQ. Disparities between the <750-g and term groups increased with age for some measures. Despite favorable outcomes for many children in the <750-g group, this population is at risk for long-term developmental problems. [source]

    GH responsiveness in a large multinational cohort of SGA children with short stature (NESTEGG) is related to the exon 3 GHR polymorphism

    M. Tauber
    Summary Objective, The polymorphic deletion of exon 3 of the GH receptor (d3-GHR) has recently been linked to the magnitude of growth response to recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy in short children with or without GH deficiency. We investigated this association in a large multinational cohort from the Network of European Studies of Genes in Growth (NESTEGG), comprising short children born small for gestational age (SGA). Design, The study included short prepubertal SGA children treated with rhGH for 1 or 2 years. Population, Two hundred and forty white Caucasian SGA children (138 male, 102 female) aged 6·6 ± 2·3 years with a height at ,3·0 ± 0·7 SDS at start of rhGH treatment; 193 ethnically matched controls. Methods, The GHR polymorphism (fl/fl, fl/d3 or d3/d3) was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) multiplex assay. Growth velocity (G/V) in cm/year and changes in GV during the first and second year of rhGH treatment were evaluated. Results, The change in GV was significantly greater in SGA children carrying one or two copies of the d3-GHR allele (P = 0·038 for the first year and P = 0·041 for the second year of GH treatment), but the change in height was not significantly different. Birthweight was significantly lower in SGA children with the d3/d3 genotype than in SGA children with the fl/fl genotype (P = 0·034) and in those with the fl/d3 genotype (P = 0·016). Conclusion, Our data, based on a large cohort, showed that the exon 3 GHR polymorphism is associated with responsiveness to rhGH treatment in SGA children with short stature. [source]

    Low-birthweight adolescents: Quality of life and parent,child relations

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 9 2005
    Marit S. Indredavik
    Abstract Aim: To explore the effect of low birthweight on quality of life, the parent,child relationship and the parents' mental health. Design/study groups: A population-based follow-up of 56 very-low-birthweight (1500 g), 60 term small-for-gestational-age (birthweight <10th centile) and 83 term control adolescents (birthweight10th centile) at 14 y of age. Outcome measures: Child Health Questionnaire (Child Form, Parent Form), Parental Bonding Instrument rated by adolescents and parents; Symptom Checklist-90-Revised rated by mothers and fathers. Results: There were no group differences in self-reported health or self-esteem. Parents reported more behavioural problems and lower psychosocial health for very-low-birthweight adolescents (p<0.001) compared with controls. Results did not differ significantly between small-for-gestational-age and control adolescents. The youngsters, their mothers and fathers perceived the same amount of relational warmth in all three groups. Very-low-birthweight parents reported more emotional impact than control parents, especially in the presence of psychiatric problems and cerebral palsy. There were no group differences in mothers' or fathers' mental health. Conclusion: The low-birthweight adolescents perceived quality of life as others did, but the parents reported functional disadvantages for the very-low-birthweight group. Birthweight did not influence the warmth in the parent,child relationship. Parents of very-low-birthweight adolescents experienced increased emotional burden, but they did not have more mental health problems than others. [source]

    Birthweight of full-term infants is associated with cord blood CD34+ cell concentration

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 10 2004
    P Aroviita
    Aim: CD34+ cell counts are used to define the haematopoietic stem cell potential of a given cord blood transplant. The aim was to test the hypothesis that high concentration of cord blood haematopoietic progenitor and stem cells could be a reflection of intrauterine growth, of which birthweight is an indicator. Methods: Simple and multiple regression analyses were applied to test cord blood bank data on 1368 infants for associations of selected obstetric factors and cellular contents of cord blood. Results: When groups were formed based on the extreme values (5th versus 95th percentiles) of a given variable, e.g. birthweight, the term infants having the highest birthweights were found to have statistically significantly higher median cord blood CD34+ cell concentrations. Also, infants in the top 50th percentile of relative birthweight had higher median CD34+ cell concentration than infants in the low 50th percentile. In multiple regression analysis, the correlation between birthweight and CD34+ cell concentration was statistically clearly significant. Notably, while an expected correlation between gestational age and nucleated cell concentration was found, there was no association between infant gestational age and CD34+ cell concentration. Conclusion: Haematopoietic progenitor and stem cells may reflect intrauterine growth and have a more central role in foetal development than has been reported earlier. [source]

    Is there a relationship between Birthweight and subsequent growth on the development of Dental Caries at 5 years of age?

