Birth Length (birth + length)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Growth patterns in early childhood and final attained stature: Data from five birth cohorts from low- and middle-income countries,

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
Aryeh D. Stein
Growth failure is cumulative, and short stature is associated with multiple indices of reduced human capital. Few studies have been able to address in a single analysis both consideration of the timing of growth failure and comparison across populations. We analyzed data from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa (n = 4,659). We used data on length at birth (available for three of the five cohorts), 12 mo, 24 mo, and mid-childhood to construct cohort- and sex- specific conditional length measures. We modeled adult height as a function of conditional length in childhood. The five cohorts experienced varying degrees of growth failure. As adults, the Brazil sample was 0.35 0.89 standard deviations (SD) below the World Health Organization reference, while adult Guatemalans were 1.91 0.87 SD below the reference. All five cohorts experienced a nadir in height for age Z -score at 24 mo. Birth length (in the three cohorts with this variable), and conditional length at 12 mo (in all five cohorts) were the most strongly associated with adult height. Growth in the periods 12,24 mo and 24 mo to mid-childhood showed inconsistent patterns across tertiles of adult height. Despite variation in the magnitude of cumulative growth failure across cohorts, the five cohorts show highly consistent age-specific associations with adult stature. Growth failure prior to age 12 mo was most strongly associated with adult stature. These consistencies speak to the importance of interventions to address intrauterine growth failure and growth failure in the first 12 mo of life. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Foetal size to final height

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 6 2000
J Karlberg
It is well known that some adult diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, may be programmed during foetal life. It is not clear, however, whether final height may be predicted from foetal growth. A longitudinal cohort of full-term healthy Swedish babies (n = 3650) was followed up from birth to maturity in a population-based growth study. Length or height and its changes were analysed from birth to 18 y of age; 2807 children, with data available on birth length, final height and parental height, were included in this analysis. The result clearly shows that length at birth relates to final height. In terms of standard deviation scores (SDS), the mean difference in length at birth from the mean was greatly decreased in final height, but retained the same order as was seen at birth. In terms of centimeter difference from the reference mean values, the difference in length at birth remained roughly stable into final height. For instance, babies 5 cm above or below the mean birth length will end up approximately 5 cm above or below the mean in final height. Parental height,a surrogate value of the genetic final height potential of an individual,is shown to influence postnatal growth in height strongly. However, the difference from the mean in length at birth remained into adulthood within the same midparental height group. Conclusion: This study reveals that trends in foetal linear growth continue into maturity. Foetal growth is a significant predictor of postnatal growth. Final height is dependent on both the magnitude of foetal growth and the genetic potential in stature, and appears to some extent to be programmed from foetal growth. [source]


Preterm delivery but not intrauterine growth retardation is associated with young maternal age among primiparae in rural Nepal

MATERNAL & CHILD NUTRITION, Issue 3 2007
Christine P. Stewart
Abstract Pregnancy during adolescence is associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and low birthweight. The nutrient availability to the fetus may be limited if the mother is still growing. This research aims to study the effects of pregnancy during adolescence in a nutritionally poor environment in rural Nepal. This study utilized data from a randomized controlled trial of micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in south-eastern Nepal. Women of parity 0 or 1 and of age , 25 years who gave birth to a singleton liveborn infant who was measured within 72 h of delivery were included (n = 1393). There was no difference in the risk of low birthweight (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.90,1.02) or small for gestational age (OR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.94,1.08) per year of increasing maternal age among primiparae. Young maternal age did not affect the anthropometry or gestational age of the offspring of parity 1 women. Each year of increasing maternal age among primiparae was associated with increases in birth length (0.07 cm; 95% CI = ,0.01 to 0.16), head (0.05 cm; 95% CI = 0.01,0.09) and chest circumference (0.07 cm; 95% CI = 0.01,0.12), but not weight (9.0 g; 95% CI = ,2.1 to 21.8) of their offspring. Young maternal age was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery among primiparae (OR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.26,3.38) that occurred at an age cut-off of ,18 years relative to those 19,25 years. Thus, we conclude that young maternal age (,18 years) increased the risk of preterm delivery, but not intrauterine growth retardation, for the first but not second liveborn infant. [source]


