Birth Year (birth + year)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Children and Young People with Cerebral Palsy in Northern Ireland (Birth Years: 1977,97)

JOURNAL OF POLICY AND PRACTICE IN INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, Issue 3-4 2005
Efrat Merrick BA
[source]


Life histories of Eucalanus bungii and Neocalanus cristatus (Copepoda: Calanoida) in the western subarctic Pacific Ocean

FISHERIES OCEANOGRAPHY, Issue 2004
ATSUSHI TSUDA
Abstract Life cycles of the large suspension-feeding copepods, Eucalanus bungii and Neocalanus cristatus were investigated by seasonal sampling in the western subarctic Pacific. Eucalanus bungii has a diapause from August to March at copepodite stages between copepodite 3 (C3) and C6 female. We propose that individuals with early birth dates are young of overwintering C5 and C6-females that develop to C4 in their birth year, while individuals with late birth dates are young of overwintering C4 that develop to C3 in their birth year. Thus, a majority of the population has annual generations alternating with biennial generations. Neocalanus cristatus showed life history almost identical to the population in the Alaskan gyre. Timing of the life cycle in N. cristatus is very close to that in the eastern subarctic gyre, but that of E. bungii is 2 months earlier than in the eastern subarctic. This difference is probably caused by the timing difference in the maximum primary production in the two areas and the plasticity of the life cycle strategy in E. bungii. [source]


Influence of climate and reproductive timing on demography of little brown myotis Myotis lucifugus

JOURNAL OF ANIMAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
Winifred F. Frick
Summary 1. Estimating variation in demographic rates, such as survival and fecundity, is important for testing life-history theory and identifying conservation and management goals. 2. We used 16 years (1993,2008) of mark,recapture data to estimate age-specific survival and breeding probabilities of the little brown myotis Myotis lucifugus LeConte in southern New Hampshire, USA. Using Kendall & Nichols' (1995) full-likelihood approach of the robust design to account for temporary emigration, we tested whether survival and breeding propensity is influenced by regional weather patterns and timing of reproduction. 3. Our results demonstrate that adult female survival of M. lucifugus ranged from 063 (95% CL = 056, 068) to 090 (95% CL = 077, 094), and was highest in wet years with high cumulative summer precipitation. First-year survival [range: 023 (95% CL = 014, 035) to 046 (95% CL = 034, 057)] was considerably lower than adult survival and depended on pup date of birth, such that young born earlier in the summer (c. late May) had a significantly higher probability of surviving their first year than young born later in the summer (c. mid-July). Similarly, the probability of young females returning to the maternity colony to breed in the summer following their birth year was higher for individuals born earlier in the summer [range: 023 (95% CL = 008, 050) to 053 (95% CL = 030, 075)]. 4. The positive influence of early parturition on 1st-year survival and breeding propensity demonstrates significant fitness benefits to reproductive timing in this temperate insectivorous bat. 5. Climatic factors can have important consequences for population dynamics of temperate bats, which may be negatively affected by summer drying patterns associated with global climate change. 6. Understanding long-term demographic trends will be important in the face of a novel disease phenomenon (White-Nose Syndrome) that is associated with massive mortalities in hibernating bat species, including M. lucifugus, in the northeastern United States. [source]


Long-Term Effects of Minimum Drinking Age Laws on Past-Year Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2009
Karen E. Norberg
Background:, Many studies have found that earlier drinking initiation predicts higher risk of later alcohol and substance use problems, but the causal relationship between age of initiation and later risk of substance use disorder remains unknown. Method:, We use a "natural experiment" study design to compare the 12-month prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition, alcohol and substance use disorders among adult subjects exposed to different minimum legal drinking age laws minimum legal drinking age in the 1970s and 1980s. The sample pools 33,869 respondents born in the United States 1948 to 1970, drawn from 2 nationally representative cross-sectional surveys: the 1991 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiological Survey (NLAES) and the 2001 National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Analyses control for state and birth year fixed effects, age at assessment, alcohol taxes, and other demographic and social background factors. Results:, Adults who had been legally allowed to purchase alcohol before age 21 were more likely to meet criteria for an alcohol use disorder [odds ratio (OR) 1.31, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 1.15 to 1.46, p < 0.0001] or another drug use disorder (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.44, p = 0.003) within the past-year, even among subjects in their 40s and 50s. There were no significant differences in effect estimates by respondent gender, black or Hispanic ethnicity, age, birth cohort, or self-reported age of initiation of regular drinking; furthermore, the effect estimates were little changed by inclusion of age of initiation as a potential mediating variable in the multiple regression models. Conclusion:, Exposure to a lower minimum legal purchase age was associated with a significantly higher risk of a past-year alcohol or other substance use disorder, even among respondents in their 40s or 50s. However, this association does not seem to be explained by age of initiation of drinking, per se. Instead, it seems plausible that frequency or intensity of drinking in late adolescence may have long-term effects on adult substance use patterns. [source]