    A cohort study
    Kay EJ, Northstone K, Ness A, Duncan K, Crean SJ. Is there a relationship between Birthweight and subsequent growth on the development of Dental Caries at 5 years of age? A cohort study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010; 38: 408,414. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract,,, Objectives:, To examine the associations between childhood growth and the presence of dental caries at age 5. Methods:, Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) a population-based, prospective cohort study were used. We enrolled 14 541 pregnancies, and a 10% sample of these were dentally examined and measured at 61 months of age. Birthweight was obtained from medical records, and birth length and birthweight were assessed by trained ALSPAC measurers. A number of social and lifestyle factors were treated as potential confounding factors. Results:, Of 985, children, 242 (24.6%) had caries at 61 months of age. After adjustment, increased weight at birth was associated with a small increased risk of caries at 61 months (OR: 1.08 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.13) per 100 g increase, P = 0.002). A similar association was noted with respect to increased length at birth. Current weight and height did not appear to be associated with caries risk. Children who had caries at 61 months had slower increases in weight and height between birth and 61 months than those without decay at 61 months. Conclusions:, The weak associations we have demonstrated between weight and length at birth and risk of caries at age 61 months cannot be considered causal, however, the relationship between the two variables warrants further investigation. [source]

    Premature cessation of breastfeeding in infants: development and evaluation of a predictive model in two Argentinian cohorts: the CLACYD study,, 1993,1999

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 5 2001
    S Berra
    The objective of this study was to develop a model to predict premature cessation of breastfeeding of newborns, in order to detect at-risk groups that would benefit from special assistance programmes. The model was constructed using 700 children with a birthweight of 2000 g or more, in 2 representative cohorts in 1993 and 1995 (CLACYD I sample) in Córdoba, Argentina. Data were analysed from 632 of the cases. Mothers were selected during hospital admittance for childbirth and interviewed in their homes at 1 mo and 6 mo. To evaluate the model, an additional sample with similar characteristics was drawn during 1998 (CLACYD II sample). A questionnaire was administered to 347 mothers during the first 24,48 h after birth and a follow-up was completed at 6 mo, with weaning information on 291 cases. Premature cessation of breastfeeding was considered when it occurred prior to 6 mo. A logistic regression model was fitted to predict premature end of breastfeeding, and was applied to the CLACYD II sample. The calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow C statistic) and the discrimination [area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve] of the model were evaluated. The predictive factors of premature end of breastfeeding were: mother breastfed for less than 6 mo [odds ratio (OR) = 1.84,95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26,2.70], breastfeeding of previous child for less than 6 mo (OR = 4.01, 95% CI 2.58,6.20), the condition of the firstborn child (OR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.79,4.21), the first mother-child contact occurring after 90min of life (OR =1.88; 95% CI 1.22,2.91) and having an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.05,2.15). The calibration of the model was acceptable in the CLACYD I sample (p= 0.54), as well as in the CLACYD II sample (p= 0.18). The areas under the ROC curve were 0.72 and 0.68, respectively. Conclusion: A model has been suggested that provides some insight onto background factors for the premature end of breastfeeding. Although some limitations prevent its general use at a population level, it may be a useful tool in the identification of women with a high probability of early weaning. [source]

    Significance of clinical risk factors of cystic periventricular leukomalacia in infants with different birthweights