Linear growth in early life is associated with suicidal ideation in 18-year-old Filipinos

PAEDIATRIC & PERINATAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
Yin Bun Cheung
Summary Studies in Western societies have shown some evidence that growth in early life may be associated with suicide and suicidal ideation in later life. The pattern of growth retardation in developing countries is different from that in Western societies. This study examines the association between size at birth, postnatal growth from birth to age 24 months and suicidal ideation in 18-year-old Filipinos. The 1941 participants born in 1983 and 1984 in the Philippines were assessed for growth status bimonthly from birth to 24 months of age and were administered an interview in 2002, which included items on suicidal ideation. The pattern of growth stunting in this cohort was similar to that in many other developing countries: a minor level of shortness in crown-heel length at birth followed by sharp decline in length-for-age in the first 24 months of life. The prevalence of suicidal ideation at age 18 was 2.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2, 3.8%. Length Z-score at 24 months (odds ratios [OR] = 0.67; 95% CI [0.52, 0.86]; P = 0.002) and gain in length Z-score from birth to age 24 months (OR = 0.74; 95% CI [0.56, 0.98]; P = 0.037) were inversely associated with the odds of suicidal ideation. Adjustment for covariates made little difference. Length at birth Z-score was associated with suicidal ideation only after adjustment for postnatal length gain (OR = 0.61; 95% CI [0.46, 0.80]; P < 0.001). The associations between linear growth in early life and suicidal ideation appeared to be partly mediated by educational attainment. In conclusion, postnatal growth stunting is an important predictor of suicidal ideation in later life. It also affects the association between birth length and suicidal ideation. [source]


Perinatal risk factors for early childhood onset type 1 diabetes in Austria , a population-based study (1989,2005)

PEDIATRIC DIABETES, Issue 3pt1 2008
Thomas Waldhoer
Background:, To investigate the rapid increase in incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children <5 yr in Austria. Methods:, Data of children born between 1989 and 2005 (n = 444) from the T1DM children incidence registry were linked with birth certificates (n = 1 407 829). Results:, Age of mother, level of education, birth weight, birth length, body mass index, and APGAR score at 10 min were not significant. Boys have about 25% higher risk than girls [hazard ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62,0.91]. The risk of developing diabetes increases over time significantly (1989,1991 vs. 2001,2005, hazard ratio = 2.86, 95% CI: 2.07,3.94). The linear effect of parity is borderline significant (p = 0.045), with lower risks for second and later born siblings. Marital status is significant [hazard ratio = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57,0.90)]. Native-born children exhibit twice as high risk as non-native children (hazard ratio = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.37,0.71). Birth weight shows a positive but not significant effect on risk of T1DM. Conclusions:, In this very young and rapidly increasing cohort of diabetic children <5 yr of age, no association with birth weight but with year of birth, gestational age, nationality and parity could be observed. [source]


High ponderal index at birth predicts high estradiol levels in adult women

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
Grazyna Jasienska
Inter-individual variation in levels of sex hormones results from differences in genetic, developmental, and environmental factors. We tested a hypothesis that programming of the fetal neuroendocrine axis may predispose some women to produce higher levels of steroid hormones during their menstrual cycles as adults. One hundred forty-five regularly menstruating 24- to 36- year-old women collected daily saliva samples for one menstrual cycle. Data on women's birth weights and birth lengths were obtained from medical records. A positive relationship was observed between ponderal index at birth (an indicator of nutritional status, calculated as birth weight/(birth length)3) and levels of estradiol (E2) in menstrual cycles, after controlling for potential confounding factors. Mean E2 was 16.4 pmol/l in the low ponderal index tertile, 17.3 pmol/l in the moderate ponderal index tertile, and 19.6 pmol/l in the high ponderal index tertile (the high ponderal index group had significantly higher E2 than both low and moderate ponderal index groups, P = 0.0001). This study shows a positive association between ponderal index recorded for women at birth and levels of E2 measured during their menstrual cycles as adults. This suggests that conditions during fetal life influence adult production of reproductive hormones and may contribute to inter-individual variation in reproductive function. In addition, because large size at birth is one of the factors linked with an increased risk of breast cancer, our findings provide a physiological link for the observed positive relationship between indicators of energetic conditions during fetal growth and breast cancer in women. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:133,140, 2006. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Gestational diabetes and offspring body disproportion