Allergy and infectious disease histories and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

PAEDIATRIC & PERINATAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
Paula F. Rosenbaum
Summary Infectious disease histories were evaluated in a population-based case-control study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) as it has been hypothesised that delays in early infections are associated with an increased risk of disease. Allergy histories were also assessed as part of a broader evaluation of the role of immune factors in ALL. Cases (n = 255) were diagnosed between 1980 and 1991 at one of four referral centres in a 31-county area of New York State; controls (n = 760) were a random sample of live births from the same region, frequency matched to cases by sex, race and birth year. Data were collected by mailed questionnaire, completed by case and control parents in 1995. Allergy and infectious histories before the age at leukaemia diagnosis for cases and an equivalent age for controls were evaluated. The adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval [CI] associated with a positive history of any allergy was 0.58 [95% CI 0.38, 0.88] compared with a negative allergy history. The occurrence of several common childhood illnesses before 25 months of age and ALL were assessed, with both weak positive and weak inverse associations observed. Overall, these analyses provide little support for the hypothesis that infection delay in early life is associated with an increased risk of ALL. Children with positive allergy histories reported significantly more infections than those with negative histories; however, effect modification of the infection-ALL associations by child allergy history was not observed. Nonetheless, these observations suggest the importance of assessing both allergy and infectious histories and their possible interactions when evaluating the association between these immune factors and childhood ALL. [source]


West Coast study of childhood brain tumours and maternal use of hair-colouring products

PAEDIATRIC & PERINATAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
Elizabeth A Holly
Summary The immature nervous system of the fetus is characterised by rapid cell growth and division and is particularly vulnerable to carcinogens and mutagens. Several epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk for childhood brain tumours (CBT) associated with exposure to N-nitroso compounds (NOC). Hair-colouring products (hair ,dyes') that contain NOC-related aromatic amines have shown mutagenicity in vitro and carcinogenic properties in vivo. The potential public health impact of the relationship between hair dye use and carcinogenesis has prompted epidemiological research, given that a large proportion of American women have used hair dyes. A large population-based case,control study was conducted on the west coast of the USA to investigate risk factors for CBT including exposure to NOC. Eligible CBT patients (<20 years of age and diagnosed between 1984 and 1991) were identified from cancer registries in Los Angeles County, the San Francisco Bay Area in California and the Seattle area in Washington state. A total of 540 biological mothers of these children were interviewed, and 801 control subjects who were frequency matched to the CBT patients on birth year and sex were obtained using random digit dialling. Mothers were asked details about personal use of hair dyes during the index pregnancy including frequency of use, trimester of use and type of dye used. Results from age- and sex-adjusted unconditional logistic regression analyses showed no association between risk for CBT and use of hair dyes 1 month before and/or during pregnancy nor during specific trimesters. A nearly twofold increased risk for CBT was associated with single-interval use during the 1 month before pregnancy, but the confidence interval (CI) was imprecise and the estimate was not different from unity (OR = 1.9, 95% CI [0.5, 7.0]). Exclusive use of permanent dye, temporary dye or hair darkeners was not associated with risk for CBT. A twofold increased risk (OR = 2.0, 95% CI [0.83, 4.7]) was observed with exclusive use of semi-permanent dye during the month before or during pregnancy. Exclusive use of semi-permanent dye during the month before pregnancy and/or first trimester also was associated with an elevated risk for CBT, again not different from unity and with an imprecise CI (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = [0.58, 10.3]). There was no evidence of an association between risk for CBT by histological subtypes and use of hair dyes during the index pregnancy or the month before conception. Together with results from previous studies, these results provide no consistent evidence of an association between risk for CBT and use of hair dyes during pregnancy. [source]