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 3 2001
    H Kubota
    Fifteen appropriate-for-date premature low-birthweight infants with cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) were studied. The infants were stratified into three birthweight groups: less than 1000 g, 1000 g and greater but less than 1500 g, and 1500 g or greater. Reported and new risk factors for PVL were compared with control patients for all patients and each birthweight group. Hypocarbia was significantly related to cystic PVL, especially in infants with birthweight 1000 g or greater (p < 0.03). Sensitivity to hypocarbia might be decreased in infants with birthweight less than 1000 g due to therapy or prematurity. In the group with birthweight less than 1000 g, the proportion of cystic PVL infants on continuous intra-arterial blood-pressure monitoring tended to be lower than the controls, with an almost significant difference (p= 0.05). The duration of tocolysis was significantly longer in the cystic PVL infants than in the controls when the birthweight was greater than 1500 g (p < 0.04). For some risk factors, a significant difference or a tendency of difference was demonstrated only after stratifying the birthweight. For others, the difference became insignificant after stratification. Assessing risk factors after stratifying by birthweight or degree of prematurity is therefore useful. Conclusion: The results suggest that hypocarbia should be avoided to prevent cystic PVL, especially in infants with birthweight of 1000 g or greater, continuous intra-arterial blood-pressure monitoring may be important in infants with birthweight less than 1000 g, and fetal status should be monitored carefully when the duration of tocolysis is prolonged, especially in infants with birthweight of 1500 g or more. [source]

    Effect of low-dose cisapride on gastric emptying and QTc interval in preterm infants

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 12 2000
    C Costalos
    The aim of the study was a prospective survey of the effects of low-dose cisapride on gastric emptying and QTc interval in very low birthweight infants. Twenty low birthweight infants were studied: mean (SD) gestation 30.5 (2.2) wk; birthweight 1320 (150)g. Gastric emptying was assessed ultrasonically in 15 of these infants, in a randomized blind crossover study, following 24-h low-dose oral cisapride administration (0.1 mg/kg given 8 hourly), or placebo. The QTc interval was also determined in all 20 infants following a 7-d course of cisapride or placebo. Conclusions: Cisapride significantly shortened both gastric emptying time and QTc interval (p < 0.05) compared to placebo. All infants completed the study without any apparent adverse effects. In conclusion, low-dose cisapride administration significantly improves gastric emptying without increasing the QTc interval. [source]

    Budesonide delivered by dosimetric jet nebulization to preterm very low birthweight infants at high risk for development of chronic lung disease

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 12 2000
    B Jónsson
    We investigated the effect of an aerosolized corticosteroid (budesonide) on the oxygen requirement of infants at high risk for developing chronic lung disease (CLD) in a randomized, double-blind study. The study objective was to attain a 30% decrease in FiO2 levels in the budesonide treatment group after 14 d of therapy. Thirty very low birthweight (VLBW) infants (median (range)) gestational age 26 wk (23,29) and birthweight 805 g (525,1227) were randomized. Inclusion criteria were mechanical ventilation on day 6 of life, or if extubated on nasal continuous positive airway pressure with FiO2± 0.3. The budesonide (PulmicortÔ dose was 500 ,g bid, or placebo. The aerosol was delivered with a dosimetric jet nebulizer, with variable inspiratory time and breath sensitivity. Inhalations were started on day 7 of life. Twenty-seven patients completed the study. A significant lowering of the FiO2 levels at 21 d of life was not detected. Infants who received budesonide were more often extubated during the study period (7/8 vs 2/9) and had a greater relative change from baseline in their oxygenation index (budesonide decreased 26% vs placebo increased 60%). Subsequent use of intravenous dexamethasone or inhaled budesonide in the treatment group was significantly less. All patients required O2 supplementation on day 28 of life. At 36 wk postconceptual age, 61% of infants in the budesonide group needed supplemental O2 as opposed to 79% in the placebo group. No side effects on growth or adrenal function were observed Conclusion: We conclude that inhaled budesonide aerosol via dosimetric jet nebulizer started on day 7 of life for infants at high risk for developing CLD decreases the need for mechanical ventilation similar to intravenous dexamethasone, but without significant side effects. [source]

    Early motor development of premature infants with birthweight less than 2000 grams