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 1 2010
F Ahlsson
Abstract Aim:, It has been demonstrated that females born large for gestational age (LGA) in weight but not length are at increased risk of being obese at childbearing age. We addressed the question whether women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk of giving birth to such infants. Methods:, Birth characteristics of 884 267 infants of non-diabetic mothers and 7817 of mothers with GDM were analysed. LGA was defined as birth weight or birth length >2 standard deviation scores for gestational age. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Results:, The odds ratio (OR) for a woman with GDM to give birth to an LGA infant that was heavy alone was four times increased (OR: 3.71, 95% CI: 3.41,4.04). Furthermore, in the population of mothers giving birth to LGA infants, the proportion heavy alone was 68% in the group of women with GDM compared with 64.4% in the group of non-diabetic women. The risks were independent of gender of the foetus. Conclusion:, Women with GDM have an almost four times higher risk of delivering an LGA infant that is heavy alone. The noted disproportion between weight and length in infants of such mothers may have an impact on the risk of later obesity. [source]


Is there a relationship between Birthweight and subsequent growth on the development of Dental Caries at 5 years of age?

COMMUNITY DENTISTRY AND ORAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
A cohort study
Kay EJ, Northstone K, Ness A, Duncan K, Crean SJ. Is there a relationship between Birthweight and subsequent growth on the development of Dental Caries at 5 years of age? A cohort study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010; 38: 408,414. 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract,,, Objectives:, To examine the associations between childhood growth and the presence of dental caries at age 5. Methods:, Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) a population-based, prospective cohort study were used. We enrolled 14 541 pregnancies, and a 10% sample of these were dentally examined and measured at 61 months of age. Birthweight was obtained from medical records, and birth length and birthweight were assessed by trained ALSPAC measurers. A number of social and lifestyle factors were treated as potential confounding factors. Results:, Of 985, children, 242 (24.6%) had caries at 61 months of age. After adjustment, increased weight at birth was associated with a small increased risk of caries at 61 months (OR: 1.08 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.13) per 100 g increase, P = 0.002). A similar association was noted with respect to increased length at birth. Current weight and height did not appear to be associated with caries risk. Children who had caries at 61 months had slower increases in weight and height between birth and 61 months than those without decay at 61 months. Conclusions:, The weak associations we have demonstrated between weight and length at birth and risk of caries at age 61 months cannot be considered causal, however, the relationship between the two variables warrants further investigation. [source]


High ponderal index at birth predicts high estradiol levels in adult women

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
Grazyna Jasienska
Inter-individual variation in levels of sex hormones results from differences in genetic, developmental, and environmental factors. We tested a hypothesis that programming of the fetal neuroendocrine axis may predispose some women to produce higher levels of steroid hormones during their menstrual cycles as adults. One hundred forty-five regularly menstruating 24- to 36- year-old women collected daily saliva samples for one menstrual cycle. Data on women's birth weights and birth lengths were obtained from medical records. A positive relationship was observed between ponderal index at birth (an indicator of nutritional status, calculated as birth weight/(birth length)3) and levels of estradiol (E2) in menstrual cycles, after controlling for potential confounding factors. Mean E2 was 16.4 pmol/l in the low ponderal index tertile, 17.3 pmol/l in the moderate ponderal index tertile, and 19.6 pmol/l in the high ponderal index tertile (the high ponderal index group had significantly higher E2 than both low and moderate ponderal index groups, P = 0.0001). This study shows a positive association between ponderal index recorded for women at birth and levels of E2 measured during their menstrual cycles as adults. This suggests that conditions during fetal life influence adult production of reproductive hormones and may contribute to inter-individual variation in reproductive function. In addition, because large size at birth is one of the factors linked with an increased risk of breast cancer, our findings provide a physiological link for the observed positive relationship between indicators of energetic conditions during fetal growth and breast cancer in women. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:133,140, 2006. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]