Infant leukemia and congenital abnormalities: A Children's Oncology Group study,

PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 1 2010
Kimberly J. Johnson PhD
Abstract Background Leukemia in infants is rare and has not been well studied apart from leukemia in older children. Differences in survival and the molecular characteristics of leukemia in infants versus older children suggest a distinct etiology, likely involving prenatal factors. Procedure We examined the association between eight categories of maternally reported congenital abnormalities (CAs) (cleft lip or palate, spina bifida or other spinal defect, large or multiple birthmarks, other chromosomal abnormalities, small head or microcephaly, rib abnormalities, urogenital abnormalities, and other) and infant leukemia in a case,control study. The study included 443 cases diagnosed at <1 year of age at a Children's Oncology Group Institution in the United States or Canada from 1996 to 2006 and 324 controls. Controls were recruited from the cases' geographic area either by random digit dialing (1999,2002) or through birth certificates (2003,2008) and were frequency-matched to cases on birth year. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression after adjustment for birth year and a measure of follow-up time to account for differences in the CA observation period. Results No statistically significant associations were observed between infant leukemia and any CA (OR,=,1.2; 95% CI: 0.8,1.9), birthmarks (OR,=,1.4; 95% CI: 0.7,2.5), urogenital abnormalities (OR,=,0.7; 95% CI: 0.2,2.0), or other CA (OR,=,1.4; 95% CI: 0.7,2.8). Results were similar for acute lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemia cases. Fewer than five subjects were in the remaining CA categories precluding analysis. Conclusions Overall, we did not find evidence to support an association between CAs and infant leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2010;55:95,99. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Hepatitis B vaccine and risk of autoimmune thyroid disease: a Vaccine Safety Datalink study,

PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGY AND DRUG SAFETY, Issue 7 2007
Onchee Yu MS
Abstract Purpose Hepatitis B vaccine has been postulated as a possible cause of autoimmune disorders, including autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD). Cases of Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, following hepatitis B vaccine have been reported to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS). To test the hypothesis that hepatitis B vaccine increases the risk of ATD, we conducted a case-control study, within the Vaccine Safety Datalink project. Methods We identified potential cases of Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, among persons aged 18,69 years from administrative data recorded by three health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and verified cases by medical record review. Controls were frequency-matched to cases by birth year, sex, and study site. Vaccine information was collected from administrative records, chart review, and telephone interviews with study subjects. We enrolled 355 Graves' disease cases, 418 Hashimoto's thyroiditis cases, and 1102 controls. We assessed the association between ever-receipt of hepatitis B vaccine, as well as receipt of hepatitis B vaccine less than 1 year, 1,5 years and at least 5 years prior to the index date, and the risk of ATD. Results Ever-receipt of hepatitis B vaccine was not associated with risk of Graves' disease (odds ratio (OR), 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.62,1.32) or Hashimoto's thyroiditis (OR, 1.23; 95%CI, 0.87,1.73). There was also no association between the time interval since receipt of hepatitis B vaccination and either outcome. Conclusions We did not observe an increased risk of Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis, following receipt of hepatitis B vaccine. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


L-type calcium channel blockers and Parkinson disease in Denmark

ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 5 2010
Beate Ritz MD
Objective This study was undertaken to investigate L-type calcium channel blockers of the dihydropyridine class for association with Parkinson disease (PD), because some of these drugs traverse the blood,brain barrier, are potentially neuroprotective, and have previously been evaluated for impact on PD risk. Methods We identified 1,931 patients with a first-time diagnosis for PD between 2001 and 2006 as reported in the Danish national hospital/outpatient database and density matched them by birth year and sex to 9,651 controls from the population register. The index date for cases and their corresponding controls was advanced to the date of first recorded prescription for anti-Parkinson drugs, if prior to first PD diagnosis in the hospital records. Prescriptions were determined from the national pharmacy database. In our primary analyses, we excluded all calcium channel blocker prescriptions 2 years before index date/PD diagnosis. Results Employing logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, diagnosis of chronic pulmonary obstructive disorder, and Charlson comorbidity score, we found that subjects prescribed dihydropyridines (excludes amlodipine) between 1995 and 2 years prior to the index date were less likely to develop PD (odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.54,0.97); this 27% risk reduction did not differ with length or intensity of use. Risk estimates were close to null for the peripherally acting drug amlodipine and for other antihypertensive medications. Interpretation Our data suggest a potential neuroprotective role for centrally acting L-type calcium channel blockers of the dihydropyridine class in PD that should be further investigated in studies that can distinguish between types of L-type channel blockers. ANN NEUROL 2010;67:600,606 [source]