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 12 2000
    SJ Pedersen
    The aim was to assess motor function during infancy in order to predict later function, mainly cerebral palsy. The neuromotor development of a population-based cohort of 209 of 236 (89%) survivors with a birthweight less than 2000 g was assessed using the Infant Neurological International Battery (INFANIB) and detailed neurological assessment. The infants were classified as being normal, dystonic, hypotonic or having suspected cerebral palsy (CP) at 4, 7, 13 and 18 mo corrected age if birthweight was less than 1500 g (n= 119) and at 7 and 13 mo if birthweight was 1500,1999 g (n= 90). Those with dystonia or suspected CP were followed until diagnosed as normal or as having CP after at least 36 mo of age. Fourteen (7%) finally developed CP. Motor function at 4 mo was inaccurate in predicting function at 7 mo and later. All who were normal at 7 mo remained normal in the follow-up period. Eight of 65 who were dystonic at 7 mo developed suspected CP, and three judged as suspected CP were eventually normal. The 14 who developed CP were judged as suspected CP (n= 5) or dystonic (n= 8) and one as hypotonic at 7 mo of age. Conclusions: The specificity of motor evaluation at 7 mo corrected age regarding CP is unsatisfactory, since dystonia at this age is most often transient. A normal neuromotor assessment at 7 mo is highly predictive of subsequent normal motor function. [source]

    Abnormal fetal aortic velocity waveform and postnatal growth

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 11 2000
    D Ley
    Postnatal growth from birth up to 7 y of age was evaluated in 151 children with varying degrees of intrauterine growth retardation who were previously examined in their intrauterine life with Doppler velocimetry of the thoracic descending aorta. The children with abnormal fetal aortic blood flow class (BFC), of which 39/46 (85%) had a birthweight 2 SD below the mean of the population, were lean at birth and had a high rate of catch-up growth in weight and length during the first 3 and 6 mo, respectively. After the initial phases of rapid catch-up in weight and length, mean values of SD scores for weight and height remained relatively unchanged up until 2 y of age, thereafter increasing gradually up to 7 y of age, leaving 4/46 (8%) and 4/46 (8%) below ,2 SD for weight and height, respectively. The pattern of changes in length/height and weight over time did not differ between those infants with abnormal BFC and those with normal BFC. The abnormal fetal aortic waveform was not related to rate of early catch-up growth or to height or weight at 7 y of age after adjustment for deviation in growth at birth. The magnitude of deficit in weight and length at birth was more predictive of subsequent growth. [source]

    Phagocyte activation in preterm infants following premature rupture of the membranes or chorioamnionitis

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 10 2000
    I Nupponen
    Phagocyte activation was studied in 48 preterm infants, gestational age 27.3 ± 0.3 wk, birthweight 968 ± 40 g, during the first postnatal week. Human neutrophil lipocalin as a marker of neutrophil activation was measured in plasma and tracheal aspirate fractions; and lysozyme, as a marker of monocyte and macrophage activation, in plasma. The concentration of plasma human neutrophil lipocalin was 69 (46,126) ,g/l (median and quartiles), tracheal aspirate fraction fluid 213 (71,433) (,g/l and plasma lysozyme 1337 (923,1764) ,g/l. Infants born to mothers with premature rupture of the membranes or clinical chorioamnionitis (group A, n 20) had significantly higher plasma [73 (58,151) vs 53 (38,108) ,g/l; p 0.027], and tracheal aspirate fraction human neutrophil lipocalin [319 (129,540) vs 190 (57,324) ,g/l; p= 0.019], and plasma lysozyme [1739 (1356,2021) vs 1140 (739,1557) ,g/l; p 0.0001] than did infants whose mothers had intact membranes and who had no suspicion of infection (Group B, n 28). In infants born to mothers receiving corticosteroids ante partum, correlations existed between time from treatment to delivery and plasma (r 0.322, p 0.0256) and tracheal aspirate fraction human neutrophil lipocalin (r= 0.314, p 0.0096). Infants born to mothers with at risk of infection are exposed to the potentially harmful effects of activated neutrophils. Premature rupture of the membranes, even without signs of clinical infection of the mother or the fetus, is associated with phagocyte activation that may begin already in utero. Corticosteroid treatment of the mother may cause transient inhibition of neutrophil activation in the newborn. [source]