Register data suggest lower intelligence in men born the year after flu pandemic,

ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 3 2009
Willy Eriksen MD
Objective To test the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to the Hong Kong flu, an influenza pandemic that haunted Europe during winter 1969 to 1970, was associated with reduced intelligence in adulthood. Methods Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with register data from the National Conscript Service. The sample comprised all registered boys born alive in single birth after 37 to 43 weeks' gestation during 1967 to 1973 (n = 205,634). Intelligence test scores, recorded at military conscription, were available for 182,913 individuals. Results The mean intelligence score increased from one birth year to another, except for a downturn in 1970. The birth year 1970 was inversely associated with intelligence score (,0.03 standard deviation [SD]; p < 0.001) after adjustments for birth characteristics, parental characteristics, and the trend of increasing scores over the 7 birth years. Analyses with the sample stratified by birth month showed that the inverse association between the birth year 1970 and intelligence score was significant only among men born in July (,0.04 SD; p = 0.049), August (,0.05 SD; p = 0.013), September (,0.09 SD; p < 0.001), and October (,0.06 SD; p = 0.008). Thus, the intelligence scores of the men born 6 to 9 months after the epidemic were lower than the mean values for the men born in the same months a few years before or after. Interpretation Early prenatal exposure to the Hong Kong flu may have interfered with fetal cerebral development and caused reduced intelligence in adulthood. Ann Neurol 2009;66:284,289 [source]


Quantification of the familial contribution to juvenile idiopathic arthritis

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 8 2010
Sampath Prahalad
Objective We previously demonstrated that there is familial aggregation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Using a large JIA cohort, we sought to identify additional clusters of JIA cases and to calculate robust estimates of the relative risk (RR) of JIA in the siblings and cousins of JIA probands. We also estimated the population attributable risk (PAR) of familial factors in JIA. Methods A probabilistic record-linking analysis was performed by matching the records of 862 patients with JIA with the records of ,7 million individuals in the Utah Population Database (UPDB), a computerized genealogic database. For each patient, 5 control subjects matched for birth year and sex were selected from the UPDB. Specialized software was used to test for familial aggregation of disease, to estimate the magnitude of familial risks, and to identify families at high risk of disease. Results We identified 22 founders who had significantly more descendants with JIA than expected (5,13 descendants; P values ranged from <0.0001 to <0.008). The PAR of familial factors for JIA was ,13%. The RR of JIA in the siblings of patients was significantly increased (11.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 4.9,27.5, P < 2.59 10,8). The RR of JIA in first cousins was also increased (5.82, 95% CI 2.5,13.8, P < 6.07 10,5). Conclusion We have identified the largest sets of JIA pedigrees described to date. Approximately 13% of cases of JIA can be attributed to familial factors. Siblings and first cousins of probands with JIA have an increased risk of JIA. The observed decline in the magnitude of risk between siblings and cousins suggests that JIA is influenced by shared genetic factors. [source]


Genetic variability in the European bison (Bison bonasus) population from Bia,owie,a forest over 50 years

BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 4 2009
GORZATA TOKARSKA
The aim of this study was to assess potential post-bottleneck temporal genetic differentiation following the reintroduction of the species into the Bia,owie,a Forest. Variability of 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers was analysed for 178 individuals born between 1955 and 2005, divided by birth year into five temporal groups. Low overall allelic richness (AR) per locus (AR = 2.0) and a low overall expected heterozygosity (HE = 0.28) were observed. The overall FIS was not significantly different from zero. The mean FIS values were, however, significantly different from zero for individuals born between 1955 and 1965 (FIS = 0.19). A Bayesian computation was used to estimate effective population size (Ne) for each temporal group. We observed relatively small values of Ne ranging from 7.9 to 28.4. The low Ne values confirm that, despite a rapid growth of the bison population following the founder event, Ne increased only slowly. 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 97, 801,809. [source]


Maternal age and non-chromosomal birth defects, Atlanta,1968,2000: Teenager or thirty-something, who is at risk?,