    Investigation of prolonged neonatal jaundice

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 6 2000
    S Hannam
    Jaundice persisting beyond 14 d of age (prolonged jaundice) can be a sign of serious underlying liver disease. Protocols for investigating prolonged jaundice vary in complexity and the yield from screening has not been assessed. In order to address these issues, we carried out a prospective study of term infants referred to our neonatal unit with prolonged jaundice over an 18 mo period. Infants were examined by a paediatrician and had the following investigations: a total and conjugated serum bilirubin, liver function tests, full blood count, packed cell volume, group and Coombs' test, thyroid function tests, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase levels and urine for culture. One-hundred-and-fifty-four infants were referred with prolonged jaundice out of 7139 live births during the study period. Nine infants were referred to other paediatric specialties. One infant had a conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia, giving an incidence of conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia of 0.14 per 1000 live births. Diagnoses included: giant cell hepatitis (n= 1), hepatoblastoma (n= 1), trisomy 9p (n= 1), urinary tract infections (n= 2), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (n= 3) and failure to regain birthweight (n= 1). Conclusions: In conclusion, a large number of infants referred to hospital for prolonged jaundice screening had detectable problems. The number of investigations may safely be reduced to: a total and conjugated bilirubin, packed cell volume, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase level (where appropriate), a urine for culture and inspection of a recent stool sample for bile pigmentation. Clinical examination by a paediatrician has a vital role in the screening process. [source]

    Exclusively breastfed, low birthweight term infants do not need supplemental water

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 5 2000
    RJ Cohen
    Breast milk intake, urine volume and urine-specific gravity (USG) of exclusively breastfed, low birthweight (LBW) term male infants in Honduras were measured during 8-h periods at 2 (n= 59) and 8 (n = 68) wk of age. Ambient temperature was 22,36°C and relative humidity was 37,86%. Maximum USG ranged from 1.001 to 1.012, all within normal limits. Conclusions: We conclude that supplemental water is not required for exclusively breastfed, LBW term infants, even in hot conditions. [source]

    Magnetic resonance imaging at term and neuromotor outcome in preterm infants

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 3 2000
    AM Valkama
    In order to evaluate the value of neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for predicting neuromotor outcome in very low birthweight (VLBW) preterm infants, 51 such infants with gestational age <34 wk underwent brain MRI at term age. Myelination, parenchymal lesions (haemorrhage, leukomalacia, infarction, reduction of white matter), parenchymal lesions without subependymal haemorrhage, ventricular/brain ratios and widths of the extracerebral spaces were assessed. The MRI findings were compared with cranial ultrasound (US) performed at term. Infants' neuromotor development was followed up until 18 mo corrected age. Parenchymal lesions seen in MRI at term predicted cerebral palsy (CP) with 100% sensitivity and 79% specificity, the corresponding figures for US being 67% and 85%, respectively. Parenchymal lesions in MRI, excluding subependymal haemorrhages, predicted CP with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 97%, the corresponding figures for US being 58% and 100%, respectively. Delayed myelination, ventricular/brain ratios and widths of the extracerebral spaces failed to predict CP. Term age is a good time for neuroradiological examinations in prematurely born high-risk infants. Parenchymal lesions seen in MRI are reliable predictors for CP. [source]

    Do healthy preterm children need neuropsychological follow-up?

    Preschool outcomes compared with term peers
    Aim, The aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. Method, A total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33 weeks' gestational age and who were free from major neurosensory disability (16 males, 19 females; mean gestational age 29.4wk, SD 2.2wk; mean birthweight 1257g, SD 327g) and 50 term-born comparison children (25 males, 25 females; mean birthweight 3459g, SD 585g) were assessed at 4 years of age. Cognition was measured using the Griffiths Mental Development scales while neuropsychological abilities (language, short-term memory, visual,motor and constructive spatial abilities, and visual processing) were assessed using standardized tests. Multivariable regression analysis was used to explore the effects of preterm birth and sociodemographic factors on cognition, and to adjust neuropsychological scores for cognitive level and maternal education. Results, The mean total Griffiths score was significantly lower in preterm than in term children (97.4 vs 103.4; p<0.001). Factors associated with higher Griffiths score were maternal university education (,=6.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7,11.7) and having older siblings or a twin (,=4.0; 95% CI 0.5,7.6). At neuropsychological assessment, preterm children scored significantly lower than term comparison children in all tests except lexical production (Boston Naming Test) and visual-processing accuracy. After adjustment for cognitive level and maternal education, differences remained statistically significant for verbal fluency (p<0.05) and comprehension, short-term memory, and spatial abilities (p<0.01). Interpretation, Neuropsychological follow-up is also recommended for healthy very preterm children to identify strengths and challenges before school entry, and to plan interventions aimed at maximizing academic success. [source]