BIRTH DEFECTS RESEARCH, Issue 9 2004
Jennita Reefhuis
Abstract OBJECTIVE This investigation explored the association between maternal age and non-chromosomal birth defects to assess any increased risk associated with maternal age. METHODS Birth defect cases were ascertained by the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP), denominator information was obtained using birth certificate data. Infants with any chromosomal diagnosis were excluded. Effect estimates were calculated using 5-year maternal age categories with 25,29 years as the referent. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for maternal race, parity, infant sex, and birth year. RESULTS A total of 1,050,616 singleton infants, born after ,20 weeks gestation in the five counties of metropolitan Atlanta from 1968 through 2000 who did not have a chromosomal abnormality and whose mother was 14 to 40 years old, were included in the analyses, 32,816 of them were identified with birth defects by the MACDP. Young maternal age (14,19 years) was associated with anencephaly (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.30,2.52), hydrocephaly without neural tube defect (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.23,1.96), all ear defects (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10,1.49), cleft lip (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.30,2.73), female genital defects (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.12,2.19), hydronephrosis (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.11,1.82), polydactyly (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.09,1.52), omphalocele (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.39,3.12), and gastroschisis (OR = 7.18, 95% CI = 4.39,11.75). Advanced maternal age (35,40 years) was associated with all heart defects (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03,1.22), tricuspid atresia (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.02,1.50), right outflow tract defects (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10,1.49), hypospadias 2nd degree or higher (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.33,2.58), male genital defects excluding hypospadias (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08,1.45) and craniosynostosis (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.18,2.30). CONCLUSIONS Young and advanced maternal ages are associated with different types of birth defects. Underlying causes for these associations are not clear. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 70:572,579, 2004. Published 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Retinopathy of prematurity in a Copenhagen high-risk sample 1997,98

ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 3 2000
The allover surveillance for ROP appears more, more complete
ABSTRACT. Purpose: From two recent materials to describe the present clinical status regarding retinopathy of prematurity in Denmark, and to outline trends over time. Methods: A) Results of regular ophthalmic surveillance of 201 clinically selected (higher risk of ROP than average) pre-term infants of birth year 1997,98 taken care of in the two greater Copenhagen tertiary neonatal units, in an intended prospective design. Gestational age range was 24,32 weeks at delivery; birth weights 490,2200 g. Median values 28 weeks and 1090 g. B) A brief account of the latest ROP-associated registrations of visual impairment in Danish children aged 0,17 years (n=138). Results: A) ROP was observed in 31.3% (n=201). Retinal cryotherapy was given to eleven ,own' cases and to two from elsewhere (n=13, gestational age at delivery 25,31 weeks). Five had cryotherapy twice. Four of the 13 were later registered for visual impairment. B) Comparing the first and the latest third of the registrations, visual impairment has dropped in frequency and severity over the period from 1981 till now. Conclusions: Compared to previous data the present clinical profile of ROP in Denmark indicates a relatively lower overall frequency of ROP and a decrease in eventual severe visual impairment. Undoubtedly, the continued refinement of neonatal care has been of relevance, but the definite decline in visual impairment further reflects a more complete ophthalmic surveillance, on a national basis. The advanced cases are generally detected in time and retinal ablation therapy offered. [source]


Register data suggest lower intelligence in men born the year after flu pandemic,

ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 3 2009
Willy Eriksen MD
Objective To test the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to the Hong Kong flu, an influenza pandemic that haunted Europe during winter 1969 to 1970, was associated with reduced intelligence in adulthood. Methods Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with register data from the National Conscript Service. The sample comprised all registered boys born alive in single birth after 37 to 43 weeks' gestation during 1967 to 1973 (n = 205,634). Intelligence test scores, recorded at military conscription, were available for 182,913 individuals. Results The mean intelligence score increased from one birth year to another, except for a downturn in 1970. The birth year 1970 was inversely associated with intelligence score (,0.03 standard deviation [SD]; p < 0.001) after adjustments for birth characteristics, parental characteristics, and the trend of increasing scores over the 7 birth years. Analyses with the sample stratified by birth month showed that the inverse association between the birth year 1970 and intelligence score was significant only among men born in July (,0.04 SD; p = 0.049), August (,0.05 SD; p = 0.013), September (,0.09 SD; p < 0.001), and October (,0.06 SD; p = 0.008). Thus, the intelligence scores of the men born 6 to 9 months after the epidemic were lower than the mean values for the men born in the same months a few years before or after. Interpretation Early prenatal exposure to the Hong Kong flu may have interfered with fetal cerebral development and caused reduced intelligence in adulthood. Ann Neurol 2009;66:284,289 [